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Full text of "Ingersoll's century history, Santa Monica Bay cities [microform] : prefaced with a brief history of the state of California, a condensed history of Los Angeles County, 1542-1908; supplemented with an encyclopedia of local biography"

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1542 TO 1908 






To the memory of the late 
Foremost pioneer citizen in promoting 
the civic, industrial and moral welfare 
of Santa Monica, and whose life was 
an inspiration to noble deeds, this vol 
ume of local history is dedicated by 
The Author. 



HE publication of this book is in no degree an accident, but rather the 
partial fulfillment of a long-cherished plan to sometime put in permanent 
and fitting form the annals of some of the more historic and romantic 
cities and towns of Southern California. This ambition dates back to the winter 
season of 1888-9, when the writer arrived in the " Golden State ", became im 
pressed with the transcendent richness of its past history and its abundant promise 
of future growth and history-making. What might have been regarded, at the 
time, a fancy, or inspiration, has, with the rapid passing of two decades, devel 
oped into a vivid reality. Obscure hamlets have become prosperous cities ; 
where then were open stock ranges and broad fields of grain, have sprung up 
marts of trade and commerce, environed by progressive and prosperous com 
munities. Enough time has elapsed for these cities and communities to have 
acquired a history, still not enough for any considerable portion of that history 
to be lost. A few years hence, conditions in this latter respect will have entirely 

The region of country of which this story treats lies within the original 
confines of four Spanish-Mexican land grants bordering the bay of Santa Monica 
and has hitherto received scant attention from historical writers. When the good 
works of Hubert Howe Bancroft and Judge Theodore H. Hittell were written 
the wonderful developments of the past twenty years had not transpired and the 
work of n:ore recent writers has been of so superficial a nature as not to be of 
special historical value. 

The writing of history is not the thought or work of a day, but rather the 
diligent pursuance of a fixed and determined purpose. The writer of fiction 
may work from an inspiration based upon fertile imagination ; the newspaper 
writer is the chronicler of current events ; the descriptive writer of travel pictures 
that which he then and there observes ; but the historian makes a truthful record 
of the past, stating only that which has actually transpired. He indulges in 
no ideals, must be keen in discrimination, never self-opinionated or self-assertive, 
must be untiring in research, a faithful, patient, plodding gleaner of facts and 
an inherent lover of the truth. Lacking these virtues he is without his calling. 

The brief history of California and Los Angeles county is herewith given 
as a preface to the local history in order that the reader may have a connected 
story from the date of the discovery of the country. The state chapters are, 
with the exception of some changes and additions, reprinted from my " Century 
Annals of San Bernardino County, California (1904.)" The sketches of each 
of the twenty-one Franciscan missions of Alta California are adapted from 


' Missions and Landmarks ", a meritorious booklet written and in 1903 published 
by Mrs. Armitage S. C. Forbes, a zealous student and authoritative writer upon 
California missions and kindred subjects. 

The information utilized in the production of the history of Los Angeles 
county and the Santa Monica Bay Cities has been gleaned from numerous sources, 
prolific of which have been the works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Theodore H. 
Hittell, History of Los Angeles County, Lewis Publishing Co., Chicago, 1890, 
Resources of California, by the lamented Charles Nordhoff ; Reminiscences of 
A. Ranger, by Major Horace Bell ; California Blue Books, old maps and numerous 
old legal documents. Acknowledgments are due Editor D. G. Holt for the 
loan of complete files of his Santa Monica Outlook. Old files of the Los 
Angeles Times, the Los Angeles Herald and the Evening Express have all 
reflected light upon scenes and events of earlier days. Archives of the city of 
Santa Monica, of the city and the countv of Los Angeles, have been freely drawn 
upon. Files of old legal documents and old court records have been a great 
aid in shaping and verifying the histories of land grants. 

Uniform courtesy and kindness have been accorded me by many people in 
my quest for historical data, for which I am under special and lasting obligations 
to Judge J. J. Carrillo, E. J. Vawter, Hon. John P. Jones, W. S. Vawter, R. 
R. Tanner, Esq.. Judge Geo. H. Hutton, Abbot Kinney, Robert F. Jones, L. 
T. Fisher, Miss Jennie C. Vawter, Miss Emma Vawter, Dr. John A. Stanwood, 
Miss Elfie Moss'e, Col. G. Wiley Wells. Mrs. E. K. Chapin, Rev. J. D. H. 
Browne, Mrs. Laura E. Hubbell, W. I. Hull, Mrs. May K. Rindge, J. B. Procter, 
S. W. Odell, Rev. Stephen H. Taft, Mrs. Sarah L. Shively and W. B. B. Taylor. 
It affords me pleasure to here make due acknowledgment of the valuable literary 
service rendered me almost from the inception of this work by Miss Rose L. 
Ellerbe. Her mental training and already wide experience in the field of letters 
have eminently qualified her for historical labors and I deem it fortunate that, 
in this work, I have been able to command her splendid abilities. 

The biographical matter with which the general historical chapters are sup 
plemented will prove a valuable feature of this work. It permanently records 
so much of the personal experience of those who have contributed to the devel 
opment of this country and have borne an honorable part in the direction of its 
public affairs as to constitute a fairly comprehensive encyclopedia of local bio 
graphical reference. Much careful labor has been bestowed upon the com 
piling of these sketches. The information has been gathered from published 
books, magazines and newspapers, by personal interviews with the subjects 
thereof, and relatives of those who have passed away. 

A somewhat rigid system of submitting these articles to persons from whom 
original information was obtained, has been pursued, for the purpose of assuring 
accuracy. In doing this, use was made of the U. S. mail. In some instances 
these sketches have not been returned to me corrected and in such cases errors 
may appear, for which I must disclaim responsibility. The printing of these 


sketches has not in any instance been made contingent upon the payment .of 
money or in any other form, the support of my enterprise. Neither have they 
been written for the purpose of gratifying a desire of any person to appear con 
spicuously in print. I have studiously refrained from writing eulogies upon 
the lives of living people. Such form of alleged biography invades the field 
of commercialism to such an extent as to render it worthless as history. The 
histories of churches and fraternal organizations is by no means as complete as 
I desire, because the necessary data was not obtainable. It would have been 
impossible to illustrate this volume so liberally only for the public spirit of people 
who have in many instances shared with me the burden of expense. The labor 
and money expended in the production of this book has been a secondary con 
sideration, and to place in the hands of a reading public a reliable and dignified 
historical story has been paramount in the author's mind. 

Santa Monica, California. Dec. 1st, 1908. 

Ingersoll's Century Series of California 



Century Annals of San Bernardino Co., Calif. 

Century History of Santa Monica Bay Cities, Calif. 
Century Annals City of Monrovia and its Environs. 


Los Angeles 

"No community can claim to be highly en- 
lig'itened which is content to remain ignorant of 
its antecedents, or, in other words, ignorant of 
the prime causes that have made it what it is." 
H. D. Barrows. 




I. Discovery 3-7 

II. Colonization. Presidios and Pueblos 8-13 

ITT. The Mission Establishments 14-45 

IV. From Monarchy to Republicanism 46-49 

V. Revolutions and Secularization of Missions 49~54 

VI. Free State of Alta California 54'57 

VII. Closing Years of Mexican Era 58-66 

VIII. Conquest of California 66-77 

IX. Transition from Territory to State 77-82 

X. Vigilance Committees, Growth and Prosperity 82-90 

Governors of California 9 1 

Land Grants in Los Angeles County 92-93 


I. Organization 95~99 

II. Stock Raising and Agriculture 101-104 

III. Mining and Manufacturing 104-107 

IV. Transportation and Commerce 107-1 1 1 

V. The Day of the Trolley 112-114 

VI. Cities and Towns 114-119 


I. Santa Monica Bay Region 121-139 

II. Laying the Foundations. 1870-1880 141-165 

III. From Town to City. 1880-1890 167-183 

IV. Growth. . 1890-1900 185-209 

V. Expansion. 1900-1908 211-243 

VI. South Santa Monica and Ocean Park 244-263 

VII. Public Institutions 265-287 

VIII. Churches and Societies 288-303 

IX. Miscellaneous 35-3 I 5 

X. The City of Ocean Park 317-325 

XI. Venice of America and Its Founder 327-337 

XII. Pacific Branch National Home for Disabled Veterans 338-343 

XIII. Sawtelle. Palms 345-355 

General Index. 

Academy of the Holy Names 219 

Admission of California 81, 82 

Alarcon, Hernando de 4 

Alfalfa 104 

Alvarado, Pedro de 5 

Alvarado, Juan B 53, 55, 56, 57 

Anaheim, settled 102 

Anzu's route to California 10, u 

Arcadia Hotel 168 

Arguello. Luis A., governor 46 

Artesian Water Co 226, 228 

Artesian well, first 103 

A. & P. Ry 89. no, 187, 223 

Atlantic squadron 243 

Annual Assessments Santa Monica... 243 

Ballona Junction 310 

Ballona Port 168 

Ballona Harbor Co 335, 336 

Ballona & S. M. Ry 171 

Baker, Robert S 142 

Bandini. Juan 101 

Bank, First National of S. M..I73, 175, 188 

Banning, Phineas 107, 109, 1 18 

Baptist Church 297 

Barrett Villa 347 

Battle, of Plains, 74 1 of Dominguez 
rancho, 69; San Juan, 71; San Pas- 

qual, 72 ; El Paso de Bartola 73 

Beach front dispute 152 

Beach Land Co 336, 337 

Bean culture 233 

"Bear Flag" 64, 66 

Board of Trade 175, 202, 283 

Boca de Santa Monica, grant 136, 170 

Boom no, in, 169, 246 

Bouchard, privateer 13 

Brentwood Park 240 

Bulletin, S. F 83 

Cable line 112 

Cabrillo, Juan Roderiguez 5, 6, 7, 122 

Cahuenga, treaty of 61, 75 

California, name 4 

Capitals, state 86, 87 

Carrillo, A. Carlos 55, 56, 181 

Carrillo, Jose A 54, 61, 62 

Carrillo. Juan J 174. 180, 186, 191 

Carrillo, Pedro C 181 

Carriage, first in California 106 

Casino 306 

Castro, General. .54, 56, 59, 61, 62, 65,' 67, 68 
Catalina Island 5, 7 

Catholic Church 292 

Cattle Raising, in California, 88; in 

Los Angeles County 101 

Chamber of Commerce, Palms, 355 ; 

Santa Monica. 283 ; Venice 334 

Census, Los Angeles County, 98, 99 : 

Santa Monica 287 

Chapman, Joseph 13, 47 

Charter, Santa Monica. ...216, 220, 238, 239 

Chico, Mariano, governor 52, 53 

Chinese massacre 99 

City hall. Santa Monica.. 215. 217, 219, 225 

City Officials 286, 287 

City Water Co 251 

Civil War, in California 87 

Clay products, Los Angeles County. 105, 106 

Colton Hall 79 

Constitutional Convention 79- 80 

Coronado 4, 5 

Coronel, Antonio 96, 98 

Cortes 3, 4 

Court house, Los Angeles 98 

Crespi, Father Juan 18 

Cricket Club 307 

Discovery and Exploration, Santa 

Monica region 122 

Division of town, Santa Monica 

213, 227, 255 

Dolgeville 107 

Downey, John G 96, 101, 118 

Downey, settled 101 

Drake, Sir Francis 6 

Drought, '57. 101 ; '62-3 lot 

Dudley, T. H 253. 257 

Earthquake, 1812 29, 33 

Echandia, J. M., governor 49, 50, 132 

Eckert, (Bob.) 216 

Education, in California, 89; in Los 

Angeles County 98 

Election, first state, 80; first county.. 96 

Electric lines 113, 114 

El Monte, settled 101 

Episcopal Church, Santa Monica 295 

Expedition, first to California 8, 9 

Ferrelo. Bartolome 6, 7 

Filibustering 85 

Figueroa. Jose, 50 ; death 52 

First Baptist Church, Sawtelle 352 

First N. Y. Infantry 76 

Fisher, L. T 169, 201, 281. 315 


Floral Festival 291 

Flour mills 106 

Foreigners, arrival, 47. 48; fighting, 

54; exiled, 56; residents 62 

Franciscan order 7 

Freighting 109 

Fremont. John C.. entry into Califor 
nia. 62. 63 ; dispatches. 63 ; at So 
noma, 64, 65; raises flag. 66; major, 
67; lieutenant-colone!, 71; in south, 
74, 75 ; governor 76 

Galvez. Jose 8 

Carey. T. A 103. 1 16 

Oillispie. Captain 68, 69 

Gilroy. John 47 

Gold,' discovery 77- 78. 97 

Good Government League 216. 220 

Government, territorial 78, 79 

Governors, list of, 94; from Southern 

California 97 

Grand Army of Republic 302 

Gulf of California 4, 5. 8 

Gwin, Wm. M 79, 80 

Harbor question 190. 201 

Hartnell. W. E. P 48, 79 

Hawe. Father Patrick 292 

Herald. S. F 83 

Hijar and Padres party 50. 51 

Holt. D. G 282 

"Hook" franchise 223, 224 

Horse Racing 134, 135 

Horticultural production, Los Angeles 

County 104 

Hotchkiss. A. B 245 

Hull, W. 1 225 

Incorporated towns 115. 119 

Incorporation. Ocean Park, 318; Santa 

Monica, 169; Sawtelle 350 

Indians .122, 123, 125 

Irrigation systems, Los Angeles County 102 
Investment Co., Santa Monica 232 

Jaynie, Father Luis 16 

Jimenez Fortuna 3. 4 

Jesuits 8 

Jones. J. P 144. 152, 157, 173, 175 

Juez de Campo 96 

Kearney. Stephen W 72, 73. 75, 76 

Keller. Mathew 102, 128 

Kinney, A 

170, 173. 197, 248, 257, 259, 273, 327 

King, James 83 

La Ballona. grant 137, 139 

Land grants, list of 92, 93 

Land grants. Los Angeles County 96 

Larkin, Thomas O 71 

Lasuen, Father Francisco 19 

Lawn Tennis Club 305 

Library 186, 271 

Library Site Fund, Contributors to... 276 

Long Beach 1 16 

Los Angeles County, created, 96 ; 

boundaries 96 

Los Angeles, pueblo, u, 12; the cap 
ital, 61 ; capture 68 

L. A. Co. Ry 174, 175, 187. 307 

Los Angeles & Independence Ry.. or 
ganized, 144; built, 151; sold, 153; 

history 308 

L. A.-R Ry 

113, 114, 192, 193, 194, 197, 221, 255 

Lucas, Nancy A 244, 248 

Machado, Augustin. 137; Ygnacio, 137, 

138 ; Antonio 138, 139 

Mails, in Los Angeles County 108 

Malibu rancho 124, 129, 130 

Manufactured products, Los Angeles 

County 107 

Marquez, Francisco 132, 136, 137 

Martinez. Father Luis 27 

Mason, Gov 78 

Mendocino, Cape 6 

Methodist Church. Santa Monica 288 

Militia Company. Santa Monica 196 

Military camps, Ballona, 139; Wilming 
ton 118 

Mining, in California, 88; in Los An 
geles County 104 

Mission establishments, description. . 14, 6t 

Moncada. Rivera y 9, 10 

Monrovia 117 

Monterey Bay 5, 6, 7, 9 

Monterey, capture of 57 

Mormon Battalion 76 

Mooney Mansion 244 

Neve, Felipe de 10, n, 12 

Newspapers 279 

North Beach Bath house 190, 210 

Ocean Park 254 

Ocean Park District, 1898, 252; 1899. 
253; 1900, 254; 1901, 255; 1902, 257; 

1903 259 

Ocean Park 227, 236. 249, 250. 252, 317 

Ocean Park, incorporation. 318; census, 
318; election, 319; Improvement Co., 
319; growth, 321; sewage, 321; li 
censes. 322 ; values, 323 ; bonds, 324 ; 

postoffice. 324 ; City hall 325 

Oi'ed Streets 240 

Orange County 96 

Orange growing 103 

Ostrich Farm, Santa Monica 246 

Outdoor pastimes 305 

Outlook, Santa Monica 147, 280 

Pacific Branch National Home for 

Disabled Veterans 338 

Pacific Electric 113, 114 


Pacific Land Co 347 

Palisades tract 231 

Palms 171, 352 

Pasadena 1 1 5 

Pentecostal Church of Nazarene 299 

Peyri. Father 42. 43 

Petroleum, in Los Angeles County. . .104-5 

Petroleum production 105 

Philippines, trade with 5- 7 

Pico, Andres 72. 75, 135 

Pico. Pio, governor 60. 61, 67, 68. 117 

Pious Fund 5 1 

Playa del Rev 334 

Police department 193 

Point Dume 121 

Polo Club 307 

Pomona 101, 103, 116 

Population, state, 82, 83; Los Ange'es 
County, 112, 114; city, 115; Santa 
Monica, 167, 185, 220. 287; Ocean 

Park 3'8 

Port Los Angeles 198 

Port, of San Pedro 107. 108 

Portala, Caspar de, first governor of 

California 9, 10, 123 

Postoffice. 186; Ocean Park 263, 282 

Presbyterian Church, Santa Monica... 290 

Presidio, description 10 

Prudhomme, Leon V 126, 127 

Pueblo, Spanish 10, 1 1 

Purisima Concepcion, mission 34 

Quivera 5 

Railroads, in California 88. 89 

Rate war no, 168, 169, 170 

Raymond Hotel 115 

Reminiscences . 3 12 

Redondo 119 

Reyes. Ysidro 132, 136, 137 

Rindge. F. H 128, 21 1, 216, 231 

Rowland. Col. J. G 341 

Rose, L. J 102, 103, ii 5 

Russians, in California 47 

Ryan, Francis G 248, 253 

Salt Lake line Hi 

Saloon question 195. 211, 216 

San Antonio de Padua 19 

San Bernardino County, 96; settle 
ment no 

San Buenaventura, mission 31 

San Carlos, mission 9, 17 

Sanchez, Padre Jose B 24 

San Diego Bay 5. 7, 9 

San Diego, Mission 9, 15 

San Fernando Rev de Espana 40 

San Francisco Bay 9 

San Francisco de Asis 27 

San Francisco de Solano 45 

San Francisco, presidio 1 1 

San Gabriel Arcangel 20 

San Jose, mission 36 

San Jose, pueb'o n 

San Juan Bautista 37 

San Juan Capistrano 28 

San Miguel Arcangel 39 

San Luis Obispo de Toloso 26 

San Luis Rev de Francia 42 

San Pedro, bay, 5, 7; port, 107, 108; 

town iicS 

San Rafael, mission 45 

San Vicente y Santa Monica, grant. 

132; sale 142 

Santa Barbara, presidio and mission.. 

n, 12. 32 

Santa Clara, mission 29 

Santa Cruz, mission, 34; town 35 

Santa Fe RV....IIO. 168, 187, 223, 248, 309 

Santa Monica Bay 121 

Santa Monica Canyon 141, 143 

Santa Monica Fire Dept.. 278 

Santa Monica. History, 1885, 167; 
1886, 168; 1887. 169; 1888. 173; 1889. 
175; 1890. 185; 1891. 187; 1892, 187; 
1893, 188; 1894. 189; 1895. 190; 1896, 
193; 1897. 194; 1898, 195; 1899, 197; 
1900, 21 1 ; 1901, 216; 1902, 230; 1903, 
224; 1904, 226; 1905, 229; 1906, 240; 

1907 241 

Santa Monica Hotel 175 

Santa Monica Incorporation 169 

Santa Monica Lodge No. 906, B. P. 

O. E 303 

Santa Monica, name. 123; legend, 123; 

settlement 124 

Santa Monica, street cars 

171, 176, 185, 194, 197, 309 

Santa Monica, townsite, 145 ; first sale, 
145, 146; first building, 146; first 

train 149 

Santa Monica Water Co 194 

Santa Monica Wharf & Ry. Terminal 

Co ". 179, 180 

Santa Ynez, Virgin y Martyr 44 

Sawtelle, history 345 

Sawtelle, W. E 349 

School, first in state, 90; in Los Ange 
les County 98 

Schools, Ocean Park, 322; Sawtelle, 

346, 348; South Santa Monica 247 

Schools, Santa Monica, bonds. 237 ; 
enrollment, 270; history, 265; prin 
cipals, 270; trustees 263 

Seal, state tb 

Sewer bonds 

189, 192, 195, 196, 221, 235, 236. 241 

Secularization, decree, 51; plan, 51, 52; 

result 61 

Sepulveda, Francisco, 132; Jose, 133; 

Fernando 135 

Serra. Junipero 8, 15 

Serra Vista 231 

Serria, Father Vicente de 47 

Sisters of Holy Name 198, 219 

Slaverv in California 81, 79, 80 


Sloat. John D., raises flag 65, 66 

Smuggling 127 

Sola, Governor 46 

Soldiers in Los Angeles County 99 

Soldiers' Home 171 

Sutton, Florence 306 

Solcdad, mission 3<5 

South Santa Monica 219. 245 

South Santa Monica, history, 1874, 
244; 1875. 245; 1876. 245; 1887-8, 
246; 1889, 247; 1890. 248; 1892, 248; 
1893. 249; 1895. 250; 1896, 250; 1897, 

251; 1904-7 261 

So. Pac. R 

...88, 89, 109, 144, 154, 187, 197, 203. 309 

Stage routes 108, 109 

State division 97 

State Forestry Station 311 

Steamer, first 107 

Stearns, Abel 96 

Street car line, first in Los Angeles... 112 
Stockton, R. F.. arrives, 67; at San Pe 
dro. 70; San Diego, 70; Battle of 

Plains, 74 ; superseded 75 

Sugar beets 104 

Sutler, John A 60, 61 

Taft, Rev. S. H 345 

Tapia, Jose B., 126; Tiburcio 126-7, 128 

Tell's Lookout 334 

Tennis Tournaments 3o5 

Territorial government 78, 79 

Terry, David S 84, 85 

Topanga Malibu 125 

Topography. Santa Monica region.... 121 
Trade, with Boston, 48; Philippines. . .5, 7 

Traction Co 223 

Transportation 308 

Treaty. Cahuenga. 61, 75; Guadalupe 
Hidalgo 76 

Treichel, Col. Charles 339 

Truxton "scheme" 143 

Ulloa. Francisco de 4 

U. S. Senators 07 

Upham, Major F. K 342 

Vallejo, M. G 58 

Values, Santa Monica, 1880, 167; 1890, 

185, 228, 234, 239, 258 

Vawter family 146, 159, 245 

Vawter, Edwin James 164. 250, 254 

Vawter, Williamson Dunn... 159, 188, 292 

Vawter, William S 162, 188, 221, 250 

Venice 229 

Venice of America, 330; plans, 331; 
growth, 332; Assembly. 332; break 
water, 332; Chamber of Commerce.. 334 

Victoria, Manuel, governor 49 

Viglantes, Los Angeles, 53; San Fran 
cisco 82, 83, 84, 85 

Viscaino, Sebastian 7, 123 

Warner, J. J 96, 97 

Water Co., Sawtelle 349 

Wells Fargo 108 

Westgate 229 

Wharf, first. 145: abandoned. 155; 

Bernard, 156; fight 177, 196, 248 

Wheat raising, Los Angeles County. . . 102 

Whittier 117 

Wilson, B. D 96, 102, 103, 115, 118, 119 

Wilmington 107, 1 18 

Wine making 102, 128 

Wolfskill. William 103 

W. C. T. U 186, 243, 272, 299 

Woman's Club, Santa Monica 301 

Y. M. C. A. of Southern California.. 249 
Zalvidea, Father Jose M 21 


Admission of California into Union. ... 82 

Arch Rock 122 

Brentwood 232 

Brentwood Park 240 

Brice. J. L., Residence 320 

Church of Our Lady of the Angels. ... 95 

City Hall, Ocean Park 323 

City Hall. Santa Monica 217 

Creating Venice 330 

Colton Hall, Monterey, First State 

Capitol ". 79 

Court House, Los Angeles Co 94 

First Methodist Church 288 

Fire House, Dept. No. i 278 

Hotel. Santa Monica 176 

La Purisima Concepcion, Mission of . . . 34 

La Soledad, Mission of 36 

Library, Carnegie Public 271 

Mexican Custom House S? 

North Third Street. Santa Monica.... 188 
"Old" Court House, Los Angeles County 98 

Port Los Angeles 207 

Saddle, military, Don Andres Pico. . . . 108 
San Antonio de Padua. Mission of. . . 19 

San Buenaventura. Mission of 31 

San Carlos Borromeo de Monterey, 

Mission of 18 

San Diego de Alcala, Mission of 16 

San Fernando Rey de Espana, Mis 
sion of 41 

San Francisco de Asis, Mission of. ... 28 
San Francisco de Solano. Mission of.. 45 


San Gabriel Arcangel, Mission of 21 

San Jose, Mission of 36 

San Juan Bautista, Mission of 37 

San Juan Capistrano, Mission of 29 

San Luis Obispo de Toloso, Mission of 27 

San Luis Rey de Francia, Mission of.. 43 

San Miguel Arcangel. Mission of 40 

San Rafa"el, Mission of 45 

San Vicente Ranch House 133 

Santa Barbara, Mission of 32 

Santa Clara, Mission of 30 

Santa Cruz, Mission of 35 

Santa Monica Beach, 1878 143 

Santa Monica, First Church 151 

Santa Monica, First House 136 

Santa Ynez, Mission of 44 

Sawtelle, First House 346 

Sawtelle Public School 348 

Sixth Street School 268 

Soldiers' Home 342 

State Capitol. Benicia 86 

State Capitol, Sacramento 87 

Timm's Landing 1 18 

Topanga Canyon 126 

Venice Lake 333 


Armstrong, R. W 210 

Archer. A. N 399 

Bane, Ralph 238 

Banning, Gen. Phineas 107 

Barrows, Henry D 391 

Blanchard, J. D 264 

Browne, J. D. H. 296 

Burnett, Peter H 81 

Carpenter, Stephen 477 

Carrillo, Jose Antonio 54 

Carrillo, J. J 166 

Chapman. W. R 472 

Clark. J. H 274 

Coffman. H. L 210 

Corey. G. W., M.D 465 

Coronel. Antonio F 99 

Council. City S. M 210 

Crum, Rev. J. D 148 

Dales, E. V 264 

Davis, Orin 39=; 

Dike. E. W 356 

Dobbings. J. H 452 

Dollard, Robert 302 

Dow, Roscoe H 210 

Downey, John G 97 

Eakins," II. B 316 

Engelbrecht. H. J 264 

Foster, G. W 316 

Fremont. John C 2 and 62 

Gillis, W. T 234 

Gird. E. C 420 

Goetz, H. X 225 

Griffith. Hester T 423 

Griffith, E 316 

Gwin, Wm. M 80 

Hamilton. N. H., M.D 218 

Hawe, Rev. Patrick 294 

Hemingway, J. C 222 

Holt, D. G 264 and 280 

Hull, W. 1 172 

Hutton, Geo. H 214 

Ingersoll, L. A Frontispiece 

Jewett, O. W 354 

Johnston. A. F 242 

Jones, Hon. John P 120 

Keller, Don Mateo 128 

Kimball, Myron H 371 

Kinney, Abbot ._ 326 

Larkin, Thomas 71 

Lawton, Frank D 304 

Machado. J. D 494 

Mackinnon, J. D 316 

Mayer, H. C 316 

Miles, J. Euclid 210 

Mil'er, R. M 264 

Mitchell, H. L 488 

Morris, Alf 210 

Nellis, Clarence J 431 

Odell, S. W 381 

Palmer, W. M 447 

Petsch, Adolph 457 

Pico, Andres 75 

Pico, Pio 100 

Pierce, Grace Adele 439 

Putnam, R. G 482 

Quinn. Bernard 407 

Rebok, H. M 264 

Reel, Abe S 210 

Rile, H. F 443 

Rindge, Frederick H 129 

Sepulveda, Jose Dolores 132 

Serra, Junipero 15 

Shive'y. Daniel 414 

Shively. Sarah L 415 

Sloat, John D 65 

Smith, N. R., D.D.S 433 

Smith, P. H 495 

Snyder, Gco. D 210 

Snyder, W. P 264 

Stearns, Don Abel 106 

Stockton. Robert F 67 

Taft, Fred H 376 

Taft, Stephen H 344 

Tanner, R. R 230 

Taylor, Rev. and Mrs. George 411 

Taylor, W. B. B 404 


Towner, Charles E 154 

Trustees, City of Ocean Park 316 

Tullis, O. G 385 

Turner, Daniel 492 

Vallejo. Gen. M. G 58 

Vawter, E. J - 160 

Vawter, E. J., Jr 262 

Vawter, W. D 140 

Vawter, W. S 184 

Wells, G. Wiley 134 

Wyant. A. H 351 


Alton, Daniel 397 

Archer. A. N 399 

Armstrong. R. W 481 

Badillo. P. M 509 

Baida. N. G 462 

Raker. Robert S 142 

Baker, E. H 481 

Bandini, Juan 463 

Bane. Ralph 441 

Barrows, H. D 391 

Berkley. S. L. 408 

Bishop. B. R 481 

Blanchard. J. D 412 

Boehme, Geo. C 455 

Boehme, Geo 402 

Bontty, E. F 441 

Bouck, C. A 432 

Brice, J. L 428 

Brickner. John 462 

Brooks, F. W 442 

Browne, J. D. H 434 

Bundy, F. E 383 

Bundy. Nathan 431 

Busier, A 382 

Calkins. A. H 419 

Carrillo, J. J 180 

Carpenter, Stephen 477 

Case, L. H., M.D 437 

Chapin, E. K 495 

Chapman. W. R 472 

Cheney, C. C 512 

Clark. Joseph H 359 

Collins, Mrs. Catharine 461 

Connelly, T. J 454 

Corey, Geo. W., M.D 465 

Crane, H. M 489 

Dales, C. S 453 

Dales, E. V 470 

1 )ales, John B 454 

Davis. J. J 450 

Davis. Orin, M.D 395 

Devore, W. E 471 

Dike, E. W 357 

Dobbings. J. H 453 

Dobson. R. C 460 

Dollard. Robert 417 

Dow, R. H 429 

Dudley, T. H 427 

Kakins, H. B 430 

Edinger, C. L 491 

Finch, F. J 492 

Foster, G. W 448 

French. J. G 509 

Gillis, W. T 381 

Gird. E. C 421 

Griffith, Elijah 423 

Griffith, Hester T 423 

Grigsby. Tas. H 475 

Grimes, R. R 413 

Goodrich, L. B 493 

Goetz, H. X 401 

Gtiidinger. A. M 471 

Guntrup. John 455 

Hamilton, N. H.. M.D 369 

Hammond, 'H. N 421 

Hancock. A. K 473 

Hawe, Rev. P 362 

Hemingway, J. C 394 

Hodgson. J. 418 

Ho'lwedel. H. C 49O 

Holt, D. G 479 

Hudson. M. L 425 

Hull, W. 1 367 

Hunt, J. S., M.D 476 

Hunter, Benj. S 4'6 

Houston, H. E 467 

Hntton. George H 361 

Tngersoll. L. G 468 

Ingersoll. L. . A 446 

Jackson, Arthur E 459 

Jackson, William 365 

Jewett, O. W 385 

Jones. John Percival 157 

Tohnston. A. F 360 

Keener, J. P 487 

Kendall. W. M., M.D 510 

Kennedy. J. W 510 

Kimball, Mvron H 37' 

Kinney, Abbott 327 

Kirkelie. O. A 490 

Langdon, F. C 389 

Lawton, Frank 435 

Le Bas, Charles 375 

Limit. J 478 

London, J. A 486 

Lowe, Thomas R 435 

Machado. J. D 494 

Mayer, H. C 469 

McClellan, R. F 409 

Meloy, Daniel 400 


Meloy, H. T 461 

Metcalf, John 403 

Miles, Elam C 438 

Miles, J. Euclid 374 

Mitchell, H. L 4^8 

Montgomery, A. M 384 

Morris, Alf 451 

Mundell, Walter 449 

Nellis, C. J 431 

O'Callasrhan, Rev. J. A 456 

Odell, S. W 381 

Palmer, W. M 447 

Parrish, I. E 413 

Parrish, W. F 410 

Petsch, Ado'ph 457 

Pevcler, J. J 511 

Phillips. R. A 511 

Pierce, Grace A 439 

Procter. J. B 483 

Pruess, E. A 443 

Putnam, R. G 482 

Qninn. Bernard 407 

Rile. H. F 443 

Rindge. Frederick Hastings 128 

Rogers. C. W 445 

Sawtelle, W. E 364 

Sepnlveda. Jose Dolores 512 

Seymour, J. J 387 

Schofield. Tom 440 

Schnltz, Henry 488 

Sclnitte. G. W 464 

Sibley, Mrs. Geo 474 

Simpson, J. D 458 

Shiveley, Daniel 414 

Smale, J. B. E 456 

Smith, W. S., M.D 511 

Smith, J. L 466 

Smith. N. R., D.D.S 433 

Smith, P. H 495 

Snyder, W. P 467 

Snyder, Geo. D 366 

Sonnesyn, P. H 485 

Stanwood, John A 377 

Smnmerfield, K. B 390 

Taft. Fred H 376 

Taft, S. H 496 

Talkington, S. N 438 

Talkington, J. S 406 

Tanner, R. R 373 

Taylor, W. B. B 405 

Taylor. Rev. George 411 

Todd, J. W 388 

Towner, C. C 493 

Towner, C. E 363 

Tttllis, O. G 385 

Turner, Daniel 492 

Vache, A 475 

Valenzuela, Jose 478 

Van Tress, B. F 422 

Vawter, Aramatha Charlotte. 162; 
Charles Knowlton, .165; Edwin 
James, 164; Edwin James, Jr., 165; 
Emma Knowlton. 164; Jane Cra 
ven, 162; May, 162; Mary Ellen, 
161 ; Williamson Dunn, 169; Wil 
liam S 162 

Watkeys, L. C 482 

Wells, G. Wiley 378 

Westover, O. S 484 

Wilber, H. P 4 8s 

Woodruff, W. W 476 

Wyant, A. H 426 


Ahadcsa. Abbess. 

Abajenos. Inhabitants of Southern Cali 

Acequia. Ditch, canal. 
A.'Dois. Good bye, (God be with you). 
Adobe. Black adhesive soil. 
Adobes. Suhdried bricks of adobe. 
Agua. Water. 
Aguardiente. Brandy. 
Alameda. Walk under trees. 
Alabado. Hymn in praise of the sacrament. 
Alcalde mayor. Magistrate of a district. 
Aliso. Alder tree. 
Alta. Upper, above. 
Amo. Master, owner. 
Arroyo. A small stream. 
Ayuntamiento. Municipal council. 
Rahia. Bay. 
Rando. Edict. 
Baja. Below, lower. 
Ridarka. Skin boat. 
Bienes. Property. 
Blanco. White. 
Boca. Mouth. 
Bonita. Pretty. 

Rrazo de mar. Arm of the sea. 
Rrea. Pitch. 

Rronco. Unbroken horse. 
Bin-no. Good. 

Buenos dias. Good morning. 
Caba'lo. Horse. 
Cabo. Cape. 
Caion. Box. chest. 
Calle. Street. 
Camino. Way. 
Campana. Bell. 
Campanula. Small bell. 
Campo. Field. 

Canada. Glen or dale between mountains. 
Campo santo. Graveyard. 
Canon. A tube, deep ravine. 
Capilla. Chapel. 
Carreta. Cart. 
C'arta. Letter, chart. 
Casa Grande. Large house. 
Castillo. Castle, fort. 
Catalina. Catherine. 
Cienega. A marsh. 
Cigarritos. Cigarets. 
Ciiulad. City. 
Comandante. Commander. 
Compadre. Friend, comrade, godfather. 
Comisario. Commisary, a treasury official. 
Concepcion. Conception. 

Coyote. A small California wolf. 

Corbata. Cravat. 

Corral. A pen for live stock, or for poultry. 

Cuero. Hide of cattle or horses. 

Dehesas. Pasture lands. 

Dias. Days. 

Diablo. Devil. 

Dinero. Money. 

Diego. James. 

Diputacion. Deputy, committee. 

Dolores. Sorrows. 

Don. Mr. 

Dona. Mistress. 

Embarcadero. Place of embarkation. 

Enchiladas. Cornmeal cakes in chile sauce. 

Enfermo. Sick. 

Encino. Oak. 

Engano. Deceit, mistake, fraud. 

Ensenada. Creek, small bay. 

Espanol. Spanish. 

Entrada. Entrance, invasion, incursion. 

Escoltas. Mission guard. 

Escondido. Hidden. 

Escrito. Writing or written. 

Estado. State. 

Fandango. Dance. 

Fierro. Branding iron. 

Fiesta. Feast Day. 

Frey. Father of a religious order. 

Frijoles. Beans. 

Fuego. Fire. 

F'imos. Smoky. 

Galeria. Galley. 

Canado. Live stock, cattle. 

Gefepolitico. Political chief. 

Gente de Razon. Spaniards and Mexicans 

distinguished from Indians. 
Gobenador. Governor. 
Gracias. Favors, thanks, eraces. 
Hacienda. Country home. 
Hambre. Hunger. 
Hermano. Brother. 
Hermoso. Handsome. 
Herrar. To brand. 
Hidalgo. One of gentle birth. 
Hija. Daughter. 
Hijos del pais. Native sons. Sons of the 

Hombre. Man 
Isla. Isle. 

Juez del campo. Judge of the plains. 
Tugador. Gambler. 
Junta. Assembly. 


Juramento. Oath. 

Lagnna. Small lake. 

Legua. League. 

Libros. Books. 

Llano. Plain. 

Llavero. Keeper of the keys. In the mis 
sions, the store keeper. 

Lomeras. Ridges of hills, or mountains. 

Maclre. Mother. 

Maestro. Master. 

Mai. Evil, complaint. 

Mariana. Morning, tomorrow. 

Manteca. Tallow. 

Mantilla. Head cover for women. 

Mariposa. Butterfly. 

Maromeros. Rope dancers. 

Matanza. Slaughter-yard. 

Major-domo. Steward, overseer. 

Mecate. Mexican for rope. 

Medio real. Half a real, or 6}/j cents. 

Memorias. Memoranda. 

Metate. A curved grinding stone. 

Mejicano. Mexican. 

Mezcal. A liquor made from the maguey 

Molino. Mi'l. 

Morro. Steep cliff. 

Mesa. Table land. 

Milpas. Indian corn-fields. 

Muchacho. Boy. 

Negro. Black. 

Xeolita. A converted Indian. 

Xoclie. Night. 

Nuestra Senor. Our Lord. 

Xnestra Sefiora. Our Lady. 

Nuestra Senora d" Los Angeles. Our Lady 
of the Angels. 

Nuevo. New. 

Ojo. Eye. 

Oleo. The sacred oil. 

Olla. A round earthen pot. 

Orden. Order, command. 

Ordenanza. Ordinances. 

Orejano. Wild. Res orejano de fierro. 
Cattle marked on the ears. 

Oso. Bear. 

Oro. Gold. 

Padre. Father. 

Pais. Country. 

Palacio. Palace. 

Pasajes. Valleys. 

Patio. Court. 

Peon. A game at dice. 

Pinole. Drink of cornmeal, water and sugar. 

Pinos. Pine. 

Playa. Sea beach. 
Plaza. Square, market place. 
Pobladores. Settlers, founders of a town. 
Poco. Little. 

"Pozole. Beans boiled with corn or wheat. 
Potrero. Pasture. 
Pozo. Spring. 

Presidio. Garrison. 

Primo. First. 

Pronunciamento. Proclamation. 

Propriedad. Proprietorship, etc. 

Pueb'o. City. 

Publica. Public. 

Puerto. Port, harbor. 

Rnmada. A bush house, or shed. 

Rancheria. An Indian village. 

R-Michita. Small ranch. 

Rancho. Farm, range. 

Realistas. Royalists. 

Real. Spanish coin worth T2'/> cents. 

Reata. A rope of rawhide for lassoing 


Rebosa. Shawl. Worn over the head. 
Rcglemento. Regulation. 
Realengo. Royal, kingly. 
Rcgidor. Alderman. Director. 
Revolucionario. Revolutionist. 
Roble. Oak tree. 
Rio. River. 

Rodeo. Rounding up of cattle. 
Salinas. Salt marshes. 
Seco. Dry. 

Scguridad. Safety, securely. 
Sierra Nevada. Ridge of mountains covered 

with snow. 

Sierra. Ridge of mountains. 
Silla. Chair, or saddle. 
Silla vaquera. Saddle used by vaquero. 
Sitio. Small stock range. 
Soherano. Sovereign, supreme. 
Sobrante. Residue, left over. 
Soldado. Soldier. 
Sombrero. Hat. 
Suertes. Fields. 
Surefios. Southerners. 
Tamale. Indian meal dumpling stuffed with 

minced meat, chicken, etc. 
Tasajo. Jerked beef. 

Tecolcro. Master of ceremonies at a ball. 
Tecolotc. Species of owl. 
Temblor. Shake. 
Temblor de tierra. Earthquake. 
Terreno. Ground. 
Testigo. Witness. 
Tonto. Stupid, foolish. 
Tortillas. Little cakes, pancakes. 
Trabaj adores. Laborers. 
Tule. Reed, native grown. 
Tuna. Cactus plant. 
Vaquero. Cow herder. 
Vara. Rod, staff, yard measure. 
Venta. Sale mark of cattle. 
Violincito. A small fiddle. 
Vinero. One who cares for vines. 
Vocal. Voting member of a corporation. 
Vino. Wine. 

Visitador. Visiter, surveyor. 
Yerba. Herb. 
Zanja. Irrigating ditch. 
Zanjero. One in charge of a zanja. 


Brief History of California. 




OMANCE enters into the story of 
California with its very beginning. 
When Gondalez de Sandoval, in 1 524, 
gave to Cortes an account of a wonderful 
island ten days to the westward from the 
Pacific Coast of Mexico, inhabited by women 
only and exceedingly rich in pearls and gold, 
he no doubt derived his information from 
Montalvo's romance, " Sergas de Esplandian." 
Cortes seems to have given credence to his 
lieutenant's story and to have kept in view 
the discovery of this wonderful island, Cali 
fornia. The discovery of what is now known as the peninsula of Lower 
California, but which was then supposed to be an island, by Fortuna Jiminez, 
in 153-1, no doubt confirmed in Cortes' mind the truth of Sandoval's story, 
told him a decade before. For did not the island of Jiminez, like the island 
of Montalvo's fiction, lie on the right hand of the Indies, or where the Indies 
were then supposed to be ? Pearls . were found on it and gold and the 
Amazons must be there, too. 

Fortuna Jiminez, the discoverer of Lower California, was chief pilot on 
one of the ships which Cortes, in 1533, fitted out to explore the northwest coast 
of Mexico. A mutiny broke out on the ship commanded by Becerro de Men- 
doza. He was killed and his friends forced to go on shore at Jalisco. The muti 
neers, commanded by Jiminez, sailed westerly away from the coast of the main 
land. After several days of sailing out of sight of the main land, they discov 
ered what they supposed to be an island and landed at what is now known as 
La Paz. in Lower California. There Jiminez and twenty of his followers were 
killed by the Indians ; the few survivors of the ill-fated crew managed to navi 
gate the vessel back to Jalisco, where they reported the discovery of an island 
rich in pearls. 


Cortes, hearing the report and probably believing the island to be the Cali 
fornia of the story, fitted out an expedition to colonize it. With three ships and 
a number of soldiers and settlers, he landed in May, 1535, at the place where 
Jiminez was killed, which he named Santa Cruz ; but instead of an island peo 
pled with women who lived after the manner of Amazons and whose arms and 
trappings were made of gold, he found a sterile country inhabited by the most 
abject and degraded of beings. Disaster after disaster fell upon the unfortu 
nate colony. Some of the ships sent to bring supplies were wrecked and others 
driven out of their course. Some of the colonists died from starvation before 
the supplies reached them and others from over-eating afterwards. After two 
"ears of struggling against misfortune, Cortes abandoned the attempt and the 
wretched colonists were brought back to Mexico. Thus ended the first effort 
to colonize California. 

Some time between 1535 and 1537 the name California was applied to the 
land still supposed to be an island ; but whether Cortes applied it in the hope of 
encouraging his colonists or whether the country was so named in derision, is 
not known. The name was subsequently applied to all the land along the Pa 
cific Coast northward to 42 degrees, the limit of the Spanish possessions. 

The vast unexplored regions to the northward of that portion of Mexico 
which he had conquered had a fascination for Cortes. He dreamed of finding 
in them empires vaster and richer than those he had already subdued. For 
years he fitted out expeditions by sea and by land to explore this terra incognita ; 
but failure after failure wrecked his hopes and impoverished his purse. The 
last of the parties was the one commanded by Francisco de Ulloa, who in 1539 
sailed up the Gulf of California on the Sonora side to its head, and then down 
the inner coast of Lower California to the cape at its extremity, which he doubled 
and sailed thence northward to Cabo de Engano (Cape of Deceit.) Here the 
two vessels of the expedition, after being tossed and buffeted by head winds, 
parted company in a storm. The smaller returned to Santiago. Of the other 
which was directly under Ulloa's command, nothing is definitely known nor 
of Ulloa's fate. The only thing accomplished by this voyage was to demon 
strate that California was a peninsula, although even this fact was not fully 
accepted for two centuries after this. Cortes returned to Spain in 1540, where 
after vainly trying to obtain from the King some recognition of his services and 
some recompense for his outlay, he died a disappointed and impoverished man. 

The next voyage which had anything to do with the discovery and explora 
tion of California was that of Hernando de Alarcon. With two ships he sailed 
from Acapulco, May 9, 1540, up the Gulf of California. His object was to co 
operate with Coronado. The latter, with an army of 400 men, had marched 
from Culiscan, April 22, 1540, to discover and conquer the "Seven Cities of 
Cibola," which the romancing friar, Marcos de Niza, "led by the Holy Ghost" 


and blessed with a fertile imagination, claimed to have seen somewhere in the 
wilds of what is now Arizona. Alarcon, at the head of the gulf, discovered 
the mouth of a great river. Up this stream, which he named Buena Guia 
now the Colorado he claimed to have sailed eighty-five leagues. He was 
probably the first white man to set foot in the territory now included in the State 
of California. 

While Coronado was still absent in search of the Seven Cities, and of 
Quivera, a country rich in gold, lying somewhere in the interior of the continent, 
the successor of Cortes entered into a compact with Pedro de Alvarado, Gov 
ernor of Guatemala, who had a fleet of ships lying at anchor in the harbor of 
Natividad, Mexico, to unite their forces in an extensive scheme of exploration 
and conquest. An insurrection broke out among the Indians of Jalisco and in 
trying to suppress it Alvarado was killed. The return of Coronado dispelled 
the myths of Cibola and Quivera and put an end, for the time, to further ex 
ploration of the interior regions to the north of Mexico. 

On the death of Alvarado, his successor, Mendoza, placed five ships under 
the command of Ruy Lopez de Villalobas and sent them to the Islas de Poniente 
(Isles of the Setting Sun now Philippines) to establish trade. Two ships of 
the fleet, under the command of Juan Roderiguez Cabrillo, were sent to explore 
the northwest coast of the Pacific. He sailed from Natividad June 27, 1542; 
on August 3ofh they reached Cabo de Engano, the most northern point of Ulloa's 
exploration. Continuing his voyage along the coast, he discovered a number 
of bays and islands. On Sept. 23, 1542, Cabrillo entered a fine bay called by 
him San Miguel, now San Diego Bay. After three days further sailing he 
sighted the islands which he named San Salvador and Vitoria, after his vessels, 
now Catalina and San Clemente. From these islands he crossed to the main 
land on Oct. 8th and entered a bay which he named Bahia de los Fumos (Bay 
of Smokes), now San Pedro Bay. After entering a bight, supposed to have 
been Santa Monica, he continued northwestward, passed through the Santa Bar 
bara channel and discovered the islands of Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San 
Miguel. Going on up the coast, he found a long narrow point of land extend 
ing into the sea, which from its resemblance to a galley boat, he called Cabo de 
la Galeria, now Point Conception. November i7th he doubled Point of Pines 
and entered Monterey Bay, which he called Bahia de los Pinos (Bay of Pines.) 
Finding it impossible to land on account of the heavy seas, he proceeded north 
ward until he reached 40 degrees, north latitude, as he estimated. On account 
of cold weather and storms he turned back and ran down to San Miguel, where 
he decided to winter. Here, from the effects of a fall, he died Jan. 3, 1543, and 
was buried on the island. His companions renamed the island Juan Roderiguez, 
after their brave commander; but he did not retain even this small honor. The 
discoverer of California sleeps in an unknown grave. 


The command devolved on the chief pilot, Bartolome Ferrelo, who prose 
cuted the voyage with a courage and daring equal to that shown by Cabrillo. 
On Feb. 28th he discovered a point of land which he named Cape Mendocino 
in honor of the Viceroy. Passing this cape, he encountered a furious storm, 
which drove him violently to the northeast and greatly endangered his ships. 
On March 1st the fogs lifted and he saw Cape Blanco in the southern part of 
what is now Oregon. The weather continuing stormy and the cold increasing, 
Ferrelo was compelled to turn. back. Off the coast of San Clemente the ships 
were driven apart and did not come together again until they reached the Cerros 
Islands. In sore distress for provisions they arrived at Natividad, April 18, 1543. 

The next navigator who visited California was Sir Francis Drake, an Eng 
lishman. He was not so much seeking new lands as trying to find a way of 
escape from capture by the Spanish. Francis Drake, the sea-king of Devon 
and one of the bravest of men, sailed from Plymouth Dec. 13, 1577, in com 
mand of a fleet of five small vessels on a privateering expedition against the 
Spanish settlements of the Pacific Coast. When he sailed out of the Straits of 
Magellan into the South Sea, he had but one ship left, all the others had been 
lost or had turned back. With this small vessel he began a career of plunder 
ing among the Spanish settlements that for boldness, daring and success has 
had no equal in the world's history. The quaint chronicler of the voyage sums 
up the proceeds of his raids at "eight hundred and sixty-five thousand pesos of 
silver, a hundred thousand pounds of gold and other things of great worth." 
Plundering as he moved, he reached the port of Guatulco on the coast of 
Oaxaca. Surfeited with spoils and with his ship laden to her fullest capacity, 
it became a necessity for him to find a new way home. In the language of the 
chronicler, "He thought it was not good to return by the straits, lest the Span 
iards should attend for him in great numbers." So he sailed away to the north 
ward to find the Straits of Anian, which were supposed to connect the North 
Pacific with the Atlantic. For two hundred years after the discovery of Amer 
ica, navigators searched for that mythical passage. Drake, keeping well out to 
sea, sailed northward for two months. The cold, the head winds and the leaky 
condition of his craft compelled him to turn back and he sailed clown the coast 
until he found a safe harbor under the lee of a promontory, now Point Reyes. 
Here he repaired his ship, took formal possession of the country in the name of 
his sovereign, Queen Elizabeth, and named it New Albion, from a fancied re 
semblance to his homeland. He had his chaplain, Parson Fletcher, preach a 
sermon to the natives ; this did not greatly impress them, we are told, but they 
took delight in the psalm singing. After a stay of thirty-six days, on July 23d, 
1579, Drake sailed for England and after nearly three years of absence, during 
which he had circumnavigated the globe, he reached home safely and was knighted 
bv Elizabeth. 


Sixty years passed after Cabrillo's voyage before another Spanish explorer 
visited California. The chief object of Sebastian Viscaino's voyage was to find a 
harbor of refuge for the Philippine galleons. These vessels on their return voy 
age sailed northward until they struck the Japan current, which they followed 
across the ocean until they reached the vicinity of Cape Mendocino, then sailed 
along the coast to Acapulco. Viscaino started from Acapulco May 5, 1602, 
with three ships and 160 men. Following substantially the course that Cabrillo 
had taken, he anchored in Cabrillo's Bay of San Miguel, which he called San 
Diego, in honor of his flagship. He remained there ten days, then proceeded 
up the coast and on the 26th anchored in a bay which he called Ensenada de San 
Andreas, now San Pedro. He visited Cabrillo's San Salvador, to which he gave 
the present name of Santa Catalina and changed the name of Vitoria to San 
Clemente. He gave the name of Santa Barbara to that channel and visited the 
channel islands. He saw many towns on the mainland and the natives came 
off in their canoes and visited the vessels. On Dec. i6th Viscaino entered 
Monterey Bay, as he named it in honor of the Viceroy who had fitted out- the 
expedition. The scurvy had broken out on ship and sixteen men were already 
dead. The San Tomas was sent back to Acapulco with the sick; with his two 
remaining vessels Viscaino continued his voyage northward, reaching Cape 
Blanco. But at this point he, too, was compelled to turn backward. The scurvy 
had made fearful inroads on his crews and after eleven months' absence, Vis 
caino reached Mazlatan, having lost nearly half of his crew. He wrote the King 
a glowing account of the Bay of Monterey and the surrounding country, which 
he pictured as almost a terrestrial paradise. His object was to induce the King 
to establish a settlement on Monterey Bay. In this he was doomed to disap 
pointment ; delay followed delay until hope vanished. Finally, in 1606, orders 
came from Philip III to the Viceroy to fit out immediately an expedition for the 
occupation and settlement of Monterey, of which Viscaino was to be the com 
mander. In the midst of his preparations for carrying out the dearest object 
of his life, Viscaino died and the expedition was abandoned. Had it not been 
for the untimely death of this explorer, a colonv would have been planted upon 
the Pacific coast of California, a year before the first settlement was made on 
the Atlantic coast of North America. 

Two hundred and twenty-seven years had passed since the ships of Cabrillo 
had first cut the waters that lap the shores of Alta California and yet through 
all these years the interior of the vast country whose seacoast he had visited 
remained unknown. For more than two centuries the Manila galleons had 
sailed down the coast on their return voyage from the islands; yet after the 
death of Viscaino no other attempt had been made to find a refuge on the Cali 
fornia coast for the storm tossed and scurvy afflicted mariners of the Philippine 



THE Jesuits began their work among the degraded inhabitants of Lower 
California in 1697. Under their devoted leaders, Salvatierra, Kino, 
Ugarte, Piccolo, and their successors, they had founded sixteen missions 
upon the peninsula. Father Kino, besides his missionary labors, had made, be 
tween 1697 and 1702, explorations around the head of the Gulf of California and 
up the Colorado to the mouth of the Gila, which had clearly demonstrated that 
the peninsula was a part of the mainland instead of an island as at first believed. 
Father Kino formed the design of establishing a chain of missions around the 
head of the gulf and down the inner coast to Cape San Lucas; but did not live 
to complete his ambitious project. The Jesuit missions of Raja California never 
grew rich in flocks and herds. The country was barren and the few fertile val 
leys around the missions gave the padres and neophytes, at best, but a frugal 
return for their labors. 

For years there had been growing up in Spain a strong hostility to the 
Jesuits which finally resulted in the issuance of a decree by Carlos III, in 1767, 
banishing the order from that country and from its American possessions. With 
out previous warning, the monks in Lower California were compelled to aban 
don their missions and were hurried from the country. At the head of the Fran 
ciscan order, to whom the abandoned missions were turned over, came Father 
Junipero Serra, a man of indomitable will and energy. Don Jose Galvez, vis- 
itaclor-general of New Spain, had been sent to the peninsula to regulate affairs 
both secular and ecclesiastical, which had been thrown into disorder by the sud 
den expulsion of the Jesuits. He also received orders to advance the scheme for 
the occupation of San Diego and Monterey harbors and the colonization of 
"Nueva California." Galvez, as soon as he had somewhat systematized matters 
on the peninsula, set vigorously to work to further the project of occupying the 
northern territory. Father Serra entered heartily into his plans and church and 
state worked together harmoniously. 

Galvez decided to fit out four expeditions two by sea and two by land. 
These were to start at different dates, but were all to unite at San Diego Bay and 
after occupying that territory, pass on to the harbor of Monterey. On Jan. 9, 
1769, the San Carlos sailed from La Paz with sixty-five persons on board, twenty- 
five of whom were soldiers under Lieutenant Pages. She carried supplies for 
eight months. On the I5th of February, the San Antonio sailed from Cape S. 
Lucas, with two friars and a few mechanics on board. The first land expedition 



started from Yelicata, the most northern settlement in Lower California, March 
24th. It was commanded by Rivera y Moncada and consisted of twenty-five sol 
diers, forty-two natives, with Padres Crespi and Canizar^s. The last expedi 
tion, which was under the immediate command of Caspar ue Portala, Governor 
of the Californias, left Velicata May I5th. It consisted of ten soldiers, with a 
band of Lower Californians, and was accompanied by Father Serra. 

The San Antonio, although the last to sail, was the first to arrive at its des 
tination, casting anchor in San Diego Bay, April 11, 1769. The San Carlos, 
after a most disastrous voyage, drifted into the bay on April 29th. The crew 
were prostrated with scurvy and it was with difficulty that a boat was manned 
to go ashore. The sick were landed, but when the scourge had run its course, 
few were left. Moncada's land expedition, after an uneventful march, reached 
San Diego May I4th. On the first day of July Portala's command arrived and 
the four divisions, aggregating 126 persons who were expected to remain in the 
country, were united. The ravages of scurvy had so depleted the crews of the 
two vessels that only enough men remained to man one vessel. The San Antonio 
was sent back to San Bias for supplies and another crew for the San Carlos. A 
third vessel, the San Jose, had been fitted out by Galvez and loaded with supplies 
for the missionaries ; but she was never heard from after the day of sailing. 

On July 1 6th, Father Serra formally founded the first mission in Nueva 
California, which was dedicated to San Diego de Alcala St. James of Alcala 
a Franciscan friar who died in 1463 and was canonized in 1588. On July I4th 
Governor Portala, with Padres Crespi and Gomez and a force made up of sol 
diers and Indians of Lower California, numbering in all sixty-five persons, set 
out from San Diego to go overland to Monterey Bay and there found the intended 
mission and settlement. The route of the expedition was mainly along the coast, 
with an occasional divergence inland. On August 2nd they camped on the future 
site of Los Angeles. Along the coast of Santa Barbara channel they found pop 
ulous Indian villages and were everywhere welcomed by the natives of the coun 
try. The explorers passed by Monterey Bay without recognizing it from the 
description of Viscaino, and traveled along the coast to the north. On Nov. 2nd 
some of the hunters of the party climbed a hill and saw an "arm of the sea." 
This was the body of water we now know as San Francisco Bay. Their pro 
visions were exhausted and many were sick. In consequence it was decided to 
turn back and the party reached San Diego again in January, 1770. Portala's 
expedition had failed in its object to found a mission on the bay of Monterey, 
but it had accomplished a far greater feat it had discovered San Francisco Bay. 

In April, 1770, Portala again set out for Monterey, with a force of twenty- 
five soldiers and natives. At the same time Father Serra sailed on the San An 
tonio for the bay. On June 3, 1770, the mission of San Carlos Borremeo de 
Monterey was formally established on the beach, with solemn ceremonies, ac- 


companied by the ringing of bells and the crack of musketry and roar of cannon. 
Father Serra conducted the services and Governor Portala took possession of 
the country in the name of the King of Spain, Carlos III. A presidio or fort of 
palisades was erected and a few huts built. Portala, having formed the nucleus 
of a settlement, turned over the command of the territory to Pages and sailed 
to Lower California on the San Antonio. This was the end of his term as Gov 


For the protection of the missions and to prevent foreigners from entering 
California, military posts, called presidios, were established at San Diego, Monte 
rey, Santa Barbara and San Francisco. These enclosures were in the form of 
a square and were surrounded by adobe walls ten or twelve feet high. Within 
were the officers' quarters, the barracks for the soldiers, a guard house, chapel, 
granaries, and storehouses. A military force, usually consisting of one cor 
pany, was stationed at each post under the command of a colonel or lieutenant. 
The largest force was kept at Monterey, the capital of the territory. The Gov 
ernor, or commandante-general who, under Spanish rule was always an army 
officer, was commander-in-chief of the troops in the territory. The principal 
service of the soldiers was to keep in check the neophytes, to protect the mis 
sions from the incursions of the "gentiles," as the wild Indians were known, and 
to capture neophytes who had escaped to their unconverted relatives. 

The mission fathers were opposed to the colonization of the country by 
white people. They well knew that the bringing of a superior race of people 
into contact with the lower would result in the demoralization of the inferior race. 
As rapidly as they could found missions, they arrogated to themselves all tlv 
choice lands within the vicinity of each establishment. A settler could not ob 
tain a grant of land from the public domain if the padres of the nearest mission 
opposed the action. The difficulty of obtaining supplies from Mexico for the 
soldiers of the presidios, necessitated the founding of agricultural colonies. Pre 
vious to 1776 the Governor of "Las Californias" as the country from Cape San 
Lucas to the most northern point of the Spanish possessions was known, re 
sided at Loreto, in Lower California. In that year the territory was divided 
into two districts and a governor appointed for each. Felipe de Neve was made 
Governor of Nueva California, of which Monterey was designated as the capital, 
and Rivera y Moncada was appointed Governor of Lower California to reside 
at Loreto. 

Hitherto all expeditions to Nueva California had come either by the coast 
route, up the peninsula, or by sea. In 1774 Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, 
commander of the Tubac presidio of Sonora, was ordered to explore a route by 
way of the Gila and Colorado rivers overland to Monterey. With a party of 


thirty-four men, he made the Jornada, crossing the desert, entering the San Ber 
nardino Valley through the San Gorgonio Pass and reaching San Gabriel. On 
his return to Sonora, he recruited a second expedition composed of soldiers, set 
tlers and their families in all over three hundred persons, who were designed 
to found a mission and a presidio on San Francisco Bay. After a long and toil 
some journey this party reached California in 1776. On the I7th of Septembc 
1776, the presidio of San Francisco was formally established and on October gth 
the mission, christened for the founder of the Franciscan order, was founded. 

Governor de Neve, on his journey overland in 1777 from Loreto to Monte 
rey, was instructed to examine the country from San Diego northward and se 
lect locations for agricultural settlements. He chose two colony sites, one on 
the Ric de Porciuncula, where Portala's expedition had camped in 1769 and to 
which he had given the name of "Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles," and the 
other on the Rio de Guadalupe in the northern section of the territory. Here, 
Nov. 29, 1777, Governor de Xeve founded the Pueblo de San Jose. The col 
onists were nine soldiers from the presidios of Monterey and San Francisco and 
five settlers of Anza's expedition. These, with their families, made a total of 
sixty-six. The site of the pueblo was about a mile north of the present city of 
San Jose. Each settler was given a tract of irrigable land, a soldier's rations 
and ten dollars per month. Each head of a family received a yoke of oxen, two 
horses, two cows, a mule, two sheep and two goats, a few farming implements 
and seed for the first sowing. The colonists were to reimburse the royal treas 
ury for all the articles furnished them except their rations and monthly pay, 
the payments to be made in installments from the products of their industry. 

The Spanish government had an elaborate code of laws governing the es 
tablishment and management of pueblos. These were applied with small mod 
ification to all new pueblos, whatever their location and conditions. Each pueblo 
must contain four square leagues of land, which was divided into planting fields, 
allotted to the colonists : lands retained by the municipality for renting ; a com 
mon pasture for the use of all, and a portion of land reserved for the state, used 
for raising revenues. Wood and water were communal property. The pueblo 
was governed by a semi-civil, semi-military official known as the comisionaclo. 
There was also an alcalde, who was a mayor and petty judge. A guard of sol 
diers were kept at the guard house, partly for protection against the Indians and 
partly to preserve the peace in the pueblo. 

In 1779 Rivera y Moncada, the Governor of Lower California, was instructed 
to recruit in Sonora and Sinaloa settlers for the founding of a pueblo on the 
Rio Porciuncula and soldiers for the founding of a presidio and mission on the 
Santa Barbara channel. The settlers were to receive each $106.50 for two years 
and $60 for the next three years, the payment to be in clothing and other neces 
sary articles at cost price ; also live stock, farming implements and seeds. These 


liberal offers secured but few recruits and those of poor quality. After a year 
Rivera had obtained but fourteen settlers. Two of these deserted before the 
company left Sonora and one was left behind at Loreto when, in April, 1781, 
the expedition began to march up the peninsula. The colonists under command 
of Lieut. Zuniga arrived at San Gabriel, August i8th, where they remained until 
Sept. 4th. The eleven settlers and their families forty-four persons in all, es 
corted by Gov. de Neve and a small guard of soldiers and accompanied by the 
priests of San Gabriel Mission, on Sept. 4, 1781, proceeded to the site previously 
selected for the pueblo. This was on the right bank of the Rio Porciuncula near 
the spot where Portala's explorers had celebrated the feast of Nuesta Seiiora de 
Los Angeles de Porciuncula, from which circumstances was derived the name of 
the pueblo and the river. A plaza, seventy-five by one hundred varas was laid 
off on the mesa above the river as the center of the settlement. A mass was 
said by the priests of the mission, a procession was formed and marched around 
the plaza, the soldiers bearing the imperial standard of Spain and the women 
the image of "Our Lady of the Angels." The priests blessed the plaza and the 
house lots. The services over, the Governor and his escort took their departure 
and the colonists were left to work out their destiny. Another pueblo called 
Branciforte was founded in 1797 near Santa Cruz, but never prospered. The 
settlers were discharged soldiers, unused to labor and averse to acquiring indus 
trious habits. 

A few grants of land were made to private citizens, but substantially, during 
the Spanish era, all the land outside of the pueblos used for grazing or for culti 
vation was held by the missions. The commerce of California at this period was 
limited to the ships of the missions which usually came twice a year from San 
Bias with supplies for the missions and presidios and took away the few commer 
cial products of the country, such as otter skins, hides and tallow of cattle. About 
1800 the American smugglers began to come to the coast. The vessels engaged 
in this trade were principally from Boston and were fast sailing craft. They 
exchanged Yankee notions for otter skins. The authorities tried to suppress 
this illicit traffic, but were not often successful, as the vessels were heavily armed 
and when not able to escape the revenue officers, by speed or strategem, were not 
averse to fighting their way out. 

Of the long and bloody struggle for Mexican independence, beginning with 
the insurrection led by the patriot priest, Hidalgo, in 1810, and continuing under 
various leaders for eleven years, but little was known in California. The men 
who filled the office of territorial governor during the years of the fratricidal 
struggle Arrilliga, Argiiella and Sola, were royalists and so were the mission 
padres, nearly all of whom were Spanish born. The soldiers and the common 
people knew but little about what was going on in the world beyond and cared less. 

The one event that disturbed the placidity of life during the closing years 


of the Spanish rule was the appearance on the coast of Bouchard, the privateer, 
with two frigates heavily armed. Bouchard was a Frenchman cruising under 
letters of Marque from the insurgent government of Buenos Ayres, against the 
Spanish. He entered the harbor of Monterey, Nov. 21, 1818, probably to ob 
tain supplies, but being coldly received, he fired upon the fort. The Californians 
made a brave resistance, but were finally overpowered. Bouchard sacked and 
burned the town. He next appeared at Ortega's Rancho, where he burned the 
buildings. Here the Californians captured three prisoners, who were exchanged 
next day when Bouchard anchored off Santa Barbara for one Californian whom 
the insurgents had captured at Monterey. Bouchard next visited San Juan Cap- 
istrano, where his "pirates" drank the padres' wine, then he took his departure 
from California. Four of Bouchard's men were left and became permanent resi 
dents Joseph Chapman, an American, and Fisher, a negro, who were captured 
at Monterey ; and John Ross, a Scotchman, and Jose Pascual, a negro, who de 
serted at San Juan. Chapman was the first American resident of Southern Cali 
fornia. He married Guadalupe Ortega, a daughter of the owner of the Refugio 
Rancho which was plundered by the insurgents, and settled at the mission San 
Gabriel. He built there the first flour mill erected in California. 

The war of Mexican Independence caused hard times in California. The 
soldiers received no pay and the mission supply ships came at long intervals. 
Money was almost an unknown quantity. There were prodvcts to sell, but no 
one to sell them to except an occasional smuggler, or a tallow ship from Peru. 



IT WAS not the intention of the Spanish government that the mission 
establishments should continue permanently as missions. According to 
the law, at the end of ten years from its founding each mission was to 
be converted into a municipal organization, known as a pueblo, or town ; and 
the property of the mission, both personal and real, was to be sub-divided 
among the neophytes of the establishment. But the training which the natives 
received did not fit them for self-government. They were forced to labor and 
were instructed in many branches of industry, as well as in the religious 
ceremonials ; but they received no intellectual training and they made little 
progress toward self-control. The padres persistently urged that the neophytes 
were incompetent to use and manage property, and during the time that Cali 
fornia was subject to Spain no attempt was made to carry out the law and 
secularize the missions. 

In form, the different missions resembled one another. Col. J. J. Warner, 
thus describes the general form: "A large pile of buildings in the form of 
a quadrangle, composed partly of burnt brick, but chiefly of sun-dried ones, 
was erected around a spacious court. A large and capacious church, usually 
occupying one corner of the quadrangle, was a conspicuous part of the pile. 
In these buildings, which were covered with red tile, was the habitation of 
the friars, rooms for guests and for the major-domos and their families, hospital 
wards, storehouses and granaries." 

A guard of four or five soldiers was kept at each mission to control the 
neophytes. Each establishment held possession of large tracts of land, con 
tiguous to its buildings. These were divided into ranches, over which roamed 
large herds and flocks under the charge of Indian vaqueros. The neophytes 
for the most part were docile and easily managed, and some of the brighter 
ones were taught mechanical trades and became fairly good blacksmiths, 
weavers, tanners, shoemakers, saddlers, brick-makers, etc. They certainly 
accomplished a large amount of labor under the padres and proved themselves 
capable, with proper supervision, of supporting themselves and producing a 
large surplus for the benefit of the church. 

The history and present condition of each mission is here presented. 



" The first Apostle of California," Father Junipero Serra, was a humble 
friar of the Franciscan order when, in 1767, he was appointed presidente 
general of the missions of the Californias, in charge of the missions of Lower 
California, and with orders to establish new missions in Upper California. 
Filled with zeal for the salvation of souls, he prepared with great rejoicing and 
^^^^_^^_^_^^^^^__ with excellent good sense, as well, to enter new 

territory. For sixteen years he labored inces 
santly, travelling up and down the coast and 
visiting the City of Mexico, although he was 
afflicted with an incurable disease and so lame 
that he could not move without suffering. He 
founded nine missions before his death, at which 
five thousand natives had been baptized. 

Less than a year before he died, he made his 
last journey from San Diego to Monterey, visiting 


each of the missions, journeying on foot, sleeping 

on the ground, although he was so ill that no one believed he would live to 
complete the trip. He was most ascetic in his habits, never eating meat ; sleeping 
upon rough boards, and spending most of the night in prayer ; Palou relates that 
four days before his death an old Indian woman came to visit the holy father 
and with his own hand he gave her a blanket. After his death they found that 
it was half of his own blanket that he had given. 

Father Serra was born on the Island of Majorca in 1713: he died at San 
Carlos Mission, August 29, 1784. and was buried in the church to which he 
had given so much of his love and thought. 

To Junipero Serra and his noble band of assistants California owes the 
existence of her mission ruins ; but she also owes to these simple, hard-working 
friars, the beginnings of her industries, the nomenclature of her geography, 
the distinctiveness of her architecture and the civilization of her savages. 


The Mission San Diego cle Alcala (Saint James of Alcala), was founded 
July 16, 1769, by Father Junipero Serra, on an eminence overlooking the Bay 
of San Diego. A temporary altar was erected beneath the branches of a tree 
from which bells were swung and loudly rung. Water was blessed, the cross 
raised, high mass was sung by Father Junipero. The services were attended 
by the officers and soldiers from the ships and the land forces ; the royal standard 
was unfurled and the country was formally occupied in the name of Carlos III. 



Several huts were erected, one of which was used as a chapel. The Indians at 
no time very friendly, became hostile, and on August 15, 1769, made an attack 
upon the mission, but were repulsed, and a stockade was immediately erected 
around the camp. 

In 1771 Fathers Luis Jayme and Francisco Dumetz came from Mexico and 
were placed in charge of the mission. In 1774 the location was changed to a 
point about seven miles up the Valley of the San Diego river. A wooden 
church was constructed, 18x57 feet in size, roofed with tules, three small adobe 
buildings used for a store, a blacksmith shop and a dwelling. In 1775 new 
buildings were erected and a well dug. A ferocious attack was made upon 
the settlement by the Indians on the night of November 4th, 1775, all the 
buildings being destroyed and Father Jayme murdered. His body was found 
naked with twenty arrow wounds in the breast. Jose Manuel Arroyo, the black 
smith, and the carpenter Ursulino were also killed. All three were buried in 
the chapel at the Presidio. Fathers de la Pena and Fuster resumed the mission 

work, holding services at the 

Presidio. Anew lrf ,, , \MM1 church, strength- 

pine timbers and 
proved was com- 
A report on the 
Diego Mission 
Lasuen, in 1783, 
church, 9OXI7X 
75x161/2 feet; a 
house for sick 
for sick men ; 

A new 
ened with heavy 
otherwise im- 
pleted in 1 780. 
condition of San 
given by Father 
is as follows : "A 
17; a granary, 
store-house; a 


women ; a house 

sheds for wood and oxen ; two horses for the fathers ; a larder ; a guests' room 
and a kitchen." All were of adobe and with the soldiers' barracks these 
buildings formed three sides of a quadrangle of 165 feet. The fourth side 
consisted of an adobe wall fifteen feet high. There was a vat for use in 
tanning hides, two adobe corrals for sheep and one for cows. These were 
outside the regular mission enclosure. The cabins of the neophytes were of 
wood and grass. At this time there were seven hundred and forty neophytes, 
under missionary care. 

In 1793, a substantial granary of adobe, 96x24 feet, was built, and in 1795, 
the vineyard was surrounded with an adobe wall five hundred yards in length. 
This year saw also the commencement of an extensive system of irrigating 
ditches, remains of which can still be seen and constitute a valuable object lesson 
in ditch construction. About three miles of San Diego river was dammed back 
with a solid stone clam thirteen feet in thickness and coated with cement that 


became as solid as rock and remains so to this day. In the center of this 
dam was a gateway from which a stream of water, 12x24 inches, was carried 
through an aqueduct of tile and resting on a base of cobblestones and cement. 
This aqueduct for the major portion of the way was laid along the sides of a 
precipitous gorge and frequently crossed gulches from 15 to 20 feet wide, and 
as many feet deep. 

On May 25th, 1803, an earthquake occurred which damaged the church. 
In 1804, a new church was begun. It was completed and dedicated November 
I2th, 1813. It is the ruins of this building that we see today. The remains 
of Fathers Jayme, Figuer and Mariner were transferred from their old resting 
place and buried in one grave, though in separate coffins, between the altars of 
the church, Father Jayme resting nearest the altar of the Blessed Virgin. 

From the time of the establishment of San Diego in 1769 to 1834, the 
date of its secularization, there were 6638 persons baptized, 1879 marriages 
performed, and 4428 burials. In 1831, the mission owned 8822 head of cattle, 
1192 horses and 16,661 head of sheep. There were 1506 Indians on the roll 
of the mission January 6th, 1846, when an inventory of the mission property 
was taken. In June of the same year the mission lands were sold to Santiago 
Argiiello for past services to the United States government. His title was not, 
however, sustained and in accordance with a decision of the United States 
Land Commissioners, in 1856, based on the old Spanish law, that divided 
church property into two classes, sacred and ecclesiastical, and whereby sacred 
property could not be sold, San Diego Mission was returned to the church. 
" Sacred property" is defined as that which has been formally consecrated to 
God, such as churches, church buildings, vessels and vestments. The priests' 
houses and their gardens were thus included. According to this decision all 
church property that had been sold by Governor Pio Pico reverted to the church, 
while the ecclesiastic or mission lands were government property. 

San Diego Mission has been in part restored by the Auxiliary to the Land 
marks Club. The ruins of the old dam, the irrigating system and garden walls 
are to be seen. Many of the original trees of the olive orchard are still standing 
and productive. The old olive press is also there. Down at the old town of 
San Diego may be seen the ruins of the first Presidio buildings, relics of the 
century past. Two old mission bells hung suspended from a beam outside of 
one of the origiml buildings. 


Mission San Carlos Borremeo de Monterey was founded June 3rd, 1770, 
on the inner shore of Monterey Bay, where the city of Monterey now stands, 


the exact location being marked with the statue of Junipero Serra, erected by 
the late Mrs. Jane Lathrop Stanford. Near the bay shore stands a cross, 
indicating the landing place of Fathers Serra and Crespi and near by is the 
old oak tree upon a branch of which they hung the bell, and under which the 
christening services were held. The Indians of that locality were more 
timorous than those of the South, and progress in gaining their confidence was 
somewhat slow, but within about three years, one hundred and seventy-five 
had been gathered into the church. The situation and surroundings were not 

satisfactory, however, and a few 
months later the mission was removed 
about five miles to the mouth of El 
Carmel river, on the beautiful Bay 
of Carmel, and while the mission was 
thereafter known as San Carlos el 
Carmello, it officially retained its 
original title. 

At this new mission Fathers Serra 

and Crespi began the study of the 

SAN CARLOS BORREMEO DE MONTEREY. j^j^ ]anguage Rey p^ J uan 

Crespi was a native of Spain, being sixty-one years of age at the time of his 
decease, January ist, 1783. He was buried near the main altar. It was here 
that Serra two years later passed away after a lingering illness, and his remains 
were laid beside those of Father Crespi. 

It was not until July 7th, 1793, that the first stone of the new church was 
laid. It was built of soft, straw-colored stone, quarried near by, laid in lime 
made from sea-shells, gathered along the sea-beach, the roof being of red tiles. 
The church was dedicated in 1797, and the remains of this building, restored 
through the efforts of the Rev. Father Cassanova, pastor of Monterey, are to 
be seen today. On July 3rd, 1882, Father Cassanova opened the tombs. 
This was evidently done to reassure the world of the recorded fact that the 
sacred remains of those true disciples of Christ and pioneers of California, 
founders of the Missions, were there. At the services, the following entries 
from the parish records were read : 

" Rev. Fr. Juan Crespi; born in Spain; died Jany. ist, A. D. 1782, 61 years 
old, buried near the main altar, gospel side." "Rev. Fr. Junipero Serra, D. D., 
President of all the Missions; born in Majorca, Spain; died on the 28th of 
August, A. D. 1784, at the age of 71 years, buried in the Sanctuary, fronting 
the altar of Our Lady of Seven Dolores, on the gospel side." " Rev. Fr. Julian 
Lopez, born in Spain ; died here on the 1 5th of July, A. D. 1 797, aged 35 years ; 
buried in the Sanctuary, on the gospel side, in the tomb near the wall on the 



left." "Rev. Fr. Francisco Lasuen, Vic. for Second President of the Missions, 
born in Spain, died here, and is buried in the Sanctuary, on the gospel side, in 
a stone tomb, near the main altar, June 28th, 1803." 

The heavy stone slabs having been removed before the ceremony began, 
the coffin in each tomb was left visible. The lids of each was then raised 
and the people then viewed the remains of which only the clothing and the 
skeletons were seen. The tombs were then covered as before with the stone 
slabs. The coffins were of unplaned redwood boards, and all but that of Father 
Lasuen in a good state of preservation. 

When the restoration of the old mission church was commenced in 1882, 
the tile roof had fallen in, the walls were crumbled, and grass had grown upon 
the tiled floor. The resting place of the founder of the California missions 
was completely obliterated. 

Through the untiring efforts of Father Cassanova, and his band of 
sympathizers, the tomb of Serra and his beloved co-worker, Father Crespi, are 
in fairly good repair. Services are held here once a month by the resident 
priest of Monterey, and upon each occasion the old mission bell is rung. 


The Mission San Antonio de Padua (Saint Anthony of Padua), now a 
mass of ruins, was founded by Father Junipero Serra, July- 14, 1771, under 
most auspicious circumstances. The ringing of bells attracted an Indian, and 
instead of hiding in fear, he remained to witness the ceremony of dedication, 
and later brought his companions in large numbers to meet the missionaries. 

This mission is located in a beauti 
fully oak-studded glen, in the Santa 
Lucia Mountains, and near the Sa 
linas River, in Monterey County. 
Father Serra named the valley Los 
Robles. The present ruins are those 
of the second church, which was 
built in the year 1809 or 1810, and 
was extended by adobe structures 
several times. The Indians assisted 
Fathers Buenaventura, Sitjar and 
Miguel Pieras in erecting the first temporary structure, which was unusual. 

San Antonio became famous for its piety, prosperity and its splendid 
horses. In 1805 it had a population of 1261 neophytes. An inventory of 
property made in 1835, when the mission was secularized, showed the valuation 
of buildings and vineyards to be $90,000.00, but in 1845 '* was invoiced at only 



$8,000.00, and the membership had declined to ten men and five women. Mrs. 
Forbes writes in 1904 that, "At present the roof of the mission building has 
fallen in and the last room is ready to collapse. The relics have all beer, 
stolen or removed to other places, with the exception of one iron kettle used 
by the Fathers in cooking soup for the Indians. Only one family of the 
original Indians of the Valley remain, and they live many miles from the 
mission. The tree upon which Father Serra hung the bell when the first chapel 
was founded still stands beside the road, leading up to the mission. Near by 
the mission flows Mission creek, a branch of the San Antonio river. In mission 
days the Padres constructed a dam across the river, and its water was diverted 
to irrigate the mission lands.- At one time San Antonio rivalled San Juan 
Capistrano, San Luis Rev and Santa Barbara in prosperity and importance. 
The buildings were extensive. Long cloisters, arches and broken walls and 
tiled roofs now remain to tell the story of architectural grandeur." 


The Mission San Gabriel Archangel was founded September 8th, 1771, 
by Fathers Angel Somera and Pedro Benito Cambon. The first mission site 
was located about five miles south of the present mission on the bank of the 
San Gabriel (then San Miguel) river. The first chapel was of logs cut to 
length, the desired height of the building, then split in two and set upright 
in a trench or ditch. The roof was made of tules and adobe mud. The 
dwellings of the priests and attendants were enclosed with a stockade of similar 
construction which, however, was soon replaced with an adobe wall. Xot a 
vestige of this first mission of San Gabriel remains, and it is even quite 
uncertain as to its exact location. 

By reason of danger from floods, from the river's overflow, low-land frosts 
and poor drainage, the mission was moved to its present site, then as now, a 
most charming location, in the midst of a belt of live oak, on warm and 
responsive soil. The date of removal to the new site is unknown, but it must 
have been about 1775, since Junipero Serra in his second annual report of 
1774 indicates his intention to move San Gabriel Mission a short distance and 
states that for that reason no permanent improvements had been made on 
the old site. 

The stone church which is now the admiration of visitors was half finished 
in 1794, and had not been completed in 1800. It was first built with an arched 
roof, in which cracks soon appeared. When these were repaired an earthquake 
reopened them. The arched roof was then removed and a new roof of timbers 
and tiles substituted in 1804. The valley was fertile and Indians were 
numerous but were seemingly slow to embrace the religion of the Friars, since 



only seventy-three baptisms were recorded the first two years. Up to the year 
1800, there were, however, 1078 neophytes attached to the mission. There 
had been 1953 baptisms, 869 burials and 396 marriages performed. Once 
established on the new mission site affairs seemed to take on new life and 
enterprise and set the pace for those missions already established and those to be. 

In 1806 Jose Marie Zalvidea, a man of great energy and executive ability, 
\vas transferred from San Fernando to San Gabriel. According to Hugo Reid: 

" He it was, who planted the large vineyards, intersected with fine walks, 
shaded fruit trees of every description, and rendered still more lovely by shrubs 
interspersed between ; who laid out the orange garden, fruit and olive orchards ; 
built the mill and dam; made fences of tunas (cactus) round the fields; made 
hedges of rose bushes ; planted trees in the mission square, with a flower garden 
and hour-dial in the center ; brought water from long distances, etc. He also 
remodeled the existent system of government. Every article must henceforth 
be in place, and every man at his station. Everything under him was 

organized and = that organization 

kept up with a lash ! The people 

were now di- vided into class- 

culturists, brick and tile makers, 

musicians, sing- ^ ' ers. tallow melt- 

ers, vignerons, SAX GABRIEI, AROANGEU carters, cart- 

makers, shepherds, poultry-keepers, pigeon-tenders, weavers, spinners, saddle- 
makers, store and key-keepers, deer hunters, deer and sheep-skin dressers, 
masons, plasterers, people of all work everything but coopers, these were 
foreign ; all the rest were native Indians. 

" Large soap works were erected, tanning yards established, tallow works, 
bakery, cooper, blacksmith, carpenter and other shops. Large spinning rooms, 
where might be seen fifty or sixty women turning their spindles merrily, and 
looms for weaving wool, flax and cotton. Then large store rooms were allotted to 
the various articles, which were kept separate. For instance, wheat, barley, peas, 
beans, lentels, chick, peas, butter and cheese, soap, candles, wool, leather, flour, 
lime, salt, horse-hair, wine and spirits, fruit stores, etc., etc. Sugar-cane, flax and 
hemp jvere added to the other articles cultivated, but cotton wool was imported. 

" At an early period in the history of San Gabriel, a water-power mill, for 
grinding wheat, was constructed and put in operation in front of and near the 


mission building. At a later period, a new grist mill was built by the mission, 
and placed about two miles west of the mission proper. This was also operated 
by water-power. The building in which was placed the mill is still standing 
and is known as El Molino, the Spanish words for " The Mill." It is now 
the property of H. E. Huntington. A water-power saw-mill was also built by 
this mission, and was located near the last-mentioned grist-mill. These were 
the only mills made or used in California, either for grinding or sawing, in 
which water was the motive power, or in which a wheel was used, for more 
than half a century after the founding of the first mission. In these two grist 
mills the revolving mill stone was upon the upper end of the vertical shaft, and 
the water-wheel upon the lower end, so that the revolution of the stone was no 
more frequent than that of the water-wheel. They did no grading or separating 
of the flour in these mills. This process, if done at all, was done with hand sieves." 

" The principal ranches belonging at that time to San Gabriel were San 
Pasqual, Santa Anita, Azusa, San Francisquito, Cucamonga, San Antonio, San 
Gorgonio, Yucaipa, Jurupa, Guapa, Rincon, Chino, San Jose, Ybarras, Puente, 
Mission Vieja, Serranos, Rosa Castillo, Coyotes, Jaboneria, Las Bolsas, Alamitos 
and Serritos. 

" The principal head (Major-domo) commanded and superintended over 
all. Claudio Lopez was the famed one during Padre Zalvidea's administration, 
and although only executing the priest's plans, in the minds of the people he 
is the real hero Ask any one who made this, or who did that, and the answer on 
all sides is the same: 'El difunto Claudio!' Great credit is due him for carrying 
out without flogging the numerous works intrusted to him. There were a great 
many other major-domos under him for all kinds of work, from tending of horses 
down to those of superintending crops, and in charge of vineyards and gardens. 

" Indian alcaldes were appointed annually by the padre, and chosen from 
among the very laziest in the community, he being of the opinion that they took 
more pleasure in making the others work than would industrious ones, and from 
my own observation this is correct. They carried a wand to denote their 
authority, and an immense scourge of rawhide about ten feet in length, plaited 
to the size of an ordinary man's wrist. They did a great deal of chastisement. 

" The unmarried women and girls were kept as nuns, under the supervision 
of an abbess, who slept with them in a large room. Their occupations : some 
times they served, at others they cleaned weeds from out of the gardens with 
hoes, worked at the ditches or gathered in the crops. The best looking youths 
were kept as pages to attend at the tables and those of most musical talent were 
reserved for church service. 

"The number of hogs was great. They were principally used for making 
soap. (The Indians, with a few exceptions, refused to eat pork.) Near the 


mission at San Francisquito (San Fernando Mission) were kept the turkeys of 
which they had large numbers. The dove-cote was alongside of the soap works, 
in an upper story, affording plenty of dung to cure leather and skins with. 

" The padre had an idea that finery led Indians to run away, for which 
reason he never gave either men or women any other clothing (including skirts 
and petticoats) than coarse frieze (xerga) made by themselves, which kept 
the poor wretches all the time diseased with the itch. If any handkerchiefs or 
cotton goods were discovered among them the same were immediately committed 
to the flames. He was an inveterate enemy to drunkenness, and did all in his 
power to prevent it, but to no purpose. He never flogged, however, while the 
influence of liquor lasted, but put them into stocks, under the care of a guard 
until sober. Finding the lash, alone, was of no avail, he added warm water 
and salt to the dose, which was given as a drink until it ran out of the mouth 
again. It was no use. The disease was as incurable as consumption. 

'' Having found out the game practiced in regard to destroying the children 
borne by Indian women to white men, he put down all miscarriages to the same 
cause. Therefore, when a woman had the misfortune to bring forth a still-born 
child, she was punished. The penalty inflicted was shaving the head, flogging 
for fifteen subsequent days, iron on the feet for three months, and having to 
appear every Sunday in church on the steps leading up to the altar, with a 
hideous painted wooden child in her arms. He had no predilections for wizards, 
and generally (as some one or other was always reporting evil of them) kept 
them chained together in couples and well flogged. There were, at that period, 
no small number of old men rejoicing in the fame of witchcraft, so he made 
sawyers of them all, keeping them like hounds in couples and so they worked, 
two above and two below in the sawpit. On a breach occurring between man 
and wife, they were fastened together by the leg until they agreed to live in 
harmony. He was not only severe, but he was in his chastisements most cruel. 
So as not to make a revolting picture, I shall bury acts of barbarity, known to 
me through good authority, by merely saying that he must assuredly have 
considered whipping as meat and drink to them, for they had it morning, noon 
and night. Although so severe to the Indians, he was kind, in the extreme, 
to travelers and others. There being so much beef, mutton, pork and poultry, 
with fruits, vegetables and wine, a splendid public table was spread daily, at 
which he presided." 

J. J. Warner, in 1889, furnished the writer the following, as setting forth 
the usual dinner served daily at San Gabriel Mission during the years of its 
prosperity: First course: Caldo (plain broth in which meat and vegetables had 
been boiled). Second course: La Olla (meat boiled with vegetables and served 
separately). Third course: El Bondigas (forced meat balls in gravy). Fourth 
course: Guisados (stews, generally two). Fifth course: Azado (roasts beef. 


mutton, game, fowls). Sixth course: Fruit and sweetmeat. Seventh course: 
Tea, coffee, cigarritos. Pork was also eaten sparingly at every meal. Wine 
was served ad libitum. On Friday, fish followed the caldo, and the meats were 
dispensed with. Horses to ride were ever at their service, and a good bed to 
sleep on at night. Whenever ready to start, either up or down the coast, horses 
and a servant were ever at their command to go as far as the next mission." 

Having brought the establishment and everything connected with it to the 
climax of perfection, Zalviclea had still calculated on doing more. He purchased 
large quantities of iron, with the intention of railing in all vineyards and 
gardens. But, alas! even Catholic societies are not proof against the "capital 
sins " they so strongly condemn. Envy and jealousy stepped in and prevailed. 
He was ordered by his superior to the mission of San Juan Capistrano. The 
loss of his favorite hobby capsized his reason, and after lingering for many 
years in a disturbed religious state of mind he at length expired, regretted by 
all who knew his worth and gigantic intellect. 

During his pastorate, Zalvidea also mastered the Indian language, and 
reduced it to grammatical rules, being the first padre in this section having 
either the ability or energy necessary for such a task. He translated the church 
service, and preached each Sabbath in the native tongue. His translation of 
the Lord's Prayer, commencing " Ayoinac," "Our Father," is said by Mr. Reid 
to be a "a grand specimen of his eloquence and ability." He thus gave the 
natives an insight into the Catholic faith, but did not alter their own one iota. 
Those who came after him were too indolent to keep up the reforms he had 
inaugurated. For a time sermons were translated sentence by sentence, to the 
congregation ; but this was soon discontinued, probably to the great relief of 
the unfortunate listeners. 

Zalvidea was succeeded by Padre Jose Bernardo Sanchez, his former 
colleague and assistant, who is described as having been " of a cheeerful disposi 
tion, and a frank and generous nature." He was also a great sportsman and 
capital shot. " In ecclesiastical affairs, solemn ; in trade, formal ; in government 
of the mission, active, lively, and strict ; in social intercourse, friendly, full of 
anecdote, and fond of jokes ; even to those of a practical nature." 

"The regulations enforced by his predecessor were still observed under 
Sanchez, but while the lash was still ready, other modes of punishment were 
adopted for minor offenses. Nor was such leniency barren of good results, for 
many Indians who had formerly proven insubordinate from mere vindictiveness 
of spirit, now refrained because of the love and good will which all bore toward 
their spiritual and temporal ruler. 

" Supplies for the mission were purchased in large quantities, frequently 
amounting to $30,000 at one time. These purchases consisted of domestics 


(brown, bleached and printed), flannels, cloths, ribbons, silks, hosiery, sugar, 
panoche, rice, etc., etc. These articles were distributed in two stores, from 
whence they were dealt out to the natives, or sold to the public. The people 
were now better dressed than formerly. The coarse frieze (xerga) of the 
women was used only as sweat-cloths for horses ; and all the native ladies 
appeared at church in full-blown glory of fancy petticoats, clean white chemises, 
variegated kerchiefs on their head, and rebosos around their shoulders. The 
men had pants, jackets, hats, and fancy silk sashes. Even the children plumed 
themselves in gay colors, and sported shirts and kerchiefs. 

Married people were provided with sheets for their beds, and even curtains. 
The major-domo visited each house weekly to see that all was kept clean, and 
the priest made a similar round in person once a month. Rations, with wine and 
spirits (and occasionally a few dollars in money) were distributed once a week; 
but in addition to this, daily food was provided ready cooked, for the laborers. 
We quote further from Mr. Reid's letters : 

" The mission bell, on being rung, aroused the alcaldes from their slumbers, 
and these with loud voices soon set all the world agog. Mass was now heard, 
and again the bell rang to work. At eleven its notes proclaimed dinner, when 
in all flocked, basket in hand, to receive posale and a piece of beef. (Posale 
consisted of beans boiled with corn or wheat.) At twelve o'clock they were 
again warned to their labors, which concluded a little before sundown, to afford 
them time to receive supper, which consisted of ' atolc ' or mush. If a gang 
were at a distance, a copper kettle and attendant accompanied them and provided 
food on the spot. 

" After twelve o'clock on Saturdays soap was distributed, and all the world 
went a washing of clothes and persons, to make a decent appearance at church 
on Sunday. Saturday night was devoted to playing peon, and, with few excep 
tions, none slept ; for whites and Indians, men, women and children, were all 
generally present. 

" After service on Sunday, foot-ball and races took place, and in the after 
noon a game called ' Shindy ' by the Scotch, and ' Bandy ' by the English, was 
played, with men and \vomen on opposite sides. People flocked in from all 
parts to see the sport and heavy bets were made. The priest took great interest 
in the game and, as the women seldom had less than half a dozen quarrels among 
them, in which hair flew by the handfuls, he was the more pleased. The game 
being concluded, all went to prayers and so ended the Sabbath." 

The general statistics of the Mission of San Gabriel for the whole period 
of its existence of sixty-three years (from 1771 to 1834) are thus given by 
Bancroft : Total number of baptisms. 7,854, of which 4,355 were Indian adults, 
2,459 Indian children, and i adult and 1,039 children of " gente cle razon," 


which may mean the Spaniards and their mixed-blooded descendants. Total 
marriages, 1,955; f which 241 were " gente de razon." Total deaths, 5,656; 
of which 2,896 were Indian adults, 2,363 Indian children, 211 adults and 186 
children " de razon." Annual average, 88 ; annual average death rate, 7.61 per 
cent, of population. Largest population, 1,701, in 1817. There was a slight 
excess of males down to 1803, and a greater excess later. The proportion of 
children varied from one-eighth per cent, at first to one-tenth per cent, at the 
last. Largest number of cattle, 26,300, in 1828; horses, 2,400, in 1827; mules, 
205, in 1814; asses, 6 in 1794; sheep, 15,000, in 1829; goats, 1,380 in 1/85; 
swine, 300, in 1802, 1803 and 1822; all kinds, 40,360 animals, in 1830. Total 
product of wheat, 225,942 bushels; yield, 16 fold. Barley (for only eleven 
years), 1,250 bushels; yield, 10 fold. Maize, 154,820 bushels; yield, 145 fold. 
Beans, 14,467 bushels ; yield, 28 fold. In the year 1834, at the time of seculariza 
tion, there were 163,579 vines in four vineyards, and 2,333 fruit trees. 

All statistics stop with the attempted secularization of the mission in 1834. 

In 1832, Governor Echandia sent an envoy to San Gabriel Mission, demand 
ing a loan, which was refused. The store house was broken open and the money 
in gold coin forcibly taken and never returned. Secularization soon followed, 
and the mission, with upwards of 42,000 head of live stock and gold in sacks 
passed into the control of the Mexican government, and like all the other 
missions suffered temporal and spiritual destruction. 

In June, 1846, the mission estate was sold by Governor Pico to Reid and 
Workman. The title was not, however, confirmed, and the property returned 
to the church. In 1847 Father Bias Ordaz took charge of the mission and 
ministered to the few Indians then remaining, until his death, 1850. It is since 
secularization, a parish church only, and is now presided over by a parish priest, 
who holds regular services. 


On the first of September, 1772, Fathers Junipero Serra and Cavalier 
founded San Luis Obispo, the fifth mission in California, in honor of St. Louis, 
Bishop of Toulouse. The history of this mission is a remarkable evidence of 
the energy and religious zeal of these men of God. Father Serra departed the 
second day, leaving Father Cavalier, two Lower California Indians, and five 
soldiers, to commence the work of establishing a mission. Their supplies con 
sisted of fifty pounds of flour, three pecks of wheat and a barrel of brown 
sugar the sugar to be used in bartering with the native Indians for further 
supplies. The Indians proved friendly, supplied the missionary with venison, 
seeds and wild berries, and in many ways helped the Padres. A little chapel 
and dwelling were soon erected. But Father Cavalier remained alone at his post 



for one year. Then four immigrant families and a few unmarried Christians 
came to San Luis Obispo to make it their home. In November, 1776, the 
buildings, except the chapel and granary, were destroyed by fire, the Indians 
having thrown burning arrows upon the tule roofs. Twice again in ten years the 
buildings were on fire from the same cause. For this reason tiles were adopted 
for roofing, at all the missions, instead of the dangerous but economical tules. 

The adobe church was finished in 
1793 ; other spacious buildings such as 
barracks, a missionary's house, work 
house, guardhouse, granary, etc., were 
added the following year. Huts for 
the natives were comfortable and well 
built. A trained blacksmith, a carpen 
ter and a millwright were sent to San 
Luis Obispo to instruct the Indians. 
Father Luis Martinez labored long 
and earnestly for the welfare of this 
mission. He learned the Indian language and gave assistance, both to the troops 
and to other missions. Squirrels and locusts were extremely troublesome, and 
one crop was entirely eaten up by mice. In the inventory taken 1836, an item 
is made of the library and musical instruments, $519, and the total valuation 
was given at $70,779. On September loth, 1842, Governor Alvarado ordered 
the lands divided among the neophytes ; and two years later the mission was 
formed into a pueblo. It was sold the following year (1845) to Scott, Wilson & 
MrKierey for $510. However, Governor Mason ordered the property returned 
to the Catholic church. 

The mission church is located near the business center of San Luis Obispo, 
county of the same name, and it is in a good state of repair, being used, as it 
is, as the parish church. 



Mission San Francisco de Asis, better known as Mission Dolores, is the 
sixth mission founded in Alta California, and was formally dedicated October 
9th, 1776, by Fathers Palou, Cambon, Nocedal and Pena. Officers and soldiers 
of the Presidio were present. High mass was sung by Father Palou, the image 
St. Francis was exhibited, bells were rung, volleys of musketry rent the air, 
cannons and rockets from the good ship San Carlos, lying in the bay, were fired. 
The building was a comfortable house of wood, roofed with tules and plastered 
with clay. It measure'd about 54x30x15 feet. The first chapel blessed was at 
the presidio, on the I7th of September, on the Feast of Stigmata of St. Francis, 




the patron saint of the port and missions, while the mission was named for the 
patron saint of the Franciscan order. 

The name Dolores (sorrow) in this instance signifies the name of a stream 
or lagoon, a place known as " the willows " by those who came in 1849. This 
swamp was later filled in and graded, forming the tract that lies between 
Seventeenth, Nineteenth, Valencia and Howard streets. The corner-stone for 

the present church was laid 1782, 
and by 1795 adobe buildings with 
tile roofs, forming two sides of a 
square were completed ; also a ditch 
protecting the potrero or cattle farm 
and fields, had been dug. 

Weaving looms were constructed 
by the Indians and a substantial 
though coarse kind of blanketing, 
was woven as clothing for the 
neophytes. Vancouver describes it 
as " cloth not to be despised, had it received the advantage of fulling." 
The products made and produced at Dolores Mission were soap, salt, wool, 
hides, wine, tallow and butter. The garden was not notable for its 
produce, the reason given being high winds and weather unfavorable to horti 
culture. The climate proved detrimental to the Indians, and after a fierce 
epidemic of measles, a new mission known as the " hospital mission " was 
founded at San Rafael, across the bay, and 590 of the Indians were transferred 
to this place for a change of climate. Later 322 neophytes were sent to Solano, 
and it was thought best at one time to discontinue the mission at San Francisco 
altogether; but the idea met stout opposition from Father President Sarria. 
Consequently a new mission, known as New San Francisco or Solano, was 
founded, and the old San Francisco, known as Dolores, was not abandoned. 
Dolores was not a prosperous mission, and rapidly declined after secularisation. 
The Fathers baptized 6883 persons and buried 2089. The little church-yard at 
the side of the mission is small and sad. Few monuments mark the resting places 
of any of the 2000 and over, who lie sleeping in that small space. A tall shaft 
marks the grave of the first Mexican governor, Don Luis Antonio Arguello. 


The founding of the Mission San Juan Capistrano was accomplished under 
many discouragements. The first attempt was made by Fathers Lasuen and 
Amurrio on the igth or the 3Oth of October, 1775. Dates given by Palou and 
Ortega differ. The first service was held in a hut of branches. A large cross 




was erected and blessed, but nothing further was done at that time. The 
bells of Capistrano were taken down from the tree and buried. 

( hi November 1st, 17/6, a second attempt was made by Father Serra. A 
new altar was erected, mass was celebrated, and the seventh mission of California 
was founded, upon the site known by the Indians as Sajirit. Capistrano became 
prosperous, but did not excel either in number of converts or in wealth. In 

February, 1797, work was begun on 
the stone chapel, the ruins of which 
are standing today. It proved to be 
one of the grandest church buildings 
in California. It measured 159x30 
feet, was surmounted by a lofty 
tower, and all was of stone and 
mortar. The stones were not hewn, 
but were fitted together in the rough. 
The church was built with nave 
and transept with thick walls, and 
an arched, dome-like roof. Here and there remain evidence of decoration. 
Ten years ago there still were wooden figures to be seen in many small niches 
and the carving showing ability and taste. It is to be regretted that these relics 
were carried away and not placed in the room used as the chapel. The stone 
church of San Juan Capistrano was dedicated September 7th. 1806. The cere 
mony lasted three days, and visiting Padnes and Indians came long distances, even 
as far as from Santa Barbara, to witness the ceremony. But the magnificent 
building W as doomed to short service, for on the morning of December 8th, 
1812. a terrible earthquake shook it to its very foundation, causing the lofty 
tower to crash down upon the vaulted roof, precipitating the mass of stone and 
mortar down upon the worshipping congregation for it was on Sunday morning. 
About fifty persons were present, and only ten escaped. Excavation for the 
recovery of the crushed and mangled bodies began at once, but nothing has ever 
been done toward restoring the building to its former grandeur. Capistrano was 
secularized in 1833, ar| d even after the loss of the mission church the inventory 
placed the valuation of the mission at about $55,000; with debts of only $1410. 
In December, 1845, tne mission buildings were sold to McKinley and Forster 
for $710.00. Juan Forster was in possession for twenty years, but after 
extended litigation, the Catholic church regained possession of the property. 


The Mission of Santa Clara was founded January 12th, 1777. by Father 
Tomas de la Pena, O. S. F. The site was the present Laurel Wood Farm of 




Peter J. Donahue. The floods of 1778-9, however, obliged the Fathers to look 
for higher and safer grounds. They selected the " Valley of the Oaks," a 
location some 150 yards to the southwest of the present Union depot of the 
town of Santa Clara. At the ceremony of the removal of the Santa Clara 
Mission to the second location, Father Serra was himself present, and officiated. 
The structures there were begun November I9th, 1781, and the second 

church and buildings were blessed 
and dedicated on May I5th, 1784. The 
earthquake of 1812 cracked the walls 
of the church and the more severe 
" temblores " of 1818 completed the 
destruction. A third church was 
erected upon the present site of the 
mission church, and was dedicated on 
August nth, 1822, the eve of Santa 
Clara. This third church was the 
work of Father Jose Viader, assisted 
by Don Ignacio Alviso, as foreman. The original adobe walls of this church 
were replaced in 1885 by wooden ones. The single belfry, and the facade was 
replaced in 1862 by the present towers, and the present facades. But the 
interior, the ornamentations and furnishings are almost intact. These latter 
include the life-size crucifix, the original holy-water fonts, the pulpits of those 
early days, the copy of the miraculous and historic painting of " Nuestra Senora 
de Guadalupe," the identical reredos or background of the main altar, the 
tabernacle and candelabra-shelves, the wings of the latter itself ; the accompany 
ing statues in wood of Saints Joachin and Ann, parents of Our Lady ; and like 
statues of Saints Juan Capistran and Colette. The reredos contain other statues 
and medallions. The church has the identical frescoed ceiling of the chancel. 
The paintings of the walls and ceilings of the interior are reproductions : also 
the statue in wood of St. Francis of Asisi, with sacred stigmata on the hands 
and feet; also that of St. Anthony of Padua, with the Infant Jesus in his arms. 
In the right hand belfry are the three old bells donated to the Santa Clara 
Mission by the King of Spain. Two bear the original dates, 1798 and 1799, 
and the third, which was recast in 1864, bears the double dates 1805-64. In 
the college library may be seen the historic paintings of " Alameda," the 
" Beautiful Way," " Santa Clara Mission in 1851 " and the grand old choral 
of those early days, with cover in bronze and wood. 

At the time of Vancouver's visit to Santa Clara, many of the Indians were 
engaged in building adobe houses for themselves. In 1794, twenty-three of 
these dwellings with thatched roofs were completed, and in 1798, nearly all of 



the married neophytes were thus accommodated. Today not a mission Indian 
is to be found in or about Santa Clara. Here as at all other missions, seculari 
zation with one blow ruined fifty years of faithful and patient work of the Padres. 


The Mission of San Buenaventura Doctor Sarafico (Saint Bonaventura, 
Serafic Doctor) was founded Easter Sunday, March 3Oth, 1783, by Father 
Serra. It was the last mission that Father Serra founded, and he had intended 
it to be one of the first. The delay was a trial to the good man, but he com 
forted himself with the saying, " the more slowly the more solemnly." The 
place chosen was the head of the Santa Barbara channel and the home of a large 
tribe of Indians. The Indians were friendly and even assisted in building a 
chapel, a house for Father Cambon, who was left in charge, and barracks for the 
soldiers. The group of buildings was, for greater safety, surrounded by 
a palisade. Within ten years San Buenaventura had become one of the 

most flourishing settlements in 

California. Van- couver, who vis 

ited the mission in 1793, speaks 

of the wonderful _**^_ 1 gardens, the 

plums, figs, or- anges, grapes, 
pomegranates, cocoanut, sugar 
cane, bananas, plantain and even 
indigo ; besides all of the ordinary 


kitchen vege- tables, roots and 

herbs. A disastrous fire compelled the missionaries to erect all new buildings. 
The new church was built of stone and brick, and it is the one standing today. 
But the tile roof is gone. The earthquake of 1812 damaged the church and 
many buildings. The tower and much of the facade were rebuilt. The whole 
site of Buenaventura settled, and the fear of all sinking into the sea frightened 
the inhabitants away. They fled to San Joaquin y Santa Ana, where they 
remained for a year. Here the Priests erected a cajal, or Indian hut, to be 
used as a chapel. Upon their return to Ventura, the neophytes, under the 
direction of the Fathers, restored the buildings to a better condition than they 
were originally. In 1820 the government of Mexico owed to San Buenaventura 
^S- 1 ? - There is no record that it was ever paid. They had purchased sup 
plies from the mission, a cargo of hemp, and were in arrears in stipends to the 
Fathers for $6,200. In 1822 the Indians had individual gardens along the banks 
of the river, where they raised vegetables for sale. They labored and might 



have become self-supporting, for the mission establishments sold great quantities 
of produce and supplies to the home government as well as supplying their own 
demands at the missions. 

Secularization came in 1837. The mission estate was first rented for 
$1,630.00 per annum, and then sold to Jose Arnaz for $12,000, in June, 1846. 
His title was not recognized by the United States government. The records of 
San Buenaventura are interesting old documents. They show 3,857 baptisms, 
1,086 marriages, 3,098 deaths. In 1831 there were 7,240 head of live stock. 
Today the old mission is the parish church of Ventura. 


Santa Barbara, (Virgin and Martyr) was founded December 4th, 1/86, by 
Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, who had been made President of the Missions 
the previous year to succeed the lamented Junipero Serra. The site selected was 
called Tavnayam by the natives, and El Pedragoso by the Spaniards. It was about 
one mile distant from the preside, which had been established in 1782 by Father 
Serra. The location of Santa Barbara is the most beautiful of all the missions. 
Back from the water's edge nearly two miles, it is situated in the foothills of the 
Santa Ynez mountains. It was from the hills of San Marcos that the great oak- 
beams were carried by oxen (or more likely by faithful Indian neophytes) and 
used in the construction of the mission buildings. Chief Yanonalit, ruler of the 
thirteen neighboring rancherias, proved friendly and contributed Indians to 
assist in work, their labor to be paid for in articles of clothing and food. This 
was especially .the arrangement for work on the presidio. The first chapel con 
structed was of boughs. 

In the following year, 1787. a church building 15x42 feet, was made of 
adobe and thatched with straw. Six other buildings of the same kind were 
erected, and in 1788 tiles were manu- ,^^_^____^^_^^__^_____ 

factured and all the buildings were 

covered with them. In 1789 the 

chapel had become too small, and 

another was built. Again in 1793 a 

larger one was constructed, a fact 

which is evidence of prosperity. As 

the Indian population was gradually 

increasing, it became necessary to 

form a village and build a separate 

house for each family ; in consequence, 

nineteen houses were built of adobe in 1798. Also a piece of land was 

enclosed by an adobe wall nine feet high, and 3600 feet in extent ; to be used 



as a garden, orchard and vineyard. The wall was capped with tiles to protect 
it from the rain. In 1800 the village was laid out in streets and cross- 
streets, and there were over fifty houses. The neophytes were taught to weave 
blankets, to make soap, clothing, implements and many other necessary articles. 
By 1807 the town of Santa Barbara had 252 dwellings besides the store 
houses, and other necessary buildings, all enclosed on three sides by a 
high wall. 

In this year Santa Barbara dedicated a mission church at the station of 
Sagshpileel, a large rancheria near a laguna. This was known as San Miguel. 
Again in 1804 Santa Inez was formed because of the great number of susceptible 
Indians in this district. The number thus withdrawn from Santa Barbara 
Mission was over one hundred. 

The earthquake of 1812 badly damaged the mission building at Santa 
Barbara, so much so that the chapel building was torn down and replaced 
by a new stone edifice the present structure. This new edifice was 
dedicated on September loth, 1820. The walls of the church, which is still 
used by the Fathers, are six feet in thickness and were made of hewn stone, 
strengthened by solid stone buttresses. The building is the most substantial of 
any of the missions in California. In June, 1846, the mission was sold to 
Richard S. Den for $7500, but the title was invalid. In 1852, a petition to 
establish a Franciscan convent or college, with a novitiate for the education 
of young men, was sent to Rome and was granted by the authorities. Santa 
Barbara Mission was selected for the purpose. Bishop Thaddeus Amat removed 
from the mission to the parish church, thus leaving the Fathers in possession. 
By this arrangement they will have perpetual use of the buildings, gardens, 
vineyard and two orchards. The inner garden of the Mission is the private 
park or retreat for the priests, and is closed to the public. With two notable 
exceptions, woman has never entered this garden. They were Mrs. Benjamin 
Harrison, wife of the then President of the United States, and Princess Louise 
Marchioness of Lome. The East garden, comprizing about one acre of land, 
is a part of the old burying ground and contains over four hundred bodies, one 
buried upon another. It is a beautiful spot, covered with roses, geraniums, rare 
plants and trees. 

The most valued treasure of Santa Barbara is a portion of the true 
cross brought from the Holy Land. The Mission archives are of inestimable 
value to California history. The library contains massive books of parch 
ment, illuminated, and rare old manuscripts, descriptive of life and scenes 
of early days in this country. When the missions secularized, books, manu 
scripts and most valuable records were sent to Santa Barbara Mission for safe 
keeping and many still remain there. Huge chests are filled with gorgeous 
robes and vestments, many of them made of richest brocades. 



December 8th, 1/87, Father Lasuen founded the Mission of La Purisima 
Concepcion in honor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 
It is situated on the Santa Ynez river. The first church building was replaced 
_ __ ^__^_ by a new one of adobe with tile 

roof in 1795. Father Payeras, with 
the aid of interpreters, completed in 
MBjM^^^^^^^ 1810, a catechism and manual of 

-^ .safc..- . confession in the Indian language. 

Bl This was of greatest advantage to 
the neophytes in the study of religion. 
However, there remained at this time 
-- no more Indians nearer than twenty- 

LA PURISIMA co.N-cEPciox. fi ve or fa^y leagues away, to 

be converted. In 1815 Father Payeras became president of the California 
missions, but he continued to reside at Purisima, instead of repairing to San 
Carlos del Carmelo. 

Early on the morning of December I2th, 1812, a violent earthquake shook 
the church walls out of plumb, a second shock about n o'clock destroyed the 
chapel completely, and nearly all of the mission buildings, besides about 100 
of the neophyte houses. Rents in the earth from which black sand and water 
oozed, added to the peril. Huts of wood and grass were erected for tem 
porary use. Later the mission was moved to a position farther up the river, 
The first church building erected here was destroyed by fire and another 
one erected and dedicated October 4th, 1825, the remains of which are to be 
seen today. It is a long, low structure, and had twenty-one rooms. There 
were twelve smaller buildings about it. The church ornaments were valued 
in 1834 at nearly $5000; the library at $655; there were five bells, worth 
$1000. In fact, the mission property, live-stock and ranches were valued at 
over $60,000. In 1845 it was s ld by the Governor to John Temple for 
$1,110; and La Purisima was abandoned by its rightful owners, the Indians, 
and the Padres. 

The location is about three miles from the town of Lompoc, in Santa 
Barbara county. 


Santa Cruz, the Mission of the Holy Cross, was formally established by Don 
Hermenegildo Sal, on Sunday, September 25, 1791. The site had been selected 
and blessed by Father Lasuen, August 28, on the day of San Augustin. Near 



by was a fine stream in the Arroyo cie Pedro Regalado, which is now known as 
Rio San Lorenzo. Huts were built by the Indians, land was prepared, and wheat 
sown. The founding of the mission was most favorable, as many of the Indians 
came and offered to help with the work, while their chief, Sugert, presented him 
self, with a few of his' followers, and promised to become the first Christian of his 
tribe, and Sal agreed to be godfather. In the history of the founding of the mis 
sion, it is an interesting fact that frequently everything wherewith to establish a 
new mission was contributed as a loan by the other missions. In this instance 
Santa Clara contributed 64 head of cattle, 22 horses, 77 fanegas of grain, and 26 
loaves of bread. San Francisco gave five yoke of oxen, 70 sheep and two bushels 
of barley. San Carlos gave eight horses and seven mules. The vestments and 
sacred vessels were loaned by other missions, also tools and implements, until 
those intended for Santa Cruz should arrive from Mexico. The mission was 
beautifully situated, near the waters of the I!ay of Monterey, and as a background 
there was a dense forest. Although the founding was auspicious, the mission 
never became an important or even flourishing establishment, because of the 
close proximity of the penal sta 
tion of Branci- forte, which later 
became the town of Santa Cruz. 
At the present ^^ ' ' MlM^. date, however, 

all of the un- 77T-~TTT .T" , , , pleasant associa- 

l -J^^ ^^^___ 

tions of the con- vict hie have dis 

appeared as whol- ~ i *Mi r '^ii*^fc l . 1 ^?" r ''' as ^ ave ^ e 

old mission build- ^^8IB|HP m s > an ^ tne 

Santa Cruz of to- ' * day is one of Cal- 

fornia's charm- ing resorts. The 

corner-stone of the mission church was laid February 27, 1793. The building was 
120x30 feet. The walls were of stone to the height of three feet, the front was 
of masonrv. and the rest of adobe. In 1812 Father Andres Quintana was brutally 
murdered by nine or ten of the Mission Indians. Though sick himself, he left 
his room at night to call upon a man said to be dying. On the way home he was 
murdered. It was two years before the murderers were apprehended and pun 
ished. Their defense was that of cruelty on the part of the father ; but the fact 
that he had left his sick bed to minister to a dying man belied the accusation, and 
the murderers were condemned to work in chains from two to ten years. Only 
one survived the punishment. When Santa Cruz was secularized, in 1835, ten 
thousand dollars of the church money was divided among the neophytes. In 1839 
Hartnell found but seventy of the Indians remaining, and all of the money gone. 
Of the mission itself there is now hardly a trace. The portion of a tile-covered 
shed in 'the rear of the present church is all that remains. A few relics, among 
them two mission books used by the Indians, may be seen in the church. 



The Mission of "Our Lady of Solitude" ("Soledad"), was founded 
October gth, 1791, by Father Lasuen. The sites for Soledad and Santa Cruz 
were selected upon the same trip. Governor Portola named this lonely spot 
Soledad in 1769, but it was not until 1797 that the adobe structure with its 

roof of straw, which was known as 
the chapel of Soledad, was com 
pleted. Later a tiled roof and corri 
dors were added. Soledad became a 
flourishing Christian settlement, but 
after the secularization in 1835, so 
great was the devastation and ruin 
that the venerable Father Vincente 
Sarria, who had labored for the mis- 
LA SOLEDAD. s | on or thirty years, and who refused 

to leave his post of duty or the remaining Indians, died here in 1835. the year 
of the secularization, of starvation and want. June 4th, 1846, Soledad Mis 
sion was sold to Feliciano Soberanes for $800, yet the inventory of '35 had 
shown a valuation of $36,000, besides the church property. 

A heap of ruins standing alone in an open field, used for the growing of 
grain, is all that today remains of Soledad Mission. The Indians called the 
place Chuttusgelis, but the Spaniards called it Solitude. 


Mission San Jose was founded June 11, 1797, Trinity Sunday. By an 
order from the College of Fernando, Mexico, the new mission was dedicated 
to St. Joseph, the foster-father of Our Lord. A wooden structure with grass 
roof was quickly constructed, and Father Barcenilla was left in charge. San 
Jose was founded by Father Lasuen. The northern missions contributed very 
generously toward the establishment 
of the new one. They sent 12 mules, 
12 yoke of oxen, 39 horses, 242 sheep 
and 60 pigs. The Indians from the 
adjacent hills proved to be treach 
erous and cruel. Father Cueva after 
having labored five years among them. 
was cruelly attacked, wounded and 
almost killed. He had been called a 
long distance from the mission, about 



fifteen miles, to attend to some sick neophytes. Upon arriving at the rancheria, 
the natives attacked him and his guard with arrows, killing the guard, a soldier 
and three neophytes and wounding Father Cueva. On account of the treachery 
of the Indians, and their having made several attempts to do injury to the padres 
and to the buildings, the houses were soon reconstructed, and made of brick from 
the excellent brick-earth near by. There are chalk hills near San Jose, and 
everywhere the soil is rich and fertile. The establishment was never extensive 
nor imposing, yet at one time Mission San Jose had a greater number of neo 
phytes than any other mission in California, with the single exception of San 
Luis Rev. The illustration shows the mission as it was years ago, and gives 
some idea of the plan of the establishment. San Jose was never wealthy, but 
still they could order a bell weighing 1000 pounds, and that was considered a 
luxury. At the time of the secularization the church property was valued at 
$155,000 over and above the debts. On May 5th, 1846, San Jose Mission was 
sold to Andres Pico and J. B. Alvarado, for $12,000, by Governor Pio Pico. 


The Mission of San Juan Bautista was built on the edge of a mesa, over 
looking a fertile valley, of what is now San Benito county, in San Juan Valley, 
about seven miles from Hollister, the county seat. It was 200x70 feet on the 
ground and height of walls was forty-five feet, being higher than most of the 
mission churches. Each of the walls were supported by four buttresses. 
Those on the northeast are still 

standing: one re- 
back ; while the 
west is covered 
lumber, to sup- 
tect it from the 
The church was 
and transepts, 
divided by seven 
which have been 
s u m ! a b 1 y to 
building. There 



mains at the 
entire wall on the 
with redwood 
port and to pro- 
built with a nave 
The nave is sub- 
arches, five of 
walled in, pre- 
strengthen the 
is a choir loft 

over the door entrance at the front. The church is lighted with eight quaint 
little windows, with glass of small panes about five inches square. 

The baptismal font, carved from sandstone, stands about three feet high, 
and is three feet in diameter, and over it hangs an ancient picture of the baptism 
.it Christ. The principal altar is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and is very 
gaudily frescoed and painted. Statues of redwood, one life-size of St. John, 


and four smaller ones, are executed with rare talent and artistic effect. That 
they are of our native woods proves that the padres, Indians, or perchance a 
Mexican, who dwelt at the mission, was more than ordinarily gifted in carving. 

In the mission gardens are pear trees, planted a century ago. The cemetery, 
one acre in size, is full to the limit. In many graves are said to be buried six 
bodies, one above the other. In all, 4,557 bodies are there interred. An old 
sun dial in the garden is an object of interest, carved from sandstone long be 
fore the day of clocks in this country. It was originally intended for San 
Felipe and is therefore one second slow for San Juan Bautista. 

The site of San Juan, was selected as early as 1786, but the church of San 
Juan Bautista was not established until June 24, 1797, the day dedicated to the 
patron saint, John the Baptist. Work upon the chapel and the various build 
ings was begun immediately. It took hundreds of workers fifteen years to 
complete the task, and the chapel was dedicated by Father President Esteban 
Tapis, June 25, 1812. The establishment was so constructed as to form a court 
200 feet square with buildings on three sides of it, and a high wall on the 
fourth. The material used was adobe (sun-dried brick) and ladiello, a kind of 
brick that was frequently used for flooring, and was made in a subterranean kiln. 
Adobes are made of certain mud mixed with straw or tough grass. Being 
thoroughly kneaded by hand or trodden by foot it is molded in the desired shape 
and dimensions and dried in the sun. Size, 16x30x4 inches and weight about 
50 pounds. The ladellos were 8x12x2 inches, and after baking in a kiln were 
very hard. The old floor at this mission is more than a century old, and is in 
fair condition. The buildings were originally roofed with tile, a portion of 
which has given place to shingles until such a time as the tile can be restored. 
The walls of San Juan have been allowed to retain the delicate tint of the cinnabar 
that colored the mortar, and left an effect that no after-tinting can successfully 

The fine music of San Juan was a feature of the mission and a reason of 
its success. A chime of nine bells once called to worship. Only one of these 
now remains. A second one was cast from two of the originals in 1874, but 
lacks the sweet tone of the old ones. The other six bells have been given to 
other churches. An interesting and ingenious attachment to the original chime 
of bells is an old wooden wheel, with hollow arms, about two inches square, 
hung on an axle. Between each two arms is hung a wooden clapper, and as 
the wheel revolves, these clappers successively rap on the hollow arms. This 
wheel was used to call the people to worship upon occasions when the Catholic 
church rings no bells and could be heard at a great distance. 

The Padres placed a small organ (the first brought to California), on an 
elevation overlooking the valley, and swiftly turned the crank, and when the 
Indians first heard the strange sounds, they fell upon their faces in fear ; but as 


the music continued their fear left them and they began to enjoy the sweet 
sounds. Finally they slowly approached the hill and gradually gathered about 
the Padre and the wonderful singing box and listened with delight. After play 
ing for an hour or more, he offered them sweets and told them that he had 
come to live among them, and the good man received a hearty welcome. The 
box is a hand organ standing about 4^ feet high. It has tin pipes and was 
built by Benjamin Dodson, 22 Swan Street, London, England, in 1735. It was 
brought to San Juan in 1797. It became disabled, and was removed to the 
storehouse of the mission, where it remained for many years, when a wandering 
tinker stopped at the mission for something to eat and repaired it. Father Tapis, 
the priest of San Juan, composed a great deal of music for the California 
missions. Three large volumes of his work remain at this mission alone. 
Much of the music is on parchment, and in bold, clear characters. 

The chapel of San Juan Bautista could accommodate one thousand or 
more worshippers, and in prosperous days the capacity was frequently taxed 
to its fullest. The mission possessed extensive lands and great herds. 
Between the years 1797 and 1835, 4,100 persons were baptized. When the 
crash of secularization came, the inventory showed a valuation of $147,413. 
In 1846, San Juan was sold for debt. There are many choice mementoes at 
San Juan church ancient candlesticks of curious pattern, the old bass viol, 
the rude music stand, a violin past all music, the old organ, vestments, robes 
and sheet music, torn and faded, but dear to the devout and interesting to 
the historian. Today it is an impoverished parish church but nevertheless 
one of the most interesting and artistic relics of the mission period. 


The Mission of San Miguel (St. Michael, the Arcangel), "the most glorious 
prince of the heavenly militia," was founded on July 25, 1797, by Father Lasuen, 
assisted by Father Buenaventura Sitjar. The site chosen was a beautiful spot 
on the Salinas River called by the Indians Vahia, or Vatica, and by the Spaniards 
Las Pozas. Father Lasuen says that a great multitude of Indians gathered 
about with pleased expression, while he held the first service that founded the 
Mission of San Miguel. The chapel consisted of the wide-spreading branches 
of an old oak tree. A wooden church with mud roof, was soon erected, and it 
was not replaced with the present structure until 1800. In 1801, three Indians 
attempted to poison Fathers Martin and Carnicer. Father Pujol, who came 
from San Carlos to attend the sick missionaries, was also poisoned, and died, 
while the two whom he came to minister unto recovered. In 1806, a fire 
occurred, which destroyed all the implements belonging to the mission, all of the 
raw material, large quantities of wool, hides, cloth, and 6000 bushels of wheat ; 
besides doing great damage to the building. The other missions contributed 


to the relief of the burned San Miguel. The largest enrollment at this mis 
sion was in 1814, when there were 1076. Total number of baptisms was 
2588, and the largest number of cattle owned at one time was 10,558, in 
1822. All this bespeaks the prosperity of the establishment. In 1819 Father 
Cabot made a safe journey into the valley of the Tulares, a thing quite unusual, 
and a proof of the safety of the country at that period. When the Indians 
of San Miguel were consulted re 
garding the scheme of secularization, 
they expressed themselves as de 
cidedly in favor of the missionary 
fathers and their system. Their pref 
erence was of no avail, and the mis 
sion was confiscated in 1836, with a 
valuation of $82,000. By 1845 a ^ 
property had disappeared, except the 

SAN MIGUEL ARCANGEL. buildings, valued at $ S 8OO, which 

were ordered sold by Governor Pico. 

The sale was made July 4th, 1846, P. Rios and William Reed being the pur 
chasers. Later the title was declared invalid, and the buildings restored to 
the church. 

The mission buildings consist of a chapel and a long row of low adobe 
buildings. The corridor is a feature of the main edifice, the interior of which 
is to many most interesting, since it remains in its original condition, showing 
its ancient decorations and fixtures. The altar, very effective in color and 
design, is a valuable piece of decorative art. It is crowned with a statue of 
St. Michael, the patron saint. The floors are of burnt brick laid in alternating 
rows of oblongs and squares. The chapel is in use and there is a resident 


The mission of San Fernando was the second to be established within the 
present limits of Los Angeles county, and was founded September 8, 1797, by 
President Lasuen, assisted by Francisco Dumetz, at a site called by the natives 
Achois Comihavit, on the lands claimed by Francisco Reyes, who quarreled with 
the friars respecting the ownership of the land. The priests appropriated Reyes' 
ranch house for their dwelling. The mission was established with the usual 
religious ceremonies, in the presence of the troops and a great crowd of natives, 
and dedicated as required by instructions from Mexico to San Fernando, King 
of Spain. St. Ferdinand was Fernando III., who reigned in I2i7-'5i, and under 
whose rule the crowns of Castile and Leon were united. He was the founder 
of the Spanish Inquisition, and was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 



Francisco Javier Uria was associate priest with Dumetz. Ten children were 
baptized the first day, and thirteen adults had been added to the list early in Oc 
tober. In 1/97 there were fifty-five neophytes on the baptismal register; in 1800 
there were 310, there having been to that date 352 baptisms and seventy deaths. 
The number of cattle (including mules and horses) in 1800 was 526, and of sheep 
600. In 1799 there were 1,200 bushels of wheat, corn and barley raised, and the 
total yield for the three years 1798-1800 was 4,700 bushels. 

The adobe church with a tile roof, the ruins of which yet remain, was com 
pleted and consecrated in December, 1806. An earthquake occurred December 
21, 1812, that did some slight damage to the church building, necessitating the 
introduction of thirty new beams to support the wall. In 1813 a neophyte was 
killed by the Indian alcalde, who threw a club at him from a distance of some 
sixty feet with a view to hasten his work. The killing was deemed accidental, 
and the penalty imposed was two months' imprisonment in the presidio. During 
i8i6-'i8 a large number of neophytes deserted; before 1818 a new chapel was 
completed The ____^ greatest popula 

tion of this mis- 
in 1819, and then 
Captain de la 
applied for a 
Rancho, which 
was already using 
for the mission 
troversy resulted 
failing to obtain 
it was not se- 


sion was i ,080, 
began its decline. 
Guerra, in 1821, 
grant of the Pirn 
Father Ybarra 
to some extent 
herds. The con- 
in de la Guerra 
the rancho ; but 

cured for the 

mission. About this time complaint was made that the soldiers behaved 
badly, selling liquor to the Indians. The mission was no longer prosperous 
in any respect, showing a decline in live stock and agriculture. The amount 
of supplies furnished by this mission to the soldiers in 1822-27 was $21,203. 

In 1834, with others, the Mission San Fernando was secularized, with Lieu 
tenant Del Valle as the commissioner in charge. Yharre continued his ministry 
until the middle of the year 1835, when he temporarily retired to Mexico. 

Del Valle became major-domo the next year, which position he held until the 
year 1837, when he was succeeded by Anastasio Carrillo. Captain Jose M. 
Villavicencio served as administrator from the middle of the year 1838. In 1840 
there were still about 400 Indians in the ex-mission community. 

At one period of its history there were nearly one and a half miles of build 
ings connected with this mission, these including residences, workshops, schools 
and storehouses, all of which are now in ruins. The edifice erected especially as 
an abode for the padres and reputed to be the finest of its kind in Alta California, 


is, however, still standing in a fair state of preservation. It is principally inter 
esting as having been the abode of the Mexican General, Andres Pico, and was 
his headquarters during the war of occupation. It is two-story, nearly 300 feet 
in length by eighty feet in width, inside measurements ; and the walls of brick 
and adobe are four feet thick, The rafters, after being cut in the mountain 
forests many miles away, were dragged here by Indians and oxen, each log being 
occasionally turned upon the way, " that all sides might be planed alike." They 
are as smooth as though really planed. The long corridor of this building is 
paved with brick, and the heavy tile roof is supported by arches and columns of 
masonry. Many of the windows are protected by iron bars, giving it a some 
what prison-like appearance. 

The church is 40x60 varas. tile roofed, board ceiling, brick floor, adobe 
walls, three doors, seven windows with wooden bars ; sacristy, eight varas 
square, with one door and window. 

The general statistics of the San Fernando Mission from the date of its 
foundation till its secularization in 1834, are as follows : Total number of bap 
tisms 2,839, f which 1,415 were Indian adults, 1,367 Indian children, 57 children 
de razon. Total marriages, 849, of which 15 were gente de razon. Deaths, 
2,028; 1,036 were Indian adults, 965 Indian children, 12 white adults and 15 white 
children. The largest population was 1,080 in 1819. The sexes were nearly 
equal; children from one-fourth to one-third. Largest number of cattle, 12,800 
in 1819; horses, 1,320 in 1820; mules, 340 in 1812; sheep, 7,800 in 1819; goats, 
600 in 1816; swine, 250 in 1814; all kinds, 21,745 animals in 1819. Total product 
of wheat, 119,000 bushels, yield nineteen fold; barley, (only raised six years) 
3,070 bushels, fourteen fold ; maize, 27,750 bushels, eighty-three fold ; beans, 
3,624 bushels, fourteen fold. 

It has been in part restored by the Landmarks Club. 


The Mission of San Luis Rev de Francia (Saint Louis IX, King of France, 
member of the Franciscans) was founded by Frs. Lasuen, Santiago and Peyri, on 
June 3, 1798. The ceremony of dedication was supplemented by the baptism of 
fifty-four children. Within a week Father Peyri, who was left in charge, had bap 
tized seventy-seven more. By July I he had 6,000 adobe bricks ready to begin 
the erection of the mission buildings. It was due to Father Peyri's energy, zeal 
and executive ability that San Luis Rey, the grandest mission building of Alta 
California, was erected. It was completed in 1802. During the first decade this 
mission made larger gains in number of neophyte population and had a lower 
death rate than any other establishment. Father Peyri was beloved bv all. He 
ministered personally to the needs of his charges, and likewise superintended the 
agricultural pursuits. In 1818 San Luis Rey was the most prosperous mission in 




California, and this in spite of the fact that so many of its sheep died that it was 
necessary for the padres to go as far north as San Juan Bautista to obtain wool 
enough for clothing. 

Father Peyri early established a hospital and taught the Indians the rudi 
ments of healthful living. The highest number of neophytes enrolled at one time 
\\as j,8(,(), in 1826. In 1828 there was a white population of thirty-five at San 

Luis Rey. Father Peyri, unlike most 
of the Franciscans in California, was 
a strong supporter of the Mexican 
republic and his surprise and disap 
pointment at the expulsion of the 
( )rder in 1829 knew no bounds. The 
pathetic romance of his being spirited 
away at night and taken on board a 
vessel lying in the Bay of San Diego, 
is one well known to those inter 
ested in the missions. When the neo 
phytes learned that Father Peyri was gone, many of them mounted their ponies 
and rode in the gray dawn of the morning in a wild chase to the sea, in order to 
rescue their padre and bring him back to the mission. As they appeared on the 
shore the ship weighed anchor and slowly sailed out to sea. It is said that two 
venturesome boys swam after the ship and were taken on board and carried to 
Spain with the Father. 

San Luis Rev is the only mission that progressed after secularization ; but 
it, too, declined after a few years, and was finally sold, on May 18, 1846, to Jose 
A. Cot and Jose A. Pico for $2,437; ^ ut their agent was dispossessed by General 
Fremont, and they failed to regain possession. Later it was decided that the 
governor had had no power to sell the mission. San Luis Rey was used as a 
military post by our troops during the Mexican war, and at the close of the war 
the government caused an estimate to be made of the cost of repairing and 
restoring it to its former condition. The figures were $2,000,000. 

An inventory taken August 22nd, 1835, gives a fair idea of the importance 
and wealth of the mission. Valuation, $203,737.00; debts, $93,000.00; the church, 
of adobe, tile roof, clay floor, board ceilings, nine doors, eighteen windows, four 
adjoining rooms, value $30,000.00, was included in the total amount, as was also 
the six ranches, valued at $40,437.00. These were Pala, Santa Margarita. San 
Jacinto, Santa Ysabel, Temecula and one other. 

In the day of its glory and wealth, San Luis Rey was the pride of all the 
missions. It owned and pastured upon its lands an annual average of 20,000 head 
of cattle, and nearly as many sheep. It kept 3,000 Indians to perform the various 
kinds of service. In 1834 the mission had 3,500 neophytes to support. In 



the zenith of its prosperity, it raised and harvested annually more than 60,000 
bushels of grain, and 250 barrels of wine were produced from the vineyards. 

The church is an imposing structure, 50x160 feet, and walls sixty feet in 
height, by four feet in thickness. The tower at one corner contained eight bells. 
The ornaments and vestments of the church, in gold and silver, were very rich 
and beautiful. On one side of the mission building extended a corridor of two 
hundred and fifty arches. In the rear was a large square enclosed by buildings 
on each side. The front and rear sides formed corridors, with beautiful arches. 
In this square was a well-kept garden, with a stone fountain, the favorite retreat 
of the padres. 

In 1892, steps were taken by Father O'Keefe, who for so many years was 
well known at Santa Barbara Mission, to restore San Luis Rev to a condition of 
usefulness, and the good father had succeeded so admirably that May I2th, 1894, 
the mission was rededicated and title passed to the Franciscan order of the Catholic 
church. A school for the training of priests of the order is now maintained there. 


The Mission Santa Ynez was founded September ijth, 1804. The work 
of the Mission Fathers was there begun by the baptizing of twenty-seven 
children. The present buildings were not commenced until after the destruc 
tive earthquake of September 2ist, 1812, when a corner of the old church and 
many of the best houses were destroyed. It was at Santa Ynez that the 
serious and wide-spread Indian revolt of 1824 started. After destroying many 
of the buildings they fled to Purisima and set fire to that establishment. 

At the time of secularization, Santa 
Ynez was valued at $56,000. In 
1844, the Mission had sufficient en 
ergy, enterprise and wealth to estab 
lish a seminary of learning. The 
Fathers, through the efforts of Bishop 
Garcia, received a liberal grant of 
land from the government for this 
institution, beside an endowment of 
$500 per annum, on condition that 
all Californians in search of higher 
education be admitted thereto. There were about 270 Indians at Santa Ynez 
at this time. By order of Governor Pico, in 1836, the entire estate was rented 
to Jose Covarrubias and Joaquin Carrillo for $580 per annum. The mission 
was finally sold to the lessees in 1846, for $7,000, but the title was declared 
invalid. Santa Ynez remained a religious institution until 1850, when it was 
abandoned, and the Fathers went to Santa Barbara. 





The mission of San Rafael, the first one located north of San Francisco, 
was established December i8th, 1817. The Fathers and the Government of 
California had a double purpose in fixing the site of this establishment. It 

was intended to head off the Russian 

encroachment from the north, and 
also as a refuge for the neophytes of 
San Francisco de Asis, of which it 
was a branch. A scourge had be 
come epidemic at Mission Dolores and 
many of its occupants were trans 
ferred to the new site, which was 
supposed to be in a healthier region. 
This establishment was never verv 


populous or influential. It reached 

its zenith in 1828 when a membership of 1,140 neophytes was reported. After 
this date it steadily declined and at the time of its secularization only about 
500 Indians remained. During its existence, 1873 converts were baptized. 


On the 4th of July, 1823, a cross was blessed, Holy Mass was offered 
ap, sacred songs were sung, and the Mission of San Francisco de Solano was 
founded. It was called New San Francisco. It was not until April 4th, 1824, 
that the mission church was formally 
dedicated, by Father Altimira, to the 
patron saint of the Indies. This 
structure was of wood, and the one 
of adobe, the remains of which are 
seen today, was erected the same 
year, many articles being donated by 
the Russians, then living in that 
region of country. The walls of the 
new church were about completed, 
when a terrific downpour of rain, last 
ing several days, did great injury and changed the original plan. At the close of 
the year, 1824, the mission numbered 639 neophytes, many of whom had come 
from San Francisco, San Jose, and San Rafael. At the time of secularization 
the movable property was distributed to the Indians. After 1840, Solano had 
no existence as a mission community. During its entire history, 1,315 persons 
were there baptized. Its greatest population was in 1832, when there were 996 
persons enrolled. 




PABLO VICENTE DE SOLA was governor of California when Mexico 
attained independence from Spain. He was of Spanish birth and was 
bitterly opposed to the Revolution, even going so far as to threaten death 
to any one who should speak in favor of it. Although the rule of Spain in Mexico 
was overthrown in September, 1821, it was not until March, 1822, that official dis 
patches reached Sola informing him of the change. The " plan of Iguala " under 
which Iturbide finally overthrew the Spanish power contemplated the placing of 
Fernando VII on the throne of the Mexican Empire, or, if he would not accept, 
then some scion of the royal family of Spain. Such a termination to the revolu 
tion did not affect Sola's loyalist sympathies. He called a junta to meet at Monte 
rey and on the nth of April the oath was taken to the new government. 

But Sola's royalist sympathies received a rude shock a few months later 
when news reached California that Iturbide had seized the government for him 
self and been proclaimed Emperor with the imposing title of '' Augustin I, by 
Divine Providence and by the Congress of the Nation, first Constitutional Emperor 
of Mexico." In September, 1822, the flag of Spain that for half a century had 
waved over the palacio of the governor at Monterey, was lowered and the imperial 
banner of Mexico took its place. California, from the dependency of a kingdom, 
had become a province of an empire. Scarce half a year after the flag of the 
empire floated on the breeze had passed when the emperor was dethroned and 
forced into exile. The downfall of the empire was followed by the establishment 
of a republic fashioned after that of the United States. The country over which 
the viceroys of Spain had ruled for three hundred years was divided into nineteen 
states and four territories. Only the states were allowed representatives in the 
the senate ; the territories, of which Alta California was one, were to be governed 
by a governor appointed by the president and a diputacion, or territorial assem 
bly, elected by the people. Each territory was entitled to send a diputado, or dele 
gate, to the Mexican congress. 

Luis Antonio Argiiello succeeded Sola as governor, or gefe poltico (political 
chief), as the office was later styled under the republic. He was elected, Novem 
ber 9, 1822, president of the provincial diputacion and by virtue of his office be 
came temporary governor instead of Sola, who had been elected delegate to the 
imperial congress. Argiiello was a native Californian, having been born at the 
presidio of San Francisco in 1784. He was a man of limited education, but made 
good use of what he had. Like Sola he had been a pronounced royalist during 
the revolution, but with the downfall of Spanish domination he had submitted 
gracefully to the inevitable. 


The success of the revolution was most bitterly disappointing to the mission 
padres. Through the long years of strife between Mexico and the mother coun 
try they had hoped and prayed for the triumph of Spain. In the downfall of 
Spanish domination and the rise of Republicanism, they read the doom of their 
feudal institutions, the missions. On the promulgation of the Federal Constitu 
tion of October, 1824, in California, Father Vicente de Serria, the president of 
the missions a Spaniard and a royalist not only refused to take the oath of 
allegiance to it, but also declined to perform religious services in favor of it. An 
order was issued by the Supreme Government for his arrest ; but before it reached 
California he had been superseded in the presidency by Father Narciso Duran of 
San Jose. A number of the padres were hostile to the Republic and evaded 
taking the oath of allegiance on the ground of obedience to the orders of their 
Superior. Their unfriendly attitude to the Republic was one of the causes that 
led to the secularization of the missions a few years later. 

The Mexican government, shortly after its inauguration, removed most of 
the restrictions imposed by Spain against foreigners settling in California and the 
colonization law of 1824 was liberal. The state religion was the Roman Catholic 
and all foreigners who settled in the country were required to embrace it. During 
Spanish domination not more than half a dozen foreigners had been allowed to 
become permanent residents. The earliest English settler was John Gilroy. who 
was left by his vessel at Monterey in 1814. He married a daughter of Ignacio 
Ortega and at one time owned a large body of land, but died poor. Joseph Chap 
man, the first American settler, was one of Bouchard's men, captured at Monterey 
in 1818. 

Beginning with Baron Rezanof's visit to San Francisco, in 1806, for the 
purpose of buying grain for the starving Russian colony at Sitka, the Russians 
made frequent visits to the coast, partly to obtain supplies, but more for the pur 
pose of hunting seal and sea otter. Their Aleut fur hunters in their bidarkas, 
or skin canoes, killed otter in San Francisco bay and the Spaniards, destitute of 
boats or ships, were powerless to prevent them. In 1812 they built a village and 
fort about 18 miles north of Bodega bay, which they named Rbss, and which 
mounted ten cannon. They also maintained a port on Bodega bay, and a small 
station on Russian river. The Spanish protested against this invasion of terri 
tory and threatened to drive out the Russians, but nothing came of either their 
protests or threats. The Russian ships came for supplies and were welcomed by 
the people and the padres, if not by the government officials. The Russian colony 
was not a success, and after the decline of fur hunting the settlement became 
unprofitable, and in 1841, the building and stock were sold by the Russian gov 
ernor to Captain John A. Sutler for $30,000. The settlement was abandoned and 
the fort and town have long since fallen into ruins. 

Among the foreigners who came to California soon after the establishment 
of Mexican independence and became prominent in affairs may be named, W. 
E. P. Hartnell, Captain John R. Cooper, William A. Richardson, Daniel A. Hill 


and William A. Gale. William Edward Petty Hartnell came from Lima as a 
member of the firm of McCullock, Hartnell & Co., engaged in the hide and tallow 
trade. Hartnell was an Englishman by birth, well educated and highly respected. 
He married Maria Teresa de la Gucrra and twenty-five children were born to 
them. He died at Monterey in 1859. William A. Gale came in 1810 as a Bos 
ton fur trader. He returned to the territory in 1822 on the ship Sachem, the 
pioneer Boston hide drogher. It brought to the coast a number of Americans 
who became permanent residents of the country. California on account of its 
long distance from the centers of trade had but few products for exchange that 
would bear the cost of transportation. Its chief commodities for barter, during 
the Mexican era, were hides and tallow. The vast range of country adapted to 
cattle raising made that its most profitable industry. After the removal of the 
restrictions on commerce with foreigners by the Mexican government, a profitable 
trade grew up between the New England ship owners and the California ranch- 
eros. Vessels were fitted out in Boston with a cargo of assorted goods suitable 
for the trade. Voyaging around Cape Horn and stopping at the various points 
along the coast they exchanged their stock of goods and Yankee "notions" for 
hides and tallow. It took from two to three years to make the voyage out from 
Boston and return, but the profits on the goods sold and on the hides received in 
exchange were so large that these ventures paid handsomely. Cattle raising, up 
to the time of the discovery of gold in 1848, continued to be the principal industry 
of the country. 

During the first decade of republican rule, there was but little change in polit 
ical conditions or in the views of the people concerning the government. Mission 
rule was still dominant and the people were subservient to the governors appointed 
over them. But with the increase of foreigners and the advent of ex-revolution 
ists from Mexico, the old-time native California Loyalists gradually became im 
bued with a kind of republicanism that transformed them into malcontents, whose 
protests against the sins of governmental officials took the form of pronuncia- 
mentos and revolutions. 

The first of the numerous revolts against the rule of the governors appointed 
by the Mexican government occurred in November, 1829. The soldiers at the 
presidios for years had received but a small part of their pay and were but poorly 
clothed and provisioned. The garrison at Monterey rebelled and seized and im 
prisoned their officers. That at San Francisco followed their example. Under 
the leadership of Joaquin Solis, an ex-revolutionist of Mexico who had been ban 
ished from that country, they marched southward to meet Governor Echandia, 
who was moving northward with a force of about one hundred men from San 
Diego, where he had established his capital. The two forces met at Dos Pueblos, 
near Santa Barbara, and a bloodless battle ensued. The rebellious "escoltas" 
(militia) were pardoned and returned to duty. Herrara, the deposed commissary- 
general ; Solis, and several other leaders were arrested and sent to Mexico to be 


tried, for high crimes and misdemeanor. On their arrival in that land of revolu 
tions, they were turned loose and eventually returned to California. 

The principal cause of the California disturbances was the jealousy and dis 
like of the " hijos del pais " (native sons) to the Mexican-born officers who were 
appointed by the superior government to fill the offices. Many of these were ad 
venturers who came to the country to improve, their fortunes and were not scrupu 
lous as to methods or means, so that the end was accomplished. 



MAXL'EL VICTORIA succeeded Echandia as gefe politico of Alta Cali 
fornia in January 1831. Victoria was a soldier, arbitrary and tyrannical, 
and refused to convoke the diputacion, or territorial assembly. From 
the outset he was involved in quarrels with the leading men of the territory. 
Exile, imprisonment and banishment were meted out to small offences and some 
times for none at all. At length Jose Antonio Carrillo and Don Abel Stearns, who 
had been exiled to Lower California with Juan Bandini and Pio Pico, residents 
of San Diego, formulated a plot for the overthrow of Victoria, and issued a 
pronunciamento arraigning him for misdeeds and petty tyrannies. The soldiers 
at the presidio, with their Captain, Portilla, joined the revolt, and with the 
leading conspirators and fifty men marched northward. At Los Angeles they 
released the prisoners from the jail and chained up instead, Alcalde Sanchez, the 
petty despot of the pueblo who had been very ready to carry out the arbitrary 
decrees of Victoria. 

The San Diego army, augmented by the liberated prisoners and volunteers 
from Los Angeles, to the number of 150 men, marched out to meet Victoria, who 
with a small force was moving southward to suppress the rebellion. The two 
armies met west of Los Angeles in the Cahuenga valley. In the fight that ensued 
Jose Maria Avila, who had been imprisoned by Victoria's orders in the pueblo 
jail, charged single-handed upon Victoria. He killed Captain Pacheco, of Vic 
toria's staff and dangerously wounded the governor himself. Avila was killed by 
one of Victoria's men. Victoria's army retired with the wounded governor to 
San Gabriel mission and the revolutionists retired to Los Angeles. Next day, 
the governor, who supposed himself mortally wounded, abdicated ; later he was de 
ported to Mexico. Pio Pico, senior vocal of the diputacion, was elected gefe- 
politico by that body, but Echandia on account of his military rank, claimed the 
office and Pico, for the sake of peace, did not insist upon his rights. 

Echandia did not long enjoy in peace the office obtained by threats. Captain 
Augustin V. Zamorano, late secretary of the deposed Victoria, raised an army of 


about one hundred men, some of whom were cholos, or convicts, which under the 
command of Captain Ibarra marched southward and met no opposition until it 
reached El Paso de Bartolo, on the San Gabriel river. Here Captain Barrosa, of 
Echandia's force, with fourteen men and a piece of artillery stopped the onward 
march of the invaders. Echandia had gathered an army of neophytes, said to 
have been a thousand strong. On the approach of this body, Ibarra's men re 
treated to Santa Barbara. The diputacion, which was really the only legal 
authority in the country, finally effected a compromise between the two rivals. 
Echandia was to be recognized as military chief for the country south of San 
Gabriel, and Zamorano for all territory north of San Fernando, while Pico, 
who by virtue of his rank as senior-vocal, was the lawful governor was left 
without jurisdiction. After this adjustment there was peace. 

On January I4th, 1833, Jose Figueroa, "gobernador proprietario" of Alta 
California by appointment of the Supreme government of Mexico, arrived at 
Monterey. Zamorano at once turned over to him whatever authority he had 
and Echandia did the same. Figueroa was Mexican born, of Aztec descent, 
and is regarded as one of the ablest and most efficient of our Mexican governors. 
He instituted a policy of conciliation and became very popular with the people. 
He inaugurated a number of reforms, especially in the treatment of the neophytes 
and in his attention to the conditions of secularization, which took place during 
his term of office. Another important event of this time was the arrival of 
the Hijar colonists. 

In 1833, Jose Maria Hijar, a Mexican gentleman of considerable property, 
aided by Jose Maria Padres, set about organizing a scheme for the founding 
of an extensive colony in California. Each settler was promised a ranch and 
was to receive rations to the amount of four reales per day with a certain amount 
of live stock and tools. All to be repaid later from the products of the faflm. 
A corporation known as the "Compania Cosmopolitana" was organized for the 
purpose of buying vessels and carrying on a shipping business between Mexico 
;and California. About 250 colonists were recruited and left the City of Mexico 
for San Bias where they were to be given free passage. One of the vessels 
bringing them landed at San Diego, September ist, 1834, and the other reached 
Monterey September 25th. 

Hijar had succeeded in securing an appointment as gefe-politico ; but after 
his departure for California, President Santa Anna countermanded the order 
and sent a courier overland by the way of Sonora with an order to Figueroa 
not to give up the governor-ship. By one of the most remarkable rides in his 
tory, this courier reached Monterey before Hijar, and delivered his message to 
Governor Figueroa. Hijar, on his arrival at the capital found himself shorn 
of all authority. Part of the scheme of Hijar and Padres was the sub-division 
of the mission property among themselves and their colonists. But the revoca- 


tion of his commission deprived him of his power to enforce his plans. An 
attempt was made to form a settlement at San Francisco Solano, but was not 
successful and many of the colonists returned to Mexico, while the remainder 
were scattered throughout the territory. Hijar and Padres were accused of insti 
gating a plot to overthrow Figueroa and seize the mission property. They were 
shipped out of the country and thus ended in disaster to the promoters the first 
California colonization scheme. 

The missions had been founded by Spain for the purpose of converting 
the Indians to the "holy faith" and transforming them into citizens. The natives 
residing becween the Coast Range and the ocean from San Diego to San Fran 
cisco had been gathered into the different mission establishments, each of which 
held in possession, in trust, for its neophyte retainers, large areas of the most 
fertile lands in the territory. This absorbtion of the public domain by the 
missions prevented the colonization of the country by white settlers. 

The first decree of secularization was passed by the Spanish Cortes in 1813; 
but Spain was then engaged in a death struggle with her American colonies 
and she had neither power nor opportunity to enforce it. In July, 1830, the 
territorial diputacion adopted a plan of secularization formulated by Echandia 
in 1828; but before it could be carried out, he was superseded by Victoria who 
was a friend of the padres and strongly opposed to secularization. Governor 
Figueroa was instructed to examine into the condition of the neophytes and re 
port upon the best method of bringing about a gradual emancipation of the 
Indians from missionary rule. He visited some of the older missions himself 
and. after careful study, was convinced that any general measure of seculariza 
tion would be disastrous to the neophytes. A few might be given their liberty 
and entrusted with property ; but the great mass of them were incapable of self- 
government or self support. 

In the meantime, the Mexican Congress, without waiting for information 
from Figueroa as to the advisability of the step, ordered the immediate emancipa 
tion of the neophytes. August I7th. 1833, a decree was passed ordering the 
secularization of all the missions. It was provided that each mission should 
constitute a parish, served by a priest, or curate, who should be paid a salary. 
The Franciscans and Dominicans who had taken the oath of allegiance to the 
republic were to return to their colleges or monasteries ; while those who refused 
to take the oath of allegiance were to quit the country. The expense of putting 
the decree into operation was to be paid out of the "Pious Fund." The Pious 
Fund of California was made up of contributions for the founding and main 
tenance of missions in the Californias. It was begun for the benefit of the 
missions of Lower California, in 1697, and increased until it amounted to one 
and a half million dollars, in 1842. It was confiscated by the Mexican govern 
ment ; but after long litigation the money was finally awarded to the Catholic 
church of California by the Hague Tribunal in 1902. 


Figueroa and the territorial diputacion, under instructions from the Su 
preme Government, June 31, 1834, adopted a plan for the secularization of the 
missions and the colonization of the neophytes into pueblos. Each head of a 
'family was to receive from the mission lands a lot not more than 500 nor less 
than looo varas square. One half of the cattle and one half of the farming- 
implements and seed grains were to be divided pro rata among those receiving 
lands for cultivation. Out of the proceeds of the remaining property which was 
to be placed under a major domo, the salaries of the administrator and the 
priest in charge of the church were to be paid. No one could sell or incumber 
his land nor slaughter cattle except for subsistence. The government of the 
Indian pueblo was to be administered the same as that of the other pueblos in the 
territory. Before the plan of the diputacion had been promulgated, Figueroa 
had experimented with the neophytes of the San Juan Capistrano mission and a 
pueblo had been organized there. For a time it promised to be a success but 
ended in a failure. 

For years the threat of secularization had hung over the missions, but here 
tofore something had always occurred to avert it. When it became evident that 
the blow would fall, the missionaries determined to save something for them 
selves. There were, on the various mission ranges, in 1833, nearly half a 
million head of cattle. San Gabriel, the richest of the .missions, had over fifty 
thousand head. Thousands of these were slaughtered on shares for their hides 
alone and the carcasses left on the ground to rot. So terrible was the 
stench arising that the ayuntamiento of Los Angeles, in 1834. passed an ordinance 
compelling every one slaughtering cattle for the hides to cremate the carcasses. 
The diputacion finally issued a reglamento prohibiting the wholesale destruction 
of the mission cattle. What remained of the mission property was inventoried 
by commissioners appointed by the governor and a certain portion distributed to 
the Indians of the pueblo into which the missions had been converted. The 
property was soon wasted; for the Indian wns improvident and indolent and 
took no thought for the morrow. His property soon passed out of his hands 
and he became virtually the slave of the white man. 

Governor Figueroa died at San Juan Bautista, September 29, 1835 and 
was buried in the mission church at Santa Barbara, with much ceremony. He 
was called the "Benefactor of California." Before his death, he had resigned his 
political command to Jose Castro, primer-vocal of the diputacion. who held the 
office for four months. By order of the Supreme Government, he delivered it 
over to Col. Nicholas Guiterrez, who held the military command of the terri 
tory, until the arrival in May, 1836, of Mariano Chico, the regularly appointed 
"gobernador proprietario." Chico was a man of inordinate self-conceit and of 
but little common sense. He very soon secured the ill-will of the Californians. 
Shortly before his arrival a vigilance committee, or as it was called by its or 
ganizers, " Junta Defensora de la Seguridad Publica," the first ever formed 



in the territory, had taken from the legal authorities at Los Angeles, two criminals, 
under arrest for the murder of the woman's husband, and had executed them by 
shooting them to death. This violation of law greatly enraged Governor Chico 
and one of his first acts on taking office was to send Col. Guiterrez with troops 
to Los Angeles to punish the vigilantes. Victor Prudon, the president of the 
Junta Defensora, Manuel Argaza, the secretary, and Francisco Aranjo, the 
military officer who had commanded the members of the Junta, were arrested 
and committed to prison until such time as the governor could come to Los 
Angeles and try them. He came in June and after heaping abuse and threats 
upon them, finally pardoned the three leaders of the "Defenders of Public 
Security." Then he quarreled with Manuel Requena, the alcalde of Los Angeles, 
who had opposed the vigilantes, and threatened to imprison him. He returned 
to Monterey where he was soon afterward involved in a disgraceful scandal 
which ended in his placing the alcalde of that town under arrest. The people, 
disgusted with him. arose en masse assuming a threatening attitude. Alarmed 
for his safety, Chico took passage for Mexico and California was rid of him, after 
three months of his rule. Before his departure he turned over the political and 
military command of the territory to Col. Gutierrez. 

Gutierrez, like Chico, 
was a man of violent tem 
per. It was not long be 
fore he was involved in a 
quarrel that eventually 
put an end to his official 
career. In his investiga 
tion of governmental af 
fairs at Monterey, he 
charged fraud against 
Angel Ramirez, the ad 
ministrator, and Juan 
Bautista Alvarado, the 
auditor, of the custom 
house. Volleys of words 
were fired by both sides 

and Gutierrez threatened to put the two officials in irons. This was an insult that 
Alvarado, young, proud and hot-blooded, could not endure in silence. He left the 
capital and with Jose Castro, at San Juan, began preparations for a revolt against 
the governor. His quarrel with Gutierrez w?s not the sole cause of his fomenting 
a revolution. He was president of the diputacion and the governor had treated 
that body with disrespect, or at least, the members, of whom Castro was one, 
so claimed. General Vallejo was invited to take command of the revolutionary 
movement but, while he sympathized with the cause, he did not enlist in it. 




News of the projected uprising spread rapidly. Castro and Alvarado with 
out much effort soon collected an army of seventy-five Californians. They also 
secured the services of an auxiliary force of twenty-five Americans hunters and 
trappers under the command of Graham, a backwoodsman from Tennessee. 
With this force they marched to Monterey, and by a strategetic movement cap 
tured the Castillo. The revolutionists demanded the surrender of the presidio 
and the arms. Upon the refusal of the governor a shot from the cannon of the 
Castillo crashed through the roof of the comandante's house and scattered 
Gutierrez and his staff. This and the desertion of most of his soldiers brought 
the governor to terms. November 5, 1836, he surrendered the presidio and re 
signed his office. With about seventy of his adherents, he was placed on board a 
vessel in the harbor and a few days later departed for Mexico. 



THE Mexican governor having been expelled, the diputacion, which was 
composed of hijos del pais, was called together and a plan for the 
independence of California was formulated. This plan declared that 
" California is erected into a free and sovereign state, establishing a congress 
which shall pass all special laws of the country, also assume the other necessary 
i supreme powers." The diputacion issued a de 

claration of independence which arraigned the 
mother country, Mexico, for sins of commission 
and omission ; and Castro promulgated a pro- 
nunciamento ending with a '' Viva for El 
Estado Libre y Soberano de Alta California." 
(The Free and Sovereign State of Alta California.) 
Amid the vivas and the pronunciamentos, with the 
beating of drums and the roar of cannon, the state 
of Alta California was launched on the political 
;-ea. The revolutionists soon found that it was 
easy enough to declare the state free; but quite 
another matter to make it free. 

For years there had been a growing jealousy 
between northern and southern California. Los 
Angeles, through the efforts of Jose Antonio 

Carrillo had, by the decree of the Mexican congress in May, 1835, been raised 
to the dignity of a city and made the capital of the territory. In the movement 



to make California a free and independent state, the Angelenos recognized an 
attempt to deprive their city of its honor. Although as bitterly opposed to 
Mexican governors and as actively engaged in fomenting revolutions against 
them as the people of Monterey, they chose at this time to profess loyalty to 
the mother country. They opposed the Monterey plan of government and 
formulated one of their own, in which they declared that California was not 
free and that they would obey the laws of the Supreme government only. 

Alvarado had been made governor by the diputacion and Castro 
comandante general of the army of the Free State. They determined to sup 
press the recalcitrant surenos (southerners). They collected an army of eighty 
natives, obtained the assistance of Graham with his American riflemen, and 
marched southward. The ayuntamiento of Los Angeles had organized an army 
of 270, partly neophytes, which was stationed at the Mission San Fernando. 
Before the northern troops reached the mission, commissioners from Los 
Angeles met them and a treaty of peace was patched up. Alvarado 
with his troops arrived in Los Angeles January 23rd, 1837, and was received 
with expressions of friendship. An extraordinary meeting of the ayuntamiento 
was called ; Pio Pico expressed the great pleasure it gave him to see a " hijo 
del pais " in office and Antonio Osio, one of the most belligerent of the south 
erners, declared that, " sooner than again submit to a Mexican governor, or 
dictator, he would flee to the forest and be devoured by wild beasts." Alvarado 
made a conciliatory speech and an agreement was entered into to support the 
" .Monterey plan," with Alvarado as governor pro tempore, until the Supreme 
government should decide the question. Quiet reigned in the south for a few 
months. Then San Diego formulated a plan of government and the standard 
of revolt was again raised. The San Diego " plan " restored California to 
allegiance to the Supreme government and the officials at San Diego and Los 
Angeles took the oath to obey the constitution of 1836; this, in their opinion, 
absolved them from obedience to Juan Bautista Alvarado and his " Free State." 

In October came the news that Carlos Carrillo of Santa Barbara had been 
appointed governor by the Supreme government. Then consternation seized 
the " Free State " men of the north and the surenos of Los Angeles went wild 
with joy. They invited Carrillo to make Los Angeles his capital an invitation 
which he accepted. December 6th was set for his inuaguration and great 
preparations were made for the event. Cards of invitation were issued asking 
the people to come to the inauguration " dressed as decent as possible." A 
grand ball was held in the governor's palacio the house of widow Josefa 
Alvarado, the finest in the city. Cannon boomed on the old plaza, bonfires 
blazed in the streets and the city was illuminated for three nights. Los Angeles 
was at last a real capital and had a governor all to herself. 

Alvarado and Castro, with an army, came down from the north determined 


to subjugate the troublesome southerners. A battle was fought at San Buena 
ventura. For two days cannon volleyed and thundered at intervals. One 
man was killed and several mustangs died for their country. The " surenos " 
were defeated and their leaders captured and sent as prisoners of state to Vallejos' 
bastile at Sonoma. Los Angeles, Carrillo's capital, was captured by Alvarado. 
Carrillo rallied his demoralized army at Las Flores. Another battle was fought 
or rather a few shots were fired at long range which hurt no one. Carillo 
surrendered and was sent home to his wife at Santa Barbara who became 
surety for his future good behavior. Alvarado was now the acknowledged 
governor of El Estado Libre de Alta California ; but the " Free State " had 
ceased to exist. Months before Alvarado had made his peace with the Supreme 
government by taking the oath of allegiance to Mexico, thus restoring California 
to the rule of the mother country. In November, 1838, Alvarado received his 
formal appointment as " gobernador interino " of California, or rather of the 
Californias; for under the new constitution creating twenty- four departments 
instead of states, the two Californias constituted one department. 

In the internecine wars and in their revolts against the ' Mexican gov 
ernors, the Californias invoked the aid of a power that would not down at their 
bidding that was the assistance of the foreigners. Zamorano in his contest 
with Echandia was the first to enlist the foreign contingent. Next Alvarado 
secured the offices of Graham and his riflemen to help in the expulsion of 
Gutierrez. In his invasion of the south he and Castro again called in the 
foreign element headed by Graham and Coppinger. Indeed the fear of the 
American riflemen, who made up the larger part of Graham's force, was the 
most potent . factor in bringing the south to terms. These hunters and trappers, 
with their long Kentucky rifles, shot to kill and any battle in which they took 
part would not be a bloodless affair. 

After Alvarado had been confirmed in his office, he would gladly have rid 
himself of his allies. But they would not be shaken off and were importunate 
in their demands for the recognition of their services. There were rumors that 
the foreigners were plotting to overthrow the government and revolutionize 
California, as had already been clone in Texas. Alvarado issued secret orders 
to arrest a number of foreigners whom he had reason to fear. About one 
hundred were arrested during the month of April, 7840. and forty-seven were 
sent as prisoners in irons to San Bias. The others were released. The 
prisoners, who were about equally divided in nationality between Americans and 
Englishmen, were confined in prison at Tepic. Here the British consul, Barren, 
was instrumental in securing their release the American consul being absent. 
The Mexican government paid them damages for their imprisonment and fur 
nished those who had a legal right to residence in California with transpor- 



tation to Monterey, where they landed in July, 1841, better dressed and with 
more money than when they were sent away. 

An important event during Alvarado's rule was the capture of Monterey, 
October igth, 1842, by Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones, commander of 
the United States forces of the Pacific. Jones, who was cruising in the south 
Pacific, learning that Admiral Thomas, in command of the English squad 
ron of the Pacific, had sailed out of Callao under sealed orders, suspected 
that the Admiral's orders were to seize California. Knowing that war was 
imminent between Mexico and the United States, Jones determined to take 
possession of California for the United States, if he could reach it before the 
English admiral did. Crowding on all sail, he arrived at Monterey October 
igth and immediately demanded the surrender of California, both Upper and 
Lower, to the United States government. He gave Governor Alvarado until 
nine o'clock on the morning of the 2Oth to decide on his course. Alvarado had 
been already superseded by Micheltorena, who was then somewhere in the 
neighborhood of Los Angeles, and at first decided to shirk the responsibility 
of surrender by leaving the town ; but he was dissuaded from this step. The 
terms were agreed upon and at ten o'clock the next morning 150 sailors and 
marines disembarked, took possession of the fort, lowered the Mexican flag 
and raised the American colors. The officers and soldiers of the California 
government were discharged and their guns and arms taken into possession by 
the United States troops, and carried into the fort. On the 2ist, at four p. m., 
the flags again changed places the fort and arms were restored to their former 
claimants. Commodore Jones had learned from some Mexican newspapers 
found in the captured fort that war did not yet exist between the two republics. 


'K~- v,,-"' 



FOR some time ill feeling had been growing between Governor Alvarado- 
and the comandante general, M. G. Vallejo. Each had sent commis 
sions to the Supreme government to present his side of the quarrel. 
The Supreme government finally decided to combine the civil and military 
offices in the person of a Mexican officer, and on January 22nd, 1842, Manuel 

Micheltorena, who had seen service with the Santa 
Anna in Texas, was appointed to this office. He 
was to be provided with a sufficient number of 
troops to prevent the intrusion of foreigners parti 
cularly Americans into California. The large 
force promised him finally dwindled down to 300 
convicts, known as cholos, who were released from 
Mexican prisons on condition that they serve in the 

Governor Micheltorena had landed with his 
ragged cholos at San Diego, in August, and was 
leisurely marching northward to the capital. On 
the night of October 24th, he had arrived at a 
point twenty miles north of San Fernando when 
news reached him of the capture of Monterey by 
Commodore Jones. The valiant commander and 
his cholos retreated to San Fernando where they 

remained until they learned of the restoration of Monterey to the Californians. 
Then they fell back to Los Angeles. Here, January 2Oth, 1843, Commodore 
Jones had a conference with the governor who made some exorbitant demands, 
among others that the United States government should pay $15,000 to Mexico 
for the expense incurred in the general alarm and for a set of musical instru 
ments lost in the retreat, and also replace 1,500 uniforms ruined in the violent 
march. Commodore Jones did not deign an answer to these ridiculous 
demands ; and Micheltorena did not insist upon them. The conference closed 
with a grand ball and all parties were pacified. 

Micheltorena took the oath of office at Los Angeles, December 3ist, 1842. 
Speeches were made, salutes were fired and the city was illuminated for three 
nights. With his Falstaffian army, the governor remained at Los Angeles until 
mid-summer. The Angelerios had, for years, contended with the people of 
Monterey for the capital and had gone to war to gain it. Now that they had 



the coveted prize, they would gladly have parted with it if, by so doing, they 
could rid themselves of Micheltorena's thieving soldiers. The men were not 
altogether to blame, as their pay was long in arrears and they received but 
scant supplies of clothing or rations. It was a case of steal, or starve and 
they stole. 

In August Micheltorena and his cholo contingent reached Monterey. The 
Californians did not welcome the Mexican governor very heartily. 

While indolent and vacillating, he was a man of considerable ability, and 
began his rule with the intention of improving conditions in California. 
Education had been sadly neglected both under Spanish and Mexican domina 
tion. One of his first attempts was to establish a public school system. Five 
hundred dollars was apportioned from the public funds for the maintenance of 
schools in each of the larger towns and arrangements were made for the opening 
of several schools for girls. Heretofore the public schools had been open only 
to boys. What was left of the mission estates was restored to the Padres and 
an earnest effort was made to reconcile sectional animosity, but with all of his 
efforts to be just and better the condition of California, there was still an 
undercurrent of hostility to him. Part of this was due to the thieving of his 
convict soldiers ; but a more potent cause was the ambition of certain " hijos 
del pais " to rule the territory. They blamed the governor for retaining his 
cholos in the country, claiming that they were kept for the purpose of subjugat 
ing, or terrorizing, the natives. 

The appointment of Micheltorena to fill both the civil and military offices 
was a bitter disappointment to Alvarado and Vallejo. They were not long in 
discovering that much as they hated each other, they hated the Mexican worse. 
They buried the hatchet and combined with Castro to do what the trio had 
done before drive the Mexican governor out of the country. The depredations 
of the cholos had so embittered the people that they were ready to join the 
standard of anyone who would head a revolution. On November I5th, 1844, 
a meeting of the leaders of the dissatisfied was held at Alvarado's Rancho de 
Aliso, and a pronunciamento against Micheltorena was issued. 

Alvarado and Castro headed a body of revolutionists, numbering about 
thirty, who moved northward to San Jose, where they were largely reinforced. 
Micheltorena set out in pursuit of them ; after some maneuvering, a treaty was 
finally effected between the belligerents. Micheltorena pledged his word of 
honor to send back to Mexico, within three months, his vicious soldiers and 
officers; while Alvarado and Castro, on their part, agreed to go into winter 
quarters at San Jose, with their troops, who were to constitute the military force 
of the territory after the departure of the convict soldiers. Micheltorena 
returned to Monterey, but the censure of his officers for the surrender caused 
him to break his word and secretly plot for the capture of the insurgents. He 


secured the aid of Captain John A. Sutter, a Swiss gentleman, who had an 
establishment at New Helvcetia, now Sacramento, and a company of Indians 
drilled in military maneuvers and the use of arms. Beside his Indians, Sutter 
secured for Micheltorena the services of a number of foreigners, mostly Amer 
icans. Alvarado and Castro learned of the perfidy of Micheltorena through 
the capture of one of his messengers with a letter to Sutter. Not being prepared 
to sustain an attack from the combined forces of Micheltorena and Sutter, they 
hurriedly broke camp at San Jose and with a portion of their force marched 
to Los Angeles where they arrived, January 21 st, 1845. They endeavored to 
fire the southern heart against the governor, but the old animosity was as strong 
as ever and the southerners regarded with suspicion the friendly advances of 
their old enemies. The Pico brothers were finally won over and Pio Pico, who 
was primer-vocal, of the " junta departmental " or assembly, called that body 
together, to meet at Los Angeles, on January 28th. It declared Micheltorena 
a traitor to the country who must be deposed. 

Sutter with his force numbering about two hundred men, one hundred of 
whom were Indians, joined Micheltorena at Salinas early in January. The 
combined forces about four hundred began a leisurely march to the south. 
The fear of a raid by Micheltorena's cholos and Slitter's Indians had stimulated 
recruiting in the south, and Castro and Pico soon found themselves at the head 
of about four hundred men. A commission from Los Angeles met the governor 
at Santa Barbara on Feburary 7th with propositions for a settlement of the 
difficulty. He treated the commission with scant respect and offered but one 
condition unconditional surrender of the rebels. 

A week later the departmental assembly met at Los Angeles and passed 
resolutions deposing Micheltorena and appointing Pio Pico temporary governor. 
In the meantime, disgusted with Micheltorena's slow movements, about half 
of the foreigners in his army deserted. Micheltorena's army moving clown by 
way of Encinas, and Castro's forces advancing from Los Angeles, met on the 
Cahuenga plain. Artillery firing began at long range and thus continued all 
day. The foreigners in the respective armies got together in a ravine during 
the fight and agreed to let the Mexicans and Californians settle their dispute 
in their own way. 

Toward evening, Micheltorena undertook to make a flank movement and 
marched his troops to the eastward, evidently intending to follow the river 
down to the city. Castro and Alvarado moved back through the Cahuenga 
Pass and again encountered the opposing force at the Yerdugo rancho. A few 
cannon shots were fired when Micheltorena displayed a white flag in token of 
surrender. Terms of capitulation were drawn up by which he and his convict 
army were to be sent back to Mexico. Pio Pico was recognized as temporary 
governor and Castro was made comandante general of the miltary force. As 


a sedative to his military pride, Micheltorena was granted permission to march 
his army to San Pedro with all the honors of war, taking with them their three 
pieces of artillery, but the guns were to be given up at the embarcadero. The 
governor and his soldiers were sent to Monterey and there, joined by the 
garrison that had been stationed at the capital, all were sent to San Bias, 
Mexico. Captain Sutter was taken prisoner during the battle and was held 
under arrest for some time after the departure of Micheltorena. He was at 
length released and allowed to return, with his Indians, by way of Tejon Pass 
and the Tulares, to New Helvetia. 

Pio Pico, by virtue of his position as senior vocal of the assembly, became 
governor, and Castro, in accordance with the treaty of Cahuenga, was comand- 
ante general. Alvarado was made administrator of the custom house in Monte 
rey. Thus the " hijos del pais " were once more a power and the factional fight 
between the " uppers " and the " lowers " was once more declared off. Pico 
established his government at Los Angeles and that " ciudad," ten years after 
the Mexican congress had decreed it the capital, became the seat of governmnet. 
Castro established his military headquarters at Monterey and Jose Antonio 
Carrillo, one of the leaders of the " lowers," was made comandante of the military 
in the south. Pico began his rule with a desire to benefit the territory. He 
might have succeeded, had he been able to control the discordant factions. 

As has been previously stated, Micheltorena restored, as far as possible, 
the mission property to the Padres ; but it was impossible to establish the old 
order even on a small scale. The few Indians remaining at the missions 
were unmanageable. Through the neglect or incompetency of the administra- 
dors, debts had been incurred and creditors were importunate. The Padres 
in charge were mostly old men, unable to cope with the difficulties that beset 
them on every side. Pico, with the concurrence of the junta, decided to make 
a change in the mission policy. In June, 1845, ne issued a decree, warning the 
Indians at San Rafael, Soledacl, San Miguel and Purisima to return to their 
respective missions. Failing to do so, they were to be declared vagrants and 
punished as such. At Carmel, San Juan Bautista, San Juan Capistrano an f l 
Solano, where pueblos had been established, the church and the curate's home 
were to be reserved and the balance of the property sold at auction to pay the 
debts of the missions. The abctndoned missions and the mission pueblos before 
mentioned were sold in December, 1845, and ten of the missions were rented 
for a term of nine years. The proceeds of the sale were to be used for the 
benefit of the Indians and the support of the Padres. In those rented, 
the Indians were at liberty to remain in the service of the lessees. A 
portion of the proceeds were to be used for the support of religious 
services. The change brought no improvement in the condition of 
the neophytes. They sank still lower in degradation, while the mis- 



sions, deprived of income and of power, ceased to exist. Notwithstanding 
Pico's efforts to conciliate the discordant elements, it soon became evident that 
the old spirit of turbulence was still dominant. The first insurrectionary move 
ment originated with Jose Antonio Carillo, Pico's own brother-in-law. This 
was suppressed and Carillo and Vareles, one of his auxiliaries, were shipped to 
Mexico for trial; but were released and returned to California. Castro ignored 
Pico in milittary affairs and soon a bitter quarrel was on between the gefe 
politico and the comandante general. 

For a number of years there had been a steady 
influx of foreigners mostly Americans. Many of 
them had married into prominent families and had 
become by naturalization, Mexican citizens. In 1841, 
the first train of immigrants arrived in California 
overland. The immigration over the plains contin 
ued to increase after this. The leading Californians 
saw that it was their manifest destiny to become a 
territory of the United States. Texas had been 
wrested from Mexico by the same foreign element 
that was now invading California. Early in 1846, 
Castro called a junta of his officers at Monterey. 
This council issued a pronunciamento declaring hos 
tility to the United States and the members pledged 
themselves to defend the honor of the Mexican na 
tion against the perfidious attacks of its rivals the 
North Americans. In this council. Pico had been 
ignored and the hostile feelings between the political and military chiefs grew 
more bitter. Pico had been appointed constitutional governor by President Her- 
rera and, April i8th, 1846, in the presence of the territorial assembly and a large 
concourse of people gathered at Los Angeles, he took the oath of office. 

Castro and his associates were soon to be given an opportunity to test their 
courage in the defence of Mexican honor against the attacks of the perfidious 
North Americans. Lieutenant John C. Fremont, who had previously led two 
expeditions through the Rocky mountains, Oregon and California, in January, 
1846, arrived in California. His company numbered sixty-two men, scientists, 
guides and servants. These he left encamped in the Tulare county, east of the 
coast range, while he repaired to Monterey to secure some needed supplies and 
to explain his presence. As the expedition was scientific in its object and Fre 
mont expressed his intention of proceeding to Oregon as soon as his men were 
rested and recruited, Castro made no objection to his remaining in California 
during the winter. But when, a few weeks later, the whole force of men 
marched into the Salinas valley, thev were ordered to leave the country at once. 



Instead of leaving, Fremont marched his men to Gabilan Peak, about thirty 
miles from Monterey, where he raised the stars and stripes and proceeded to 
fortify his camp. Castro marshalled his force on the plains below out of range 
of Fremont's men. After holding the fort on Gabilan Peak two days, Fremont, 
on the night of March gth, abandoned it and leisurely proceeded northward by 
way of the San Joaquin valley to Sutler's Fort and from there, after a short 
stop, to Lassen's Rancho on Deer Creek, where he remained until April I4th. 
He then resumed his march toward the Oregon line. 

On May 5th, he was encamped near Klamath Lake when Samuel Neal 
and William Sigler, two settlers of the Sacramento valley, rode into his camp 
and informed him that a L T nited States officer, bearing dispatches, was endeav 
oring to overtake him. The officer had but a small escort and the Indians being 
hostile, he was in great danger. Fremont took nine of his men and the two mes 
sengers and hurried to the relief of the officer. The parties met and encamped on 
the bank of a creek. About midnight the Indians attacked the camp, killing three 
of Fremont's men and losing their own chief. The dispatch bearer proved to 
be Lieut. Archibald H. Gillespie, of the U. S. Navy. He had left Washington 
in November, 1845, with instructions from the government; had crossed Mex 
ico, disguised as a merchant, and from San Bias had taken passage to Hono 
lulu and thence reached Monterey, April I7th. Fremont, with his entire force, 
after punishing the Klamath Indians for their treachery, returned to Slitter's 
Fort, where Lieut. Gillespie, who had gone ahead, met them with supplies pro 
cured from San Francisco through Captain Montgomery of the Portsmouth. 
The substance of the dispatches sent to Fremont from Secretary of State 
Buchanan was to prevent the occupation of California by any European power 
and in the event of war with Mexico to take possession of the country for the 
United States. It was well known that England had designs on California and 
it was partly to circumvent these and partly to warn Fremont that war with 
Mexico was pending that the dispatches had been sent. The report that a large 
immigration was on its way to California from the United States was, no doubt, 
the cause of the hostility of the authorities to Fremont and to the recently 
arrived immigrants. There were rumors that Castro was organizing a force to 
drive the foreign settlers out of the country. Many Americans were in Cali 
fornia without authority under the Mexican laws. 

Believing themselves in danger and regarding Fremont as their protector, 
a number of the settlers repaired to his camp. Their first aggressive act was 
the capture of 250 horses that were being moved by Lieut, de Arce and four 
teen men, from the north side of the bay to Castro's camp at Santa Clara. A 
party of twelve Americans, under Ezekiel Merritt, captured the horses and made 
prisoners of the escort, who were brought into Fremont's camp and there 
released. Hostilities having been begun, it became necessary for the settlers to 


widen the breach so as to provoke retaliation on the part of the Californians 
rather than be punished as horse thieves. The next move was to seize the mil 
itary post and the principal men of Sonoma. On the morning of June nth, 
twenty men under command of Merritt, armed with pistols and rifles, and 
mounted on fresh horses, set out from Fremont's camp on Bear Creek for 
Sonoma. On the way their number was recruited to thirty-two. On the morn 
ing of the I4th, about daybreak, they surrounded the town and took Gen. M. 
G. Vallejo, Captain Salvador Yallejo, and Lieut. Col. Victor Prudon, prisoners. 
There seem to have been no private soldiers at Sonoma all officers. The cas- 
tillo, or fort, contained about a dozen rusty old cannon and two hundred and 
fifty muskets. Gen. Vallejo and his officers, as prisoners of war, gave their 
word of honor not to take up arms against the revolutionists, on a guarantee 
from their captain to respect the lives and property of the prisoners, their fam 
ilies and the residents of the jurisdiction. This guarantee, signed by Merritt, 
Semple, Fallon and Kelsey, was given in writing. The prisoners, although 
given their parole, were taken to Sutler's Fort, by a guard. Twenty-four men 
remained at the fort. The leaders of the party having gone with the prisoners, 
W. B. Ide, who had come to the front on account of a speech he made advocat 
ing a movement to make the country independent, was chosen commander. 

Ide immediately set about formulating a declaration of independence, and 
William Todd, one of his men, having procured a piece of manta, or coarse cot 
ton cloth about two yards long, set to work to fashion a flag for the new repub 
lic. Todd, assisted by some others, painted a star in the upper coiner and in 
the center a figure supposed to represent a bear, but which the natives called 
a " cochina " (pig). Below these figures he painted in large letters, "Califor 
nia Republic.'.' Along the lower edge of the flag was stitched a strip of red 
woolen cloth said to have been a part of a red woolen petticoat. When com 
pleted the famous " Bear Flag " of California was run up on the flagstaff where 
the Mexican colors had formerly floated. The cannon and muskets were loaded, 
guards posted, military discipline established, and the California Republic duly 
inaugurated. On June i8th, the same day that Ide issued his proclamation, 
Thomas Cowie and George Fowler, two of Ide's men, volunteered to go to 
Fitch's ranch to procure a keg of powder from Mose Carson. On the way they 
were captured by a band of Californians under Juan Padilla and brutally mur 
dered. The news of this outrage reached Sonoma and later a report that Todd, 
who had been sent to Bodega with a message, had been captured. Captain W. 
L. Ford, with a force of twenty-three men, hastily set out from Sonoma to cap 
ture Padilla. At Olampali Rancho, Captain Ford unexpectedly came upon the 
combined forces of Captain de la Torre and Padilla, numbering eighty-three 
men. The Americans fell back into a willow thicket. The Californians, sup 
posing that they were retreating, charged upon them but were met by a volley 



of rifle balls that some reports say killed eight men. Todd, while the fight was 
going on, made his escape and joined Ford's men, who fell back to Sonoma. 
Fremont, who had been camped at the Buttes, having learned of Ide's 
attempt to establish a Pacific Republic and that Castro would not attack them 
to rescue the prisoners, but was gathering a force to recapture Sonoma, broke 
up his camp and moved down to New Helvetia, where he put his prisoners in 
the fort under guard. 

On June 23rd, Fremont hastened to Sonoma with a force of seventy-two 
mounted riflemen. The Americans, including Fremont's men, now numbered 

two hundred. Fremont and Ford 
with a force of 135 men, started out 
to hunt Captain de la Torre, who was 
in command of the Calif ornians north 
of the bay. Torre, it is claimed, 
wrote letters stating that Castro was 
about to attack Sonoma with a large 
force. These were placed in the 
boots of three of his men, who al 
lowed themselves to be captured. 
The strategem succeeded Fremont 
and Ford hurried back to Sonoma, bttt 
the three Californians were shot with 
out trial. Authorities differ as to this 
story. If such letters were captured, 
they were not preserved, and it is 
more than probable that the prisoners, 
Berryessa and the two de 'Haro boys, 
were shot in retaliation for the mur 
der of Cowie and Fowler. Whether 
from the captured letters, or from 
some other source, Fremont believed that Castro's force was north of the bay. 
Castro, however, had not left Santa Clara. Captain de la Torre, taking advantage 
of the absence of his pursuers, crossed the bay at Sausalito and joined Castro. 
Fremont finding himself deceived, returned to the pursuit, but he was too late 
the game had escaped and he marched back to Sonoma, where he arrived July 3rd. 
The Fourth of July was celebrated with great eclat by the " Bears." Wine, gun 
powder, eloquence and a grand ball stirred up all the latent patriotism of the 
revolutionists. The " California Republic " reached the zenith of its power that 
day. The next day it collapsed. Ide was deposed by a vote of the Bears and 
Fremont was chosen to head the movement for independence. 

On the Jth of July, Commodore Sloat raised the Stars and Stripes in Monte- 



rey and took possession of the country in the name of the United States. 'He 
had arrived on the Savannah on the 2nd from Mazatlan, where he had heard 
rumors of hostilities between the United States and Mexico; but not having 
learned of any formal declaration of war, he was undecided what course to pursue. 
Having heard of the Bear Flag movement and of Fremont's connection with it, 
he presumed that Fremont had later information, and finally decided to take 
possession of the country. 

Fremont, on July 6th, leaving Captain Grigsby with fifty men at Sonoma, 
started with the rest of his battalion, about 130 men, for Sacramento with the 
intention of making preparations to attack Castro. Captain Montgomery of the 
Portsmouth had raised the flag at San Francisco ; Lieut. Revere arrived at Sonoma 
on the gth; the Bear flag was lowered and the Stars and Stripes unfurled. On 
the nth the flag was raised over Slitter's Fort and the same day over Bodega. 
All Northern and Central California was now in possession of the Americans. 

For months there had been ill feeling between Governor Pico and the com- 
mandante-general, Castro. Pico had made Los Angeles his capital, while Castro 
had established his headquarters at Monterey. Their quarrel was the old sec 
tional jealousy of the north and the south and their respective sections supported 
them in their dispute. Castro was accused of plotting to overthrow the govern 
ment. At the time Sloat raised the United States flag at Monterey Pico, with 
an armed body had reached Santa Barbara, intending to fight Castro, who was 
at Santa Clara. With a part of his force, Castro retreated southward and joined 
Pico. They patched up a truce and, uniting their forces, retreated to Los Angeles, 
where they began preparations to resist the " perfidious North Americans." 



THE American era of California history begins with the raising of the 
flag at Monterey on July 7th, 1846. Within a week after that event all 
of the territory north of Monterey had been taken possession of without 
opposition. Castro, with a part of his force, had retreated to Los Angeles, 
and those remaining behind had disbanded and retired to their homes. Fremont 
had moved his battalion of about 130 men to a camp on the American river 
above Sutler's Fort. Here he was encamped when, on the nth of July, a mes 
senger bearing Sloat's proclamation and an American flag reached him. This 
flag was raised over the fort and saluted with twenty-one guns. Immediately 
afterward Fremont's battalion began its march to Monterey, where it arrived 



on the iqth. Fremont had an interview with Commodore Sloat which was not 
very satisfactory to either. Sloat was inclined to blame Fremont for acting 
without sufficient authority in precipitating hostilities and Fremont was disap 
pointed because Sloat would not endorse his scheme of making a campaign 
against Castro.. 

On the 1 5th of July Commodore Stockton, on the Congress, arrived at 
Monterey from Honolulu and reported to Commodore Sloat for duty. Sloat 

was an old man, having entered the 
Navy in 1800; his health was fail 
ing and he was anxious to retire 
from active service. He made 
Stockton commander-in-chief of all 
the land forces in California. 
Stockton on taking command, made 
Fremont a major and Gillispie a 
captain. On July 26th, the battal 
ion was loaded on the Cyane, which 
sailed the next day for San Diego. 
Sloat, after transferring the com 
mand of the Pacific squadron to 
Stockton, sailed on July 2Qth, on 
board the Levant for home. 

Commodore Stockton, on as 
suming command, issued a procla 
mation in which he arraigned the 
Mexican government for beginning 
hostilities against the United States. 
He was very severe on Gen. Cas 
tro, whom he called a usurper, 

and the Calif ornians for outrages committed on the American settlers. 
' Three inoffensive Americans," said he, " residents of the country, have been 
within a few days brutally murdered ; and there are no California officers who 
will arrest and bring the murderers to justice, although it is well known who 
they are and where they are." He ignored the brutal murder of the three Cali- 
fornians, Berryessa and the two De Haro boys, who were shot down in cold 
blood by Fremont's men while begging for quarter. Bancroft says of the proc 
lamation, " The paper was made up of falsehood, of irrelevant issues and of 
bombastic boasting in about equal parts." Commodore Sloat read the procla 
mation at sea and did not approve of it. 

Gen. Pico and Gen. Castro, on their arrival at Los Angeles, immediately 
set to work to organize an army. Every man between fifteen and sixty was 
summoned for military duty and any Mexican refusing or excusing himself on 



any pretext was to be treated as a traitor. Those physically unable to do mili 
tary duty were required to aid with their property. The response to the call 
of the leaders was not very enthusiastic ; sectional jealousies, quarrels and feuds 
had destroyed, or at least, paralyzed patriotism. The foreign residents who 
were mostly Americans, secretly sympathized with the invaders. Money and 
the munitions of war were scarce. Castro had brought about 100 men with 
him from the north and Pico had recruited about the same in the south ; these 
constituted the available force to resist Stockton and Fremont. Stockton, with 
360 sailors and marines, arrived at San Pedro on August 6th, landed and drilled 
his force in military maneuvers. Castro sent a message by two commissioners, 
Flores and de la Guerra, expressing his willingness to enter into negotiations 
with Stockton. The commodore showed the messengers scant courtesy and 
dismissed them with an " insulting threat." Castro and Pico finding it impos 
sible to defend the capital with the small force at their command, determined to 
quit the country. On the night of August loth they took their departure ; Castro 
accompanied by his secretary, Francisco Arce, and eighteen men, going by way 
of the San Gorgonio pass and the Colorado river ; Pico by way of San Juan 
Capistrano and Santa Margarita, to Lower California. 

Stockton began his march to Los Angeles on August iith. On the 13111 
Major Fremont, with his battalion of 130 mounted men, met him just outside 
the town and the combined forces entered the capital. The United States flag 
was raised and possession taken of the town. The reception of the Americans 
was not cordial. Some of the better class of citizens had fled from the city, 
but these in a few days returned to their homes. Fremont's cavalry scoured the 
country and brought in a number of the leading men who had held civil or 
military office; these were paroled. Stockton, on the I7th, published a much 
milder proclamation in which he announced himself as commander-in-chief and 
governor of the territory ; he stated that California belonged to the United States 
and would be governed by military law until a civil government could be estab 
lished. Captain Gillispie was commissioned by Stockton as commandant of the 
southern department with headquarters at Los Angeles. He was assigned a 
garrison of fifty men taken from Fremont's force. On September 29th, Com 
modore Stockton, with his sailors and marines, returned to their ships at San 
Pedro and sailed for Monterey. ' A few days later Fremont, with the remainder 
of his battalion, began his march northward for Sutler's fort, where he expected 
to recruit his force from the immigrants now arriving in the country. 

While the combined forces of Stockton and Fremont, numbering about 500 
men, had occupied the town, the inhabitants had been quiet and submissive. 
But with a small force left to keep them in subjection, they soon began to mani 
fest their old turbulent and revolutionary disposition. September i6th, the anni 
versary of Mexican independence, a number of young men, under the stimulation 
of wine, and probably more in a spirit of mischief than with any serious intent, 



made an attack about midnight on Gillispie's headquarters, which were in the 
old government house. The garrison drove them off with a volley of musketry, 
in which three men were killed so Gillispie reported but the dead were never 
found. The next day Gillispie ordered the arrest of a number of leading citi 
zens to be held as hostages. He also vigorously enforced military law. In a 
very short time he had a full-grown Mexican revolution on his hands. Some 
300 men, under the leadership of Flores and Serbulo Vareles, besieged his garri 
son. In the corral of the government house were five or six old cannon that 
Castro had spiked and abandoned. Gillispie had two of these unspiked and 
hauled up Fort Hill, where they were mounted. He made cannon balls out of 
some lead pipe that he found and cartridge covers out of a piece of red flannel 
captured from a store. The Californians had a brass four-pounder, known as 
" the Old Woman's gun " because, on the approach of Stockton's army, an old 
woman by the name of Rocha had buried the gun in her garden ; it had been 
used in firing salutes at church festivals, and the old lady declared that the 
" gringos " should not have the gun of the church. 

While besieged on Fort Hill, Gillispie on September 24th, sent a messenger, 
Juan Flaco (lean John) with dispatches to Stockton asking aid. By one of the 
most wonderful rides in history, this man, John Brown, reached San Francisco 
where Stockton had gone from Monterey, six hundred miles distance, in five 
days. Stockton at once ordered Mervine, commanding the Savannah, to go to 
the relief of Gillispie. On account of a dense fog, the vessel did not leave San 
Francisco until October 4th. Gillispie held out bravely for seven days, then 
capitulated, with honorable terms. On September 3Oth, with flags flying, drums 
beating and his two old cannon mounted on carretas, he began his march to San 
Pedro. He spiked the two old cannon and threw them in the bay, then went on 
board the Vandalia. a merchant ship lying at anchor in the harbor, but did not 
leave San Pedro. On October yth, Mervine entered the harbor. At 6:30 a.m. 
of the 8th, he landed a force of 299 men, which included Gillispie's volunteers. 
A small force of the enemy appeared and Captain Mervine ordered Lieut. Hitch 
cock, with a reinforcement of eighty men from the vessel, to attack; but the 
enemy retreated and the detachment returned to the ship. Captain Mervine and 
his men then started for the pueblo. They took no cannon and had no horses. 
After a fatiguing tramp through tall mustard and clouds of dust they encamped 
at the Dominguez rancho. The enemy, under the command of Jose Antonio 
Carrillo, and numbering abort eighty men, appeared on the foothills and some 
skirmishing at long range took place. During the night, Flores arrived from 
the pueblo with a reinforcement of about sixty men and the " old woman's " gun. 
They opened fire during the night on Mervine's camp with this cannon, but did 
no damage. The next morning Mervine's men resumed their march and had 
not proceeded far before they encountered the enemy. The Californians opened 
fire and Mervine, fearing a charge from their cavalry, formed his troops in a 


hollow square with their baggage in the center. A running fight ensued ; the 
Californians firing, then dragging the gun back with riatas. loading, and firing 
again. Mervine, finding he was losing men without injuring the enemy, ordered 
a retreat. The Californians fired a parting shot or two, but did not pursue the 
Americans, as they had exhausted their ammunition. Mervine reached San 
Pedro that evening and went aboard his vessel. His loss was four killed and 
six wounded. The dead were buried on the Isla de los Muertes, or Deadman's 
island. The Savannah remained in the harbor and the Californians kept a small 
detachment at Sepulveda's ranch and another at Cerritos to watch the Americans. 

On the 25th Commodore Stockton arrived at San Pedro on the Congress 
and remained there about a week. Although he had a force of nearly 800 men, 
he did not deem this sufficient to recapture the capital, as he greatly overestimated 
the strength of the enemy. On November ist he sailed for San Diego. At 
the time of Flores' attack on Gillispie the American garrisons at San Diego and 
Santa Barbara were driven out of these towns. The force at San Diego went 
aboard the Stonington, a whale ship lying in the harbor. Lieut. Talbot with 
ten men was stationed at Santa Barbara. When called upon to surrender, this 
party fell back into the hills and reached the head of the San Joaquin river, 
where they obtained food from the Indians ; then traveled down the valley, sub 
sisting on the flesh of wild horses and finally, by way of Pacheco's pass, they 
crossed over to the coast and joined Fremont's battalion at Monterey. 

The departmental assembly, having been called together by Flores, met at 
Los Angeles, October 26th. The members were all from the south. The first 
business in order was to fill the offices of governor and commandante-general 
left vacant by the flight of Pico and Castro. It was decided to combine the two 
offices in one person and Jose Maria Flores was chosen commander-in-chief and 
governor ad interim. He took the oath of office November ist and was really 
the last Mexican governor of California. Flores and the members of the as 
sembly made some provisions for continuing the war, but their resources were 
very limited. Their recent successes over the Americans hid somewhat encour 
aged them and they hoped to be able to hold out until reinforcements arrived 
from Mexico. 

Stockton, on his arrival at San Diego, had set to work to organize an expe 
dition against Los Angeles. The Californians had driven the cattle and horses 
back into the mountains and the Americans found great difficulty in procuring 
animals. Frequent forays were made into Lower California and horses, cattle 
and sheep procured. The remnant of Fremont's battalion, after taking from 
it garrisons for San Diego, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, had returned to the 
Sacramento valley in September. Here it was recruited to 160 men, and on 
October I3th sailed from San Francisco on a merchant vessel, with orders to 
operate against the rebels in the south ; but between Monterey and Santa Barbara 
they met the Vandalia and learned of Mervine's defeat, and of the impossibility 



of procuring horses in the lower country. They put about and the battalion 
landed at Monterey October 28th. Vigorous efforts were at once made to recruit 
men and horses. A number of immigrants had arrived from the states. These 
were induced to enlist on the promise of $25 per month pay. Horses were pur 
chased, or where owners refused to sell, were confiscated. A company of Walla 
Walla Indians was enlisted these were known as the " Forty Thieves." Sut- 
ter's "warriors in bronze" (Indians) were also enrolled for service. In the 
latter part of November, the recruits were collected at San Juan. They num 
bered about 450 riflemen and 40 artillerymen, representing many nations and 
many different kinds of arms, and were divided into ten companies. Fremont 

had been commissioned as lieutenant-colonel in the 
regular army and was commander-in-chief of the 
battalion. While Fremont's officers and men were 
engaged in collecting horses, an engagement took 
place between a detachment numbering about 60 
men, under Captains Burroughs and Thompson, and 
the Ca'.ifornians under Manuel Castro, who had 
been made commandant of the Californian forces in 
the north. The Americans had gathered several 
hundred horses and were taking them to the camp 
at San Juan. The advance guard, consisting of 
eight scouts, encountered the Californians near Na- 
tividad. They posted themselves in an "encinalito"', 
or grove of little oaks, and a fight ensued. The 
main body of the Americans coming up, a reckless 
charge was made. Captain Burroughs and four or 
five others were killed and five or six were wounded. 
The Californians lost about the same number ; the result was a drawn battle. 
The American consul, Thomas O. Larkin, had started for San Francisco 
and had stopped at Gomez's ranch overnight. A squad of Californians, under 
Lieut. Chavez, surrounded the house about midnight and made him prisoner; he 
was held until the close of the war. The only other engagement in the north 
was the so-called " Battle of Santa Clara ", which took place between a force 
of about TOO Americans under Captains Weber, Marston and Aram, and an 
equal number of Californians under Francisco Sanchez. Fighting was at long 
range with artillery and so far as known there were no fatalities on either side. 
In the south the garrison at San Diego, after it had remained on the Stoning- 
ton about ten days, stole a march on the Californians by landing at night and 
recapturing the town and one piece of artillery. A whaleboat was sent up to 
San Pedro with dispatches and an earnest request for reinforcements. It reached 
San Pedro October I3th. Lieut. Miner and Midshipmen Duvall and Morgan, 
with 35 sailors of Mervine's force and 15 of Gillispie's volunteers, were sent to 



reinforce Merritt at San Diego. This force upon arrival set to work to build 
a fort and mount the cannon taken from the old presidio. Although continually 
harassed by the Californians, they succeeded in this. 

About the first of November, Commodore Stockton arrived at San Diego. 
He began fortifications on the hill and built a fort out of casks filled with earth, 
on which he mounted guns. The whole work was completed in three weeks. 
Provisions ran short and frequent forays were made into the surrounding country 
for supplies. 'About December ist word reached Stockton that Gen. Kearney 
with 100 dragoons was at Warner's pass, about eighty miles from San Diego. 
Stockton sent a force of fifty men and one piece of artillery, under Captain Gil- 
lispie to conduct this force to San Diego. On their return march the entire force 
was surprised, on the morning of December 6th, by about 90 Californians under 
Captain Andres Pico, near the Indian village of San Pasqual. Pico had been 
sent into that part of the country to intercept and capture squads of Americans 
sent out after horses and cattle. The meeting was a surprise on both sides. 
The Americans foolishly charged the Californians and in doing so became strung 
out in a long irregular line. The Californians rallied and charged in turn. The 
Americans lost in killed, Captains Johnston and Moore, Lieut. Hammond and 
sixteen dragoons ; Captains Gillispie and Gibson and seventeen dragoons were 
wounded. The Californians escaped with three men slightly wounded. Three 
of Kearney's wounded died, making the total American death list twenty-one. 
Less than one-half of Kearney's force were engaged in the battle. 

After the engagement, Kearney took position on a barren hill, covered with 
rocks. The enemy made no attack, but remained in the neighborhood and 
awaited a favorable opportunity to renew the assault. The night after the attack, 
Lieut. Godey, Midshipman Beale and Kit Carson managed to pass through the 
pickets of the enemy and eventually by different routes reached San Diego 
with the news of the disaster. On December gth detachments of sailors and 
marines, numbering in all about 200, from the Congress and the Portsmouth and 
under the immediate command of Captain Zielin, began a march to relieve Gen. 
Kearney. They marched at night and camped in the chapparal by day. Early 
in the morning after the second night they reached Kearney's camp, taking him 
by surprise. Godey, who had been sent ahead to inform Kearney of the relief, 
had been captured by the Californians. Gen. Kearney had destroyed all of his 
baggage and camp equipage, saddles, bridles, clothing, etc., preparatory to forcing 
his way through the enemy's lines. But the enemy disappeared on the arrival 
of reinforcements, and Gen. Kearney and the relief expedition reached San Diego 
after a march of two days. 

It is necessary to explain how Gen. Kearney came to be in California with 
so small a force. In June, 1846, Gen. Stephen W. Kearney, commander of the 
Army of the West, left Fort Leavenworth with a force of regulars and volun 
teers to take possession of New Mexico. The conquest of that territory was 


accomplished without a battle. Under orders from the War Department, Kear 
ney began his march to California with a part of his force, in order to co-operate 
with the naval force already there. Near Socorro, New Mexico, October i6th, 
he met Kit Carson with an escort of fifteen men, en route from Los Angeles to 
Washington with dispatches from Commodore Stockton, giving a report of the 
conquest of California. Gen. Kearney selected 120 men from his force, sent the 
remainder back to Santa Fe, and compelled Carson to turn back as his guide. 
After a toilsome journey across the arid plains of Arizona and the Colorado 
desert, they reached the Indian village where the engagement took place, desti 
tute of provisions and with men and horses worn out. 

Stockton had been actively pushing preparations for his expedition against 
Los Angeles. His force now numbered 600 men, mostly sailors and marines ; 
but he had been drilling them in military evolutions on land. On the iQth of 
December this army started on its march for the capital. Gen. Kearney was 
made second in command. The baggage and artillery was hauled on carretas, 
but the oxen being ill-fed and unused to long journeys, gave out on the way and 
the marines had to assist in dragging the carts. Near San Juan Capistrano, a 
commission, bearing a flag of truce, met Stockton with proposals from Gov. 
Flores, asking for a conference.' Stockton replied that he knew no " Gov. 
Flores ", that he (Stockton) was governor of California. "He knew a rebel 
by the name of Flores and if the people of California would give him up, he 
would treat with them." The embassy replied that they preferred death to sur 
render under such terms. On January 8th, 1847, Stockton's army encountered 
the Californians at El Paso de Bartolo on the San Gabriel river and a battle was 
fought. The Californians had planted four pieces of artillery on the bluff above 
the river with the design of preventing the Americans from crossing. In the 
face of the artillery fire, the Americans crossed the river, dragging with them 
through the quicksands two nine-pounders and four smaller guns. They placed 
their guns on a battery on the river bank and opened fire on the Californians 
with such telling effect that one of their guns was disabled and the gunners were 
driven away from the others. The California cavalry made a charge on the 
rear, but were repulsed by Gillispie's riflemen. The Americans charged the Cali- 
fornian center, advanced their artillery in battery. The enemy was driven from 
the heights, but succeeded in taking their artillery with them. The battle lasted 
about one and a half hours, the Americans losing two killed and eight wounded. 
The loss of trie Californians was about the same. The Americans encamped on 
the battlefield while the Californians fell back toward the city and camped in 
plain view of their opponents ; but they moved their camp during the night. 

Stockton resumed his march on the morning of the 9th, moving in a north 
westerly direction across the plains. The Californians had posted themselves in 
Canada de los Alisos (Canyon of Sycamores) near the main road. As the Amer 
ican column appeared they opened fire with their artillery at long range, and 


continued it for several hours. Finally the Californians, concentrating all their 
efforts into one grand charge, dashed down upon the American column. A volley 
from the rifles of Stockton's men checked their advance, and turning, they fled 
in every direction, leaving a number of their horses dead upon the field. The 
" Battle of the Plains ", as Stockton calls it, was over. The loss on the American 
side was five wounded; on the other side one man was killed and an unknown 
number wounded. Stockton's force numbered about 600 men, but not all of 
them took part in the engagement. The Californians had about 300. The small 
loss on the American side was due to the inefficient weapons with which the 
Californians were armed and to the poor quality of their home-made gun powder, 
manufactured at San Gabriel. The small loss of the Californians was due to 
the long range at which most of the fighting was done and to the execrable 
marksmanship of Stockton's sailors and marines. After the battle, Stockton 
continued his march and crossed the river below the city, where he encamped 
on the right bank. 

On the morning of the loth, as he was about to resume his march, a flag 
of truce, borne by De Cells and Alvarado, Californians, and Wm. Workman, an 
Englishman, came into camp. The commissioners offered the peaceful surrender 
of the city on condition that the Americans should respect the rights of property 
and protect citizens. The terms were agreed to and Stockton's army marched 
into the city. The Americans met with no hostile demonstrations, but it was 
very evident that they were not welcome visitors. The better class of the native 
inhabitants closed their houses and took refuge with friendly foreigners or retired 
to ranches in the country ; the fellows of the lower class exhausted their vocabu 
laries against the " gringoes." Flores, after the " Battle of La Mesa ", retreated 
up the Arroyo Seco to the San Pasqual ranch, where he established his camp. 
Stockton, not 'aware of the location of the enemy and fear.ful of an attack, deter 
mined to fortify the town. On the nth, Lieut. Emory of Kearney's staff sketched 
the plan of a fort; on the I2th, the site was selected on what is now Fort Hill, 
and work was begun and continued on the I5th and i6th. 

We left Fremont's battalion on its march down the coast from Monterey. 
The rains set in early and were heavy ; the roads were almost impassable and the 
men suffered from the inclemency of the weather and from lack of supplies. 
The horses nearly all died and part of the artillery had to be abandoned. On 
January nth the battalion reached San Fernando valley, where Fremont received 
a note from Gen. Kearney informing him of defeat of the Californians and the 
capture of the city. The battalion advanced and occupied the mission buildings. 
Jesus Pico had been arrested near San Luis Obispo, having broken his parole. 
He was tried by court-martial and sentenced to be shot ; but Fremont pardoned 
him and he became in consequence a most devoted friend. He now volunteered 
to find the California!! army and induce them to surrender to Fremont. He 
found a part of the force encamped at Verdugo and urged Flores, who in response 



to a message had come from the main camp at San Pasqual, to capitulate to 
Fremont, claiming that better terms could be secured from the latter than from 
Stockton. A council was held and the Californians decided to appeal to Fremont, 
but Flores resolved to quit the country and started that same night for Sonora. 
Before leaving he transferred the command of the army to Gen. Andres Pico. 
Gen. Pico, on assuming command, appointed Francisco Rico and Francisco 
de la Guerra to go with Jesus Pico and confer with Col. Fremont. Fremont 
appointed as commissioners to negotiate a treaty, Major P. B. Reading, Major 
W. H. Russell and Captain Louis McLane. On the return of Rico and de la 

Guerra to the California camp, Gen. Pico 
appointed as commissioners Jose Anto 
nio Carrillo and Augustin Olvera and 
then moved his army to a point near the 
river at Cahuenga. On the I3th, Fre 
mont moved his camp from San Fer 
nando to Cahuenga. The commission 
ers met in a deserted ranch house at that 
place and the treaty, or capitulation, of 
Cahuenga was drawn up and signed. 
The principal stipulations of the treaty 
\vere that the Californians should sur 
render their arms and agree to conform 
to the laws of the United States. They 
were to be given the same privileges as 
citizens of the United States and were 
not to be required to take an oath of al 
legiance until a treaty of peace was 
signed between the United States and 
Mexico. General Pico surrendered two 
pieces of artillery and a few muskets 
and disbanded his men. 
On January I4th, Fremont's battalion marched through the Cahuenga pass 
and entered Los Angeles, four days after its surrender to Stockton. Commodore 
Stockton approved the treaty, although it was not altogether satisfactory to him. 
and on the i6th he appointed Col. Fremont governor of the territory. Gen. 
Kearney claimed that under his instructions from the War Department, he should 
be recognized as governor. For some time there had been ill feeling between 
Stockton and Kearney. This precipitated a quarrel. Gen. Kearney and his 
dragoons left Los Angeles on the i8th for San Diego and on the 2Oth Commo 
dore Stockton and his sailors and marines left the city for San Pedro, where 
they embarked on a man-of-war to rejoin their ships at San Diego. Stockton 
was shortly after this superseded in the command of the Pacific squadron by 



Commodore Shubrick. Col. Fremont was left in command at Los Angeles. 
Col. P. St. George Cooke arrived on January 27th, with his Mormon battalion, 
at San Luis Rey. This force consisted of five companies of Mormons who, after 
a long march by way of New Mexico and Arizona had reached California too 
late to assist in its conquest. From San Diego, Gen. Kearney sailed to San 
Francisco and from there went to Monterey, where he established his governor 
ship. California now had a governor in the north and one in the south. Col. 
Cooke was appointed military commander of the south and brought his Mormon 
troops to Los Angeles. Fremont's battalion was mustered out and he was or 
dered to report to Gen. Kearney at Monterey. He did so and passed out of 
office after a nominal service of two months. Gen. Kearney turned over the 
command of the troops in California to Col. R. B. Mason, who became military 
governor of the territory. 

The First New York Infantry had been recruited in Eastern New York in 
the summer of 1846 for the double purpose of conquest and colonization. It 
came to the coast well supplied with provisions and with implements of hus 
bandry. On its arrival November 6th, 1847, the regiment was divided up and 
sent to different places on guard duty. Two companies, A. and B., under Lieut. - 
Col. Burton, were sent to Lower California, where they saw some hard service 
and took part in several engagements. Col. Cooke resigned his position as com 
mandant of the south and Col. J. D. Stevenson of the New York Volunteers 
was assigned to the command. The Mormon battalion was mustered out in 
July and Companies E. and G. of the New York Volunteers and a company of 
United States dragoons did guard duty at Los Angeles. Another military or 
ganization that reached California after the conquest was Company F of the Third 
United States Artillery. It landed at Monterey, January 27th, 1847, under com 
mand of Captain C. Q. Thompkins. With it came Lieut. E. G. C. Ord. William 
T. Sherman and H. W. Halleck, all of whom were prominent afterward in Cali 
fornia and attained national reputation during the civil war. 

During 1847-48 until the treaty of peace between the United States and 
Mexico was proclaimed, garrisons were kept in all of the principal towns and the 
government of the territory was quasi-military. Attempts were made to estab 
lish municipal governments in the towns, which were successful in the north ; 
but in Los Angeles there was some clashing between Col. Stevenson and the 
" hijos del pais." There were rumors of uprisings and of Mexican troops on 
the way to recapture the place. Col. Stevenson completed the fort on the hill, 
begun by Lieut. Emory, and named it Fort Moore. There were no hostile acts 
by the citizens and the asperities of war were soon forgotten, as the natives became 
reconciled to the situation. 

The treaty of Guadalupc Hidalgo was concluded on February 2nd, 1848. 
It was ratified at Washington March loth ; at Querataro May 3Oth, and was pro 
claimed by the President of the United States July 4th. The news reached Cali- 


fornia August 6th and was proclaimed next day by Gov. Mason. The war was 
over and California had now become a territory of the United States. Gov. 
Pio Pico returned to California from Mexico in August, 1847. Col. Stevenson, 
fearing that lie might incite rebellion, placed him under arrest, but he was soon 
convinced that Pico's intentions were harmless and gave him his liberty. 

A large overland immigration from the United States arrived in California 
in 1846 and 1847. The Donner party, made up principally of immigrants from 
Illinois, were caught in the snows of the Sierra Nevada in October, 1848, and 
wintered at a lake since known as Donner 's Lake. Of the original party, num 
bering eighty-seven, thirty-nine perished of starvation and exposure ; the remain 
der were brought to Sutler's Fort by rescuing parties sent out from California. 



WHILE the treaty negotiations were pending between the United States 
and Mexico, an event occurred in California that ultimately changed 
the destinies of the territory. This was the discovery of gold, January 
24th, 1848. at what is now known as Coloma, on the American river, in the foot 
hills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, about thirty-five miles above Sutler's Fort. 
Gold had previously been discovered on the San Francisquito Rancho, about forty- 
five miles northwesterly from Los Angeles, in the spring of 1841. Placers had 
been worked here, principally by Sonoran miners, up to the breaking out of 
the Mexican war. But the gold fields were of limited extent, water was scarce, 
the methods of mining crude and wasteful and this discovery created little ex 
citement. Both discoveries were purely accidental. The first discoverer, Lopez, 
was hunting for stray horses. While resting under an oak tree and amusing 
himself by digging wild onions with his sheath knife, he turned up a nugget 
of gold. He made known his discovery and a number of persons came from 
Santa Barbara and Los Angeles to work in these placers. John W. Marshall, 
who made the second discovery, was engaged in building a sawmill for Captain 
Sutter, proprietor of Slitter's Fort and owner of an extensive grant at the junction 
of the American and Sacramento rivers. Marshall, to deepen the race, turned 
a head of water through it. The next morning while examining the effect of 
the water, he picked up in the race a round piece of yellow metal, which he 
thought might be gold. Searching further he found several of these nuggets. 
He went to the fort to notify Sutter of his discovery. Sutter tested the metal 
with aqua fortis, pronounced it gold, and returned with Marshall to the mill to 


make further investigations. The men working on the mill had discovered the 
nature of the metal and had also been collecting it. Sutter found several nuggets 
and before leaving the mill exacted a promise from the men to keep the discovery 
a secret for six weeks. Beside the sawmill he was building a large flouring mill 
near the fort and he feared all of his men would desert for the mines. But the 
secret could not be kept. Mrs. Wimmer, who did the cooking for the men at 
the mill, told a teamster and he told the men at the fort. The news spread slowly 
at first and there were many who would not believe the report. It was three 
months before the rush began. Kemble, the editor of the California Star, visited 
the mines two months after their discovery and upon his return to San Francisco 
pronounced them a sham and advised people to stay away. During April con 
siderable quantities of gold were received in San Francisco and the excitement 
became intense. The city had been building up rapidly since the conquest ; but 
now the rush to the mines almost depopulated it. Houses were left tenantless, 
business was suspended, ships were left in the bay without sailors, soldiers de 
serted from the forts and rancheros left their grain unharvested. 

The news did not spread abroad in time to bring many gold-seekers into 
California during 1848. In the spring of 1849, tne great rush from the outside 
world began both by land and by sea. Gold had now been discovered over 
an area of more than two hundred miles and new fields were constantly being 
opened. San Francisco, which was the great entrepot for commerce and travel 
by sea, grew with astonishing rapidity. At the time of the discovery of gold the 
population of San Francisco was about 800 and the white population of California 
about 6000. At the close of 1849 the population of the territory numbered one 
hundred thousand, four-fifths of which had reached it in that one year. During 
1848 Slitter's Fort was the great distributing point for the mines. Sacramento 
was laid out in 1849 anc ' soon became the chief commercial city of the interior. 
At the end of the year its population had reached $000. 

California, in 1848, was still held as a conquered country. The Mexican 
laws were in force and the government was half civil and half military. The 
rapid influx of population brought complications. After the treaty was pro 
claimed in California, August 7th, 1848, Cov. Mason promulgated a code of laws 
that were intended to tide over affairs until a territorial government could be 
established by Congress. It was not satisfactory to Americans. Gov. Mason 
was a faithful and conscientious military officer with but little knowledge of civil 
affairs. He did the best he could under the circumstances, but he was able to 
exercise very little authority, either civil or military. His soldiers deserted to 
the gold fields and the municipal governments were anomalous affairs, generally 
recognizing no authority above themselves. Having been in the military service 
for thirty years, he asked to be relieved. April I2th, 1849, Brigadier-General 
Bennett K. Riley arrived at Monterey and the next day entered upon the duties 
of his office as governor. Brig.-Gen. Persifer F. Smith was made military com- 



mander of the United States troops on the Pacific coast. Most of the troops 
he brought with him deserted at the first opportunity after their arrival 

A year had passed since the treaty of peace was signed, but Congress had 
done nothing for California. The pro-slavery element in that body was deter 
mined to fasten the curse of slavery on a portion of the territory acquired from 
Mexico and all legislation was at a standstill. The people were becoming restive 
under the mixed military and civil government. The question of calling a con 
vention to form a state constitution had been agitated for some time. Conform 
ing to the expressed wish of many leading men of the territory, Governor Riley 
called an election August ist, 1849, to elect delegates to form a state constitution, 
or a territorial government, if that should seen best, and to elect judges, prefects 
and alcaldes for the principal municipal districts. The convention was to consist 

of thirty-seven delegates, 
but forty-eight were 
elected, and when it met 
at Monterey, September 
ist, 1849, m Colton Hall, 
this number was seated. 
Colton Hall was a stone 
building erected by Al 
calde Walter Colton for a 
town hall and school- 
house. The money to 
build it was derived 
partly from fines and 
partly from subscription? 
and the greater part of the construction work was done by prisoners. It was at 
that time the most commodious public building in the territory. 

Of the forty-eight delegates, twenty-two were from the northern states, 
fifteen from the slave states, four were of foreign birth and seven were native 
Californians. Several of the latter neither spoke nor understood English and 
Wm. E. P. Hartnell was appointed interpreter. Dr. Robert Semple of Bear Flag 
fame was elected president ; Wm. G. Marcy secretary, and J. Ross Browne re 
porter. Early in the session the slavery question was disposed of by adopting 
a section declaring that " neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for 
the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this state." The question 
of fixing the boundaries of the future state excited the most discussion. The 
pro-slavery faction was led by Wm. M. Gwin, who had recently come to the 
territory with the avowed intention of representing the new state in the United 
States senate. The scheme of Gwin and his southern associates was to make 
the Rockv mountains the eastern boundary. This would create a state with an 





area of about four hundred thousand square miles. They reasoned that when 
the admission of the state came before Congress the southern members would 
oppose the admission of so large a territory under a free state constitution and 
that ultimately a compromise would be affected. California would be split in 
two from east to west, the old dividing line, the parallel of 36 30" would be 
established, and Southern California would come into the Union as a slave state. 
There were, at this time, fifteen free and fifteen slave states. If two states, one 
free and one slave, were made out of California territory, the equilibrium would 
be preserved. The Rocky mountain boundary was adopted at one time, but in 
the closing days of the session the free state men discovered Gwin's scheme 
and it was defeated. The present boundaries were established by a majority 
of two. 

A committee had been appointed to receive propositions and designs for a 
state seal. But one design was received, presented by Caleb Lyon, but drawn 

by Robert S. Garnett. It contained a figure of 

Minerva: a grizzly bear feeding on a bunch of 
grapes ; a miner with his gold rocker and pan ; a 
view of the Golden Gate with ships in the bay and 
])c;iks of the Sierra Nevada in the distance ; thirty- 
one stars and above all the word " Eureka." The 
convention adopted the design as presented. The 
constitution was completed on October loth and an 
election was called by Gov. Riley for November 
1 3th, to ratify the constitution, elect state officers, 
a legislature and members of Congress. At the 
election Peter H. Burnett was chosen governor ; 
John McDougall, lieutenant-governor ; George W. 
Wright and Edward Gilbert, members of congress. 
During the session of the legislature, Wm. M. Gwin 
and John C. Fremont were elected to the United 
States Senate. 

San Jose had been designated as the state capital. On December I5th the 
state government was inaugurated there. The legislature consisted of sixteen 
senators and thirty-six assemblymen. On the 22nd the legislature elected the 
remaining state officers, viz.: Richard Roman, treasurer; John S. Houston, con 
troller ; E. J. C. Kewen, attorney-general ; Charles J. Whiting, surveyor-general ; 
S. C. Hastings, chief justice; Henry A. Lyons and Nathaniel Bennett, associate 
justices. The legislature continued in session until April 22nd, 1850. Although 
this law-making body was named the '' Legislature of a thousand drinks ", it did 
a vast amount of work and did most of it well. It divided the state into twenty- 
seven counties and provided for county government. It also provided for the 




incorporation of cities and towns ; passed revenue and other necessary laws, both 
civil and criminal. 

California was a self constituted state. It had organized a state government 
and put it into operation without the sanction of Congress. It had not been ad 
mitted into the union and it actually enjoyed the privileges of statehood for nine 
months before it was admitted. When the question of admission came before 
congress it evoked a bitter controversy. The senate was equally divided thirty 
members from slave states and thirty from the free states. There were among 

the southern senators some broad- 
minded men, but there were many 
extremists on the subject of slavery 
men who would sacrifice their coun 
try in order to extend and per 
petuate that sum of all villainies 
slavery. This faction resorted to 
every known parliamentary device 
to prevent the admission of Cali 
fornia under a free state constitu 
tion. On August 1 3th the bill for 
admission finally came to a vote ; it 
passed the senate thirty- four ayes 
to eighteen nays. Even then the 
opposition did not cease. Ten of 
the southern extremists joined in a 
protest against the action of the 
majority. In the house the bill 
passed by a vote of one hundred and 
fifty to fifty-six. It was approved 
and signed by President Fillmore 
September 9th, 1850. On the nth of September the California senators and 
congressmen presented themselves to be sworn in. The southern faction of the 
senate, headed by Jefferson Davis, who had been one of the most bitter opponents 
to admission, objected. But their protest came too late. 

The news of the admission of California as a state reached San Francisco 
on the morning of October i8th, by the mail steamer Oregon. Business was at 
once suspended, courts adjourned and the people went wild with delight. Mes 
sengers mounted on fleet horses spread the news through the state. Everywhere 
there was rejoicing. For ten months the state government had been in full oper 
ation ; its acts were now legalized and it continued in power without change or 

First Constitutional Governor of California. 



interruption under the officers elected in 1849 for two years. The first state 
election after admission was held in October, 1851. John Bigler was elected 




THE tales of the fabulous richness of the California gold fields were spread 
throughout the civilized world and drew to the state all classes and 
and conditions of men the bad as well as the good. They came from 
Europe, from South America and from Mexico ; from far Australia and Tas 
mania came the ex-convict and the " ticket-of-leave " man ; and from Asia came 
the " Chinee." In 1851 the criminal element became so dominant as to seri 
ously threaten the existence of the chief city of the state San Francisco. Ter 
rible conflagrations swept over the city that year and destroyed the greater part 
of the business portion. The fires were known to be of incendiary origin. 
The bold and defiant attitude of the lawless classes led to the organization of 
the better element into a tribunal known as the " Vigilance Committee," which 
disregarded the legally constituted authorities, who were either too weak or too 
corrupt to control the law-defying element and took the power in its own hands. 
It tried and executed, by hanging, four notorious criminals Jenkins, Stuart, 
Whitaker and McKenzie. Such vigorous measures adopted by the Committee 


soon purified the city from the worst class that preyed upon it. Several of the 
smaller towns and some of the mining camps also formed " vigilance commit 
tees " and a number of the rascals who had fled from San Francisco met a 
deserved fate in these places. 

During the early fifties the better elements in the population of San Fran 
cisco were too much engrossed in the rushing business affairs of that period 
of excitement, to give time or thought to political affairs and consequently the 
government of the city gradually drifted into the hands of vicious and corrupt 
men. Many of the city authorities had obtained their offices by fraud and bal 
lot stuffing and instead of protecting the community against scoundrels, they 
protected the scoundrels against the community. James King, an ex-banker 
and a man of great courage and persistence, started a small paper called the 
Daily Evening Bulletin. He vigorously assailed the criminal elements and the 
county and city officials. His denunciations at last aroused public sentiment. 
The murder of United States Marshal Richardson by a gambler named Cora 
further inflamed the public mind. It was feared that, by the connivance of the 
county officials, Cora would escape punishment. The trial resulted in a hung 
jury and there were strong suspicions that some of the jury had been bribed. 
King continued through the Bulletin to hurl his most bitter invectives against 
the corrupt officials. He published the fact that James Casey, a supervisor from 
the twelfth ward, was an ex-convict from Sing Sing prison. Casey waylaid 
King, May I4th, 1856, at the corner of Montgomery and Washington streets, 
and in a cowardly manner shot him down. Casey immediately surrendered 
himself to a deputy sheriff, Lafayette McByrne, who was near. King was not 
killed outright, but the physicians, after an examination, pronounced the case 
hopeless ; Casey was confined in the city jail and as a mob began to gather there, 
he was taken to the county jail for greater safety. A crowd pursued him, cry 
ing, " Hang him, kill him." At the jail the mob was stopped by an array of 
deputy sheriffs, police officers and a number of Casey's personal friends all 
armed. The excitement spread throughout the city. The old Vigilance Com 
mittee of 1851, or rather a new organization out of the remnants of the old one, 
was formed. Five thousand men were enrolled within a few days, arms were 
procured and headquarters secured on Sacramento street between Davis and 
Front. William T. Coleman, chairman of the old vigilantes, was made the pres 
ident and Isaac Bluxon, Jr., was the secretary; Chas. Doane was elected chief 
marshal of the military division. 

The San Francisco Herald, edited by John Nugent, then the leading paper 
of the city, came out with a scathing editorial denouncing the vigilance commit 
tee. The merchants at once withdrew advertising patronage. The next morn 
ing the paper appeared reduced from forty columns to a single page, but still 
hostile to the committee. It finally died from lack of patronage. Sunday, Mav 


i8th, 1856, the military division was ready to storm the jail if necessary to 
obtain possession of the prisoners, Casey and Cora. The different companies, 
1500 strong and with two pieces of artillery marched from their headquarters 
and completely invested the jail. One of these guns was planted to command 
the door of the jail, and a demand was made on Sheriff Scannell for the pris 
oners. The prison guards made no resistance ; the prisoners were surrendered 
at once and taken to the headquarters of the vigilantes. On May 2Oth, while 
the murderers were on trial the death of King was announced. Both men were 
convicted and sentenced to be hanged. King's funeral, the largest and most 
imposing ever seen in San Francisco, took place on the 23rd. While the 
funeral cortege was passing through the streets, Casey and Cora were hanged 
in front of the windows of the vigilantes' headquarters. About an hour before 
his execution Cora was married to a notorious courtesan, Arabella Ryane, better 
known as Bell Cora. 

Governor J. Neely Johnson at first seemed inclined not to interfere with 
the vigilance committee; but afterward, acting under the advice of Volney E. 
Howard, David S. Terry and others of the dominant pro-slavery faction, he 
issued a proclamation commanding the committee to disband to which no 
attention was paid. The governor then appointed William T. Sherman, major- 
general. Sherman called for recruits to suppress the uprising. Seventy-five 
or a hundred mostly gamblers responded. Gen. Wool, in command of the 
troops in the Department of the Pacific, refused to loan Gov. Johnson arms to 
equip his " Law and Order " recruits and Gen. Sherman resigned. Volney E. 
Howard was then appointed major-general. A squad of the vigilance commit 
tee was appointed to arrest a man named Maloney who was at the time in the 
company of David S. Terrey (then chief justice of the state) and several other 
members of the " Law and Order " party. They resisted the police and in the 
melee Terrey stabbed the sergeant of the party, Sterling A. Hopkins, and then 
he and his associates made their escape to the armory of the San Francisco 
Blues, one of their strongholds. When the report of the stabbing reached 
headquarters the great bell sounded the alarm and the vigilantes, in a very 
short space of time, surrounded the armory and had their cannon planted to 
batter it down ; Terrey, Maloney and the others of their party in the building, 
considering discretion the better part of valor, surrendered and were at once 
taken to Fort " Gunnybags," so known on account of a breastwork made of 
gunnybags filled with sand which the vigilantes had placed about the building 
used as headquarters. The arms of the " Law and Order " party at their 
various rendezvous were surrenderd to the vigilantes and the companies 

Terrey was closely confined in a cell at the headquarters of the committee. 
He was tried for assault upon Hopkins, who finally recovered, and upon sev- 



eral other parties and was found guilty ; but after he had been held a prisoner 
for some time, he was released. He was forced to resign his office as chief 
justice, however, and joined Johnson and Howard in Sacramento, where he felt 
safer than in San Francisco. 

On July 29th, Hethrington and Brace were hanged from a gallows erected 
on Davis street between Sacramento and Commercial. Both of these men had 
committed murder. The committee transported from the state some thirty dis 
reputable characters and a number of others deported themselves. A few, 
among them the notorious Ned McGowan, managed to keep concealed until 
the storm was over. A few of the exiles returned after the committee was dis 
banded and began suit for damages, but failed to secure anything. The com 
mittee finished its labors and dissolved with a grand parade, August i8th, 1856, 
after doing a most valuable work. For several years afterwards San Francisco 
was one of the best governed cities in the United States. It is a noticeable fact 
that the vigilance committee was largely made up of men from the northern 
and western states, while the so-called " Law and order " party was composed 
mostly of the pro-slavery, office-holding faction which then ruled the state. The 
rush of gold-seekers to California in the early fifties had brought to the state 
a certain class of adventurers many of whom were too lazy or too proud to 
work. They were ready to engage in almost any lawless undertaking that 
promised plunder and adventure. The defeat of the pro-slavery politicians in 
their attempt to fasten their "peculiar institution'' upon any part of the terri 
tory acquired from Mexico made them very bitter. The more unscrupulous 
among them began to look about for new fields over which slavery might be 
spread. As slavery could only be made profitable in southern lands, Cuba, 
Mexico and Central America became the arena for enacting that form of piracy 
known as " filibustering." Although the armed invasion of countries with which 
the United States was at peace was in direct violation of international laws, 
yet the federal office-holders in the southern states and in California, all of 
whom belonged to the pro-slavery element, made no attempt to prevent these 
invasions, but instead secretly aided them, or at least sympathized with them 
to the extent of allowing them to recruit men and depart without molestation. 
One of the leading filibusters from California was a Tennesseean by the name 
of Walker. His first attempt was against Lower California. He captured La 
Paz and established what he called the Republic of Lower California and pro 
claimed it slave territory. He and his army plundered and robbed wherever 
there was anything to be obtained. The country was so poor and his army so 
mutinous that he was compelled to abandon his so-called republic, after shoot 
ing several of his dupes for desertion. After this he had a varied career as a 
filibuster in Central America. He was captured in Honduras in 1860, court- 
martialed and shot. 




As has been previously stated, the constitutional convention of 1849 met 
in Colton Hall in Monterey. During its sessions the question of locating the 
capital carrie up. San Jose offered to donate a square of thirty-two acres val 
ued at $60,000 for capital grounds and give the free use of a building for meet 
ings of the Legislature. The offer was accepted and the first Legislature con 
vened there, December I5th, 1849. The first capital of the state was a two- 
story adobe building, 40 by 60 feet, which had been built for a hotel. This 
building was destroyed by fire April 29th, 1853. The accommodations at San 

Jose were not satisfac 
tory. The Legislature 
next accepted a proposi 
tion from Gen. M. G. Val- 
lejo to locate the capital 
at his new town of Val- 
lejo. He offered to do 
nate 156 acres of land for 
a site and within two 
years to give $370,000 in 
money to be expended in 
the erection of public 
buildings. When the 
members of the Legisla 
ture met at the new cap 
ital January 2nd, 1852, 
they found a large, un 
furnished and partly unfinished wooden building for their reception. Accommo 
dations were very poor and even food was wanting for the hungry law 
makers. Sacramento then offered its new court house as a meeting place and 
on the i6th the Legislature convened in that city. The great flood of 1852 
inundated the town and the lawmakers were forced to reach the halls of legis 
lation in boats again there was dissatisfaction. 

Benicia now came to the front with the offer of her new city hall which 
was assuredly above high water mark. Gen. Vallejo had become financially 
embarrassed and could not carry out his contract, so it was annulled. The 
offer of Benicia was accepted and on May i8th, 1853, that town was declared 
the permanent capital. 

In the Legislature of 1854 the capital question again came to the front. 
Proposals were received from several aspiring cities, but Sacramento won with 
the offer of her new court house and a block of land between I and J, Ninth 




and Tenth streets. Then the question of locating the capital got into the courts. 
The supreme court decided in favor of Sacramento. Before the Legislature 
met again the court house burned down. A more commodious one was at once 
erected and rented to the state at $12,000 a year. Then Oakland made an 
unsuccessful attempt to secure the capital. Finally a bill was passed author 
izing the erection of a capitol building in Sacramento at a cost not to exceed 
$500,000. Work was begun on the foundation in October, 1860. The great 
flood of 1861-62 inundated the town and ruined the foundations of the capitol. 
San Francisco made a vigorous effort to secure the seat of government, but 
was not successful. Work was resumed on the building, the plans were changed, 

the edifice enlarged and 
finally after many delays 
it was ready for occu 
pancy in December, 1869. 
From the original limit 
of half a million dollars, 
its cost when completed 
had reached a million and 
a half. The amount ex 
pended on the building 
and the grounds to date 
is $2,972,925. 

State Senator E. C. 
Seymour, representing 
Orange and San Bernar 
dino counties in the Thir- 
STATE CAPITOL. sACRAMENTTo. t i etn a nd Thirty-first ses 

sions, introduced a bill to remove the capital to San Jose. The bill passed, but 
the scheme was defeated in the courts. 


The Civil War (1861-65) did not seriously affect the prosperity of Cali 
fornia. During its progress about 16,000 volunteers enlisted in the Union 
Arm}-. Much to their disappointment these men were retained on the Pacific 
coast to fight Indians and keep the disloyal element in check. One battalion 
of five companies paid its own passage to the east and joined the Second Mass. 
Cavalry in which it did splendid service in Virginia and Maryland. Quite a 
number of Confederate sympathizers from California joined the Southern armies 
during the war. Those who remained in the state were closely watched by 
the federal authorities and were not able to render much assistance to their 
friends of the South. 



Previous to 1860 the chief industry of the state was mining-. During the 
decade between 1850 and 1860 a number of rushes were made to new diggings 
reputed to be rich in the precious metals. The most famous of these were the 
Kern river in 1855 and the Frazer river in 1857 both ended in disaster to 
those engaged in them. In 1859 the silver mines of Washoe were discovered 
and a great rush made to these. The Comstock lodes were very rich and many 
fortunes were made. Stock gambling became a mania in San Francisco in 
which fortunes were lost. 


The southern part of the state was devoted to cattle raising which in the 
early sixties was immensely profitable. The land was held in large ranches 
and at the time of the discovery of gold was mostly owned by native Califor- 
nians. The sudden influx of population consequent on the discovery of gold 
greatly increased the value of the cattle and made the stock owners rich. With 
wealth came extravagant habits and when the decline began they borrowed 
money at usurious rates and the high interest ruined them. The terrible dry 
years of 1863-64, when thousands of cattle starved to death, put an end to 
cattle raising as the distinctive industry of the south. The decadence of cattle 
growing brought about the subdivision of the large ranches and the develop 
ment of grain growing and fruit culture. In the southern part of the state 
the culture of citrus fruits the orange and lemon has become the leading 
industry. In favorable localities in the central and northern sections of the state 
the production of deciduous fruits the apple, peach, prune, pear, etc., takes 
precedence ; while the great valleys of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin 
are vast wheat fields. 


Several schemes for the building of a trans-continental railroad were 
promulgated in California during the fifties. The first railroad built in the 
state was the Sacramento Valley road, which was completed to Folsom in Feb 
ruary, 1856, and was twenty-two miles in length. The next was the road from 
San Francisco to San Jose, fifty-one miles long, completed January i6th, 1864. 
On June 28th, 1861, at Sacramento the Central Railroad of California was 
organized, with Leland Stanford, president ; C. P. Huntington, vice-president ; 
Mark Hopkins, treasurer ; James Baily, secretary ; and T. D. Judah, chief engi 
neer. The capital stock of the company was fixed at $8,50x2,000. The whole 
amount of stock subscribed by its promoters would not have built five miles of 
road ; none of the men at that time connected with the road were rich and the 
whole affair was regarded in the nature of a joke. On July 1st, 1862, the 



Pacific railroad bill was passed by Congress, authorizing the issuance of gov 
ernment bonds to the amount of $16,000 per mile to the foot of the mountains 
and of $48,000 per mile through the mountains. Forty miles had to be built 
and equipped before any bonds were issued. In addition to this there was a 
government land subsidy of 12,800 acres per mile. Ground was broken for the 
road at Sacramento, February 22nd, 1863. The Union Pacific was built west 
ward from Omaha. On May loth, 1869, the two roads met at Promontory, 
near Salt Lake, and were united. 

The first road built in the southern part of the state was the Los Angeles 
and San Pedro, completed to Wilmington, in October, 1869. This connected Los 
Angeles with a sea-port and greatly facilitated commerce. The Southern Pacific 
Railroad was completed to Los Angeles, September 5th, 1877. It had, in 1872, 
obtained a subsidy from Los Angeles county of about $fxx>,ooo ; $225,000 being 
the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad. For this it was to build twenty-five 
miles of road north of Los Angeles and the same distance to the east. The 
northern end met the extension of the road south from Lathrop on the Central 
Pacific in the Soledad canyon on September 5th, 1876, when the last tie was 
laid and the golden spike driven. The eastern end was completed in 1883 to 
El Paso, where it met the Texas Pacific and thus gave California a second trans 
continental line. 

The Atlantic and Pacific uniting with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, 
built jointly their main line from Albuquerque to the Colorado at the Needles. 
From there the Atlantic & Pacific built to Barstow about eighty miles north 
east of San Bernardino; thence the California Southern continued the line to 
San Diego. The road was completed to Colton in August, 1882, and opened 
from San Diego to San Bernardino September I3th, 1883. In 1887 the road 
was built westward from San Bernardino until it met the San Gabriel Valley 
line which was built eastward from Los Angeles to Mud Springs. The dif 
ferent divisions of the road were united under one management with its west 
ern terminus at Los Angeles, thus giving California its third transcontinental 
line. The growth of the state and particularly of the southern part of the state 
since the advent of the railroads has been phenomenal. 


The first public school in California was opened at San Jose in December, 
1794, seventeen years after the founding of that pueblo. The pioneer teacher 
was Manuel de Vargas, a retired sergeant of infantry. Jose Manuel Toca, a 
ship boy, opened the first school in Santa Barbara, in 1795. Maximo Pifia, an 
invalid soldier, was the first schoolmaster of Los Angeles, teaching in 1817 and 
1818. During the Spanish era the schoolmasters were mostly invalid soldiers 
men of little learning about all they could teach was reading and writing 



and the doctrina Christiana. They were brutal tyrants and their school gov 
ernments military despotisms. The people were indifferent to education and as 
the schoolmasters were paid by rate bills the terms were short and the vacations 
long. Mexico did somewhat better for public education than Spain. The school 
terms were a little longer and the vacations proportionately shorter, but it was 
not uncommon then for a vacation to last two or three years. 

During the war of American conquest the schools were all closed. After 
the cessation of hostilities in 1847, a school under army regulations was estab 
lished in Los Angeles or rather it was under the superintendency of Col. J. 
D. Stevenson, the military commander of the Department of the South. Dr. 
William B. Osburn was appointed teacher. This was the first English com 
mon school established in California. After peace was declared and the munic 
ipal governments organized, schools were opened in the large towns. These 
were subscription schools, although in some cases the town council appropri 
ated public funds for the education of a certain number of poor children who 
were entitled to attend some private school. 

The first act to establish a common school system in California was 
approved May 3rd, 1852. Great advance was made in perfecting and building 
up this system from 1863 to 1869 under the administration of State School 
Superintendent John Swett, who has been called the " Horace Mann of Cali 
fornia." The first state Normal School for " the training of teachers " was 
established in San Francisco in 1863. It was afterwards removed to San Jose. 
There are now five Normal Schools in the state. The public school system and 
the public schools of California rank among the best in the United States. 

Governors of California. 


Caspar de Portala .. . 1767-1771 Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga. . 1792-1794 

Felipe de Barri 1771-1774 Diego de Borica 1794-1800 

Felipe de Neve 1774-1782 Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga. . 1800-1814 

Pedro Pages 1782-1790 Jose Dario Arguello 1814-1815 

Jose Antonio Romeu 1790-1792 Pablo Vicente de Sola 1815-1822 


Luis Antonio Arguello 1822-1825 J os e Castro 1835-1836 

Jose Maria de Echandia. . . 1825-1831 Nicolas Guiterrez 1836 

Manuel Victoria 1831-1832 Juan Bautista Alvarado 1836-1842 

Pio Pico 1832-1833 Manuel Micheltorena 1842-1845 

Jose Figueroa 1833-1835 Pio Pico 1845-1846 


Commodore Robert F. Stockton Aug. 17, i846-Jan. 16, 1847 

Captain John C. Fremont Jan. i6-March i, 1847 

General Stephen W. Keirnev March i-May 31, 1847 

Colonel Richard B. Mason May 31, i847-April 13, 1849 

General Bennett Rilcy April 13, i849-Nov. 13, 1849 


Pether H. Burnett 1849-1851 Romualdo Pacheco 1875 

John McDougal 1851-1852 William Irwin 1875-1880 

John Bigler 1852-1855 George C. Perkins 1880-1883 

J. Neely Johnson 1855-1858 George Stoneman 1883-1887 

John B. Wellcr 1858-1860 Washington Bartlett 1887 

Milton S. Latham 1860 Robert W. Waterman 1887-1891 

John G. Downey 1860-1862 Henry H. Markham 1891-1895 

Leland Stanford 1862-1863 James H. Budd 1895-1899 

Frederick F. Low 1863-1867 Henry T. Gage 1899-1903 

Henry H. Haight 1867-1871 George C. Pardee 1903-1907 

Newton Booth 1871-1875 J. N. Gillett 1907 








Aguaje de la Centinela 

. B. Abila 


Aug. 23, 1872 

Loa Alamitos 

. A. Stearns 


Aug. 29, 1874 


. A. Duarte 


June 6, 1878 


. Henry Dalton 


May 29, 1876 

La Ballona 

. A. Machado et al 


Dec. 8, 1873 

Boca de Santa Monica 

. Ysidro Reves et al 


July 21, 1882 

Boca de la Plava 

. E. Vejar 


Mar. i, 1879 

La Brea 

. A. Rocha et al 


April 1 5, 1873 

Las Bolsas 

. R. Yorba and M. C. Nieto. 


June 19, 1874 


. D. W. Alexander et al 


Aug. 2, 1872 

La Canada 

. J. R. Scott et al 


Aug. i, 1866 

Canada de los Alisos 

. J. Serrano 


June 27, 1871 

Canada de los Nogales 

. J. M. Aguilar 


May 4, 1882 

Los Cerritos 

. Juan Temple 


Dec. 7, 1867 

Paso de la Tijera 

. T. Sanchez et al 


May 22, 1873 

Las Cienegas 

. J. Abila et al 


June 15, 1871 

El Conejo 

. J. de la G. y Noriega 


Jan. 8, 1873 

Los Coyotes 

. Andreas Pico et al 


Mar. 9, 1875 

El Encino 

. V. de la Osa et al 


Jan. 8, 1876 

El Escorpion 

. Urbano et al_ 


Dec. n, 1883 

Los Feliz 

. M. Y. Verdugo 


April 18, 1871 

Lomas de Santiago 

. T. Yorba 


Feb. i, 1868 

La Habra 

. Andreas Pico et al 


Dec. 4, 1882 

Huerta de Cuati 

. V. Reid 


June 30, 1859 

Island de S. Catalina 

. J. M. Covarrubias 


April 20, 1867 

La Liebre 

. J. M. Flores 


June 21, -1879 

i Aug. 9, 1866 

Los Angeles City lands. . . . 

. Citv of Los Angeles 


} Aug. 4, 1875 

La Merced 

.F. P. F. Temple 


Feb. 13, 1872 

Mission San Gabriel, lot. . 

. J. S. Alemany 


Dec. 4, 1875 

Mission San Fernando, lot. . 

. Bp. J. S. Alemany 


May 31, 1864 

Mission San Gabriel, lot. ... 

. Bp. J. S. Alemany 


Nov. 19, 1859 

Mission Vieja 

. Juan Foster 


Aug. 6, 1866 

Ex-mission San Fernando. . 

. .F. deCelis 


Jan. 8, 1873 

Los Nogales 

. Maria de J. Garcia et al . . . 


June 29, 1882 

El Niguil 

. Juan Abila 


April 5, 1873 

Los Palos Verdes 

. J. L. Sepulveda et al 


June 23, 1880 

Paso de Bartolo, part 

. B. Guirado 


Sept. 27, 1867 

Paso de Bartolo, part 

. Joaquin Sepulveda 


Mar. 17, 1 88 1 



Tracts near San Gabriel . 

Paso de Bartolo, part Pio Pico 8,991 Aug. 6, 1881 

Potrero de Felipe Lugo Morilla & Romero 2,042 June 15, 1871 

Potrero Grande J. M. Sanchez 4,431 July 19, 1859 

Prospero tract R. Valenzuela et al 23 Dec. 4, 1875 

Providentia ,D. W. Alexander et al. . . . 4,064 Aug. 6, 1872 

La Puente Workman & Roland 48,790 April 19, 1867 

Rincon de la Brea G. Ybarra 4,452 Nov. 14, 1864 

Rincon de los Bueyes F. Higuera et al 3> I2 7 Aug. 27, 1872 

San Antonio A. M. Lugo 29,513 July 20, 1866 

Rodeo de las Aguas M. R. Yaldez 4,419 June 27, 1871 

San Francisco Jacobo Feliz et al 48,61 1 Feb. 12, 1875 

f Juan Silva 50 

H. P. Dorsey 50 

Michael White 78 Aug. 26, 1871 

Jose Ledesma 22 June 17, 1871 

Daniel Sexton 227 May 16, 1871 

J. P. de Courtney 49 Jan. 20, 1871 

Francisco Sales 19 June 20, 1871 

^ Jose Domingo 22 Aug. 23, 1871 

San Francisquito Henry Dalton 8,893 May 30, 1867 

San Joaquin . . Jose Sepulveda 48,893 Sept. 19, 1867 

San Jose Dalton, Palomares & Vejar. 22,340 Jan. 20, 1875 

San Jose de Buenos Ayres. . . B. D. Wilson 4438 July 5, 1866 

San Juan Cajon de Sta. Ana. J. P. Ontiveras 35,97 May 21, 1877 

San Jose, addition to Dalton, Palomares & Vejar. 4,430 Dec. 4, 1875 

San Pasqual 15. D. Wilson 708 Feb. 12, 1881 

San Pasqual Manuel Garfias 13,693 April 3, 1863 

San Pasqual Juan Gallardo 700 

San Pedro M. Dominguez et al 43> rl 9 Dec. 18, 1858 

San Rafael Julio Yerdugo et al 36,403 Jan. 28, 1882 

San Yicente y Santa Monica. .R. Sepulveda 30,259 July 23, 1881 

Santa Anita Henry Dalton I3,3 r 9 Au g- 9, lg 66 

Santa Gertrudes T. S. Colima 3,696 July 17, 1877 

Santa Gertrudes Mcfarland & Downey 17,602 Aug. 19, 1870 

Santiago de Santa Ana B. Yorba et al 78,941 Dec. 21, 188.5 

Sausal Redondo A. L. Abila 22,458 Mar. 22, 1875 

Simi J. de la G. y Noriega 113,009 June 29, 1865 

Tajauta E. Abila 3,559 Jan. 8, 1873 

Temescal E. de la Cuesta 13,339 Sept. 13, 1871 

Topanga Malibu Sequit M. Keller 13,315 Aug. 29, 1872 

Tejunga D. W. Alexander et al 16,609 Oct - J 9> l8 74 

LasVirgenes M. A. Machado 8,885 Sept. 5.1883 

Condensed History of Los Angeles County. 



THE history of " el pueblo de Los Angeles ", as the central point of the 
southern district of the territory of Alta California, has already been given 
in the state history. We have followed the growth of the town from its 
founding, in 1781, to its final conquest and occupation by the United States troops 
in 1847. We have seen the rise and the fall of the mission establishments of 


San Gabriel, San Fernando and San Juan Capistrano, and the occupation of 
the fertile valleys and mesas by the great ranches granted to settlers of Spanish, 
Mexican and Californian birth and to a few Americans. At the time of the 
state organization, the territory included in Los. Angeles county was distributed 
in large tracts ranging from a few thousand to more than a hundred thousand 


acres. The oldest of these grants was occupied as early as 1784, that being 
the date assigned for San Rafael rancho, granted to the Verdugos. Santa Ana 
was granted to the Yorbas and Simi to the Noriegas among the earliest allotments. 

The government of the United States early appointed commissioners to 
examine into land titles in California and for a number of years investigations 
were made and patents issued or refused to the claimants. There was much 
confusion and no little fraud connected with the final allotment of titles, although 
there were not so many disputed claims in this district as in the north. About 
seventy-five patents were issued to lands in the county. 

Los Angeles was one of the twenty-seven counties created by act of the 
first California legislature, April i8th, 1850. Its boundaries as first indicated 
were very indefinite, extending from San Diego county on the south to Santa 
Barbara on the north and from the Pacific to " the top of the coast range." The 
second legislature amended the act by making the boundaries more exact and 
extending them to the eastern state line. The area of the original county was 
about 34,000 square miles, almost as large as the state of Indiana. In 1851 
the Mormon colony purchased the San Bernardino grant and established their 
colony of San Bernardino. In consequence San Bernardino county was set 
off from Los Angeles April 26th, 1853, taking an area of 20,055 square miles 
from the mother county. In 1866 Kern county was created, taking part of its 
territory from this county. After long discussion and dissension, Orange county 
was created, March nth, 1889, taking 780 square miles, which leaves Los An 
geles with a present area of 3957 square miles. Pomona county has been several 
times proposed and strong efforts have been made to secure its creation from 
Los Angeles and San Bernardino territory but, thus far, the movement has not 
been successful. 

The first county election took place April ist, 1850. The census for this 
year gives the county a population of 3530; 377 votes were cast and the officers 
chosen were: Judge, Augustin Olivera ; clerk, B. D. Wilson; attorney, Benjamin 
Hayes ; surveyor, J. R. Conway ; treasurer, Manuel Garfias ; assessor, Antonio 
F. Coronel ; recorder, Ignacio del Valle ; sheriff, George T. Burrell ; coroner, 
Charles B. Cullen. August yth, 1851, the county was divided into six townships, 
Los Angeles, San Gabriel, San Jose, San Bernardino, Santa Ana, San Juan 
Capistrano. The supervisors were not elected until June I4th, 1852, civil affairs 
in the meantime being administered by the " court of sessions ", appointed by 
the military governor. The first supervisors were Jefferson Hunt, Julian Chavez, 
F. P. F. Temple, Manuel Requena and Samuel Arbuckle ; the board was organ 
ized with Arbuckle as chairman and B. D. Wilson, county clerk, clerk. The 
office of juez de campo, judge of the plains, was continued for a number of 
years after the American occupation, as late as 1872, although it was a part 
of the machinery of the Mexican administration. It was the duty of this officer 
to attend rodeos, settle all questions relating to brands and to the handling and 



division of stock. They were appointed to different districts and were given 
large jurisdiction. 

One of the first important political questions discussed in the southern 
district was that of forming a separate state. In 1850, before California had 
been received into the union, a petition requesting that the southern district be 
left out of the state was prepared. It was felt that the rancheros of the south, 
thinly populated as it was, would receive but small favor from the north, which 
held the bulk of the population, and would have to pay an undue proportion of 
the expenses of state government. In 1859, an act was passed by the state 
legislature permitting a vote upon a proposal to divide the state ; but it failed 
to go through. State division has been a topic for much discussion and news 
paper wisdom since that time, a bill for division being 
introduced in 1888; but has never since become a 
serious issue. 

The first state senator from this county was Dr. 
A. W. Hope, succeeded by Stephen C. Foster, one of 
the earliest and most prominent of American settlers. 
The first assemblymen were A. P. Crittenden and 
Montgomery Martin, who were succeeded by Don 
Abel Stearns and Ignacio del Valle. Los Angeles 
county and Southern California bore little part in the 
active government of the state during the first three 
or four decades of its existence. The first governor 
elected from the south was John G. Downey, inaug 
urated January I4th, 1860. He was long one of the 
leading citizens of Los Angeles and had served as as 
semblyman and lieutenant-governor also. Since that 
time this county has furnished three governors 

George Stoneman, Henry H. Markham and Henry T. Gage. As United States 
senators, Cornelius Cole, Stephen M. White and Frank P. Flint have been resi 
dents of Los Angeles county. 

The discovery of gold brought wealth to Southern California, as well as 
to the north. J. J. Warner in his " Centennial History " says : " The discovery 
of the ' mines ' in the year 1848 carried away many of the native population ; 
created a new demand for the horses and cattle which the southern rancheros 
could so easily supply ; brought a multitude of emigrants from Sonora, as well 
as from the United States; left the people at home here (in Los Angeles) in 
a state of perpetual excitement and exultation. During the summer of 1849 and' 
the year of 1850, Los Angeles was a thoroughfare of travel. With, or without 
means, the incomers crowded on ; seldom destitute, for their needs were supplied, 
when known, by generous hospitality from the Lugos of San Bernardino; Isaac 
Williams of Chino ; Rowland and Workman at Puente and the liberality of native 




Californians. With the people of Los Angeles, 1850 was a year of enjoyment, 
rather than an earnest pursuit of riches. Money was abundant. All sought 
to make the most of the pleasures of life." A strong contrast here to the mad 
rush for gold in the placer mines. The prosperity of the rancheros continued 
for several years. In 1857 a drought retarded the progress; but the increased 
market for stock and the importation of stock from the states had greatly in 
creased the wealth of the county. The population of the county was 11,333 ' m 
1860. The floods and the long drought of the early sixties; the disturbed condi 
tion of the country and the cessation of immigration made the increase slow 
during the next ten years. The census of 1870 shows only 15,309 inhabitants. 
The first court house of Los Angeles was the adobe house which had been 
used as a government building during the later days of the Mexican rule. In 
1859 the offices were removed to the Temple building, which was known for 
many years as the " court house " ; this was located on the block where the 

Bullock block now stands. 
During the sixties the 
county purchased the 
building and it was occu 
pied until the erection of 
the present fine building 
in 1890, at a cost of 

The first school in Los 
Angeles, taught in the 
English language, was 
under the instruction of 
Rev. Dr. Wicks and J. G. 
Nichols, in 1850. In 1854 
there were four schools 
in the county, two of 
them being taught in 
English. In 1855 there 

were three school districts, Los Angeles, San Gabriel and El Monte, with 
1 191 school children. Antonio F. Coronel acted as first superintendent of schools, 
succeeded in 1855 by Dr. John S. Griffin 1 . In 1856 there were seven schools, 
four of them being in the city. In 1866 the county had 12 school districts and 
in 1876 123 teachers with a total valuation of school property of $202,262. In 
1906 the county had 1616 teachers and school property amounting to $4,715,015. 
Many of the earlier settlers of the county were southern in sentiment and 
as the question of slavery began to threaten difficulties, there was much unrest 
and dissension. Another element of the population came from the mining dis 
tricts of the north mostly of those who had failed to find wealth. The spirit 
of lawlessness which prevailed in the state was not absent in this county. Crime 




was rampant and robbery and murders were every-day occurrences. The courts 
seemed unable to meet the situation and the best citizens were uneasy. The 
pro-slavery sentiment led to the attempt at state division in 1859; but on the 
breaking out of the war, the people generally rallied to the Union and there 
was no open disloyalty in this county. In 1861 a union club was organized and 
a regiment of volunteers was raised. Camps were maintained at Drum Bar 
racks, Wilmington, and at Camp Latham on the 
Ballona grant, and troops were stationed in the city 
at times, and at Fort Tejon. The agitation against 
the Chinese was not as aggressive in this county as 
in the north, the celestials were too useful in the 
vineyards and orchards ; yet there was much discus 
sion and public meetings were held to uphold the 
anti-Chinese movement. The terrible Chinese mas 
sacre of October 24th, 1871, was not a direct result 
of feeling against the race ; but originated in a quar 
rel between two Chinese factions over a woman. 
In an attempt to quell the disturbance an officer and 
two citizens were wounded by the Chinese. This 
aroused a mob, who rushed into the Chinese quarter 
and slaughtered right and left, without regard to 
right or mercy. Their houses were looted by the 
mob and nineteen deaths resulted from the affair. 

The population of the county more than doubled during the seventies, the 
census of 1880 showing 33,454 souls. The completion of transcontinental lines 
and the "boom" swelled the population to 101,381 in 1890, despite the 13,000 
taken out by Orange county the previous year. Since that date Los Angeles 
county has rapidly advanced until now she stands second in the state, and is 
a power to be reckoned with in all political questions. 





ST( >CK raising, which was practically the only industry of Southern Califor 
nia at the time the country passed into the hands of the United States, 
continued to be the chief source of wealth for Los Angele& county until 
the severe drought of 1863-4. According to the census report of 1850, the great 
county of Los Angeles had but 2648 acres of improved land and in 1860 but 20,000 
acres was under cultivation. The great influx of gold-seekers provided a new 
market for cattle and horses, which largely increased prices, and the rancheros of 
Southern California were as " flush " as the miners of the north, for a time. The 
value of live stock steadily increased and in 1860 it is given as $1,451,000, although 
there had been heavy losses, many cattle dying of starvation during the drought 
of 1857. But the long dry spell, lasting two years and over, almost wrecked 
the business. Stock died, or was killed to save the hides, until almost none was 
left. After this time, the rancheros devoted more attention to sheep and the 
flocks were greatly increased, while cattle were handled in smaller bunches and 
improved stock was introduced by the Americans. The breaking up of the 
big ranches began and a number of new settlements were made during the 
seventies. As early as 1844 Jose Palomares, owner of the San Jose rancho, 
where Pomona is now located, sold off a number of small tracts of land to Mex 
icans, who took water from the San Jose creek and formed a prosperous little 
settlement. About the same time Juan Bandini induced a party of New Mex 
icans to settle on his Jurupa grant, now the site of Riverside, and the village 
of Agua Mansa, with flourishing orchards and grain fields resulted. In 1851 
the Mormon settlement of San Bernardino was begun and these industrious 
people soon demonstrated that small farms could be made profitable in this 
country. In 1851 a number of immigrants, mostly from the southern states, 
settled at El Monte. Here was a natural cienega and the low damp lands were 
especially adapted to the growing of corn and hogs. In 1860 this settlement 
had a population of over one thousand and was a noted place in the early history 
of the county. In 1874 it had a newspaper, the Observer, and a hotel. At 
Spadra, Ruebottom's hotel was a stopping point for all stages to the east and 
a noted hostelry in the sixties. This was also one of the earliest American set 
tlements. About 1865 Governor Downey began to break up his Santa Gertrudes 
rancho and the settlement of Downey followed. Here, too, corn yielded mar 
velous crops and the raising of hogs and of dairy cattle was profitable. Thus 
gradually small farms, with diversified farming, took the place of the old-time 
exclusive stock raising and Los Angeles county lost her distinction as a " cow " 
county ; although the raising of stock and dairying is still a profitable business. 


Much attention in later years has been given to the production of blooded stock, 
especially horses; while the value of the dairy products for 1905, according to 
the state agricultural report, reached a million dollars. 

In 1857 a party of Germans, mostly artisans resident in San Francisco, 
purchased a tract of land near the Santa Ana and established the settlement of 
Anaheim. At first most of the tract was set to vineyards and the colonists en 
gaged extensively in wine making. This was the first horticultural settlement. 
Mission grapes had been set extensively during the sixties and seventies and 
wine-making became one of the most important resources of the county. In 
1879 two million gallons were produced beside 50,0x20 gallons of brandy. There 
were then thirty distilleries in the county. The cultivation of the wine grape 
began with the " mother " vineyard at San Gabriel, which was planted from 
slips brought from Lower California. In 1831 Los Angeles city had over 100 
acres of grapes and there were 50,000 vines growing on Los Nietos rancho. 
The Californians began early to manufacture wines and aguadiente and in 
1850 the county is credited with 57,000 gallons of wine. This was shipped to 
San Francisco and brought good prices. In' 1855 Sansevaine brothers shipped 
the first California wine to New York city and by 1861 L. J. Rose, B. D. Wilson 
and the Sansevaines were making large shipments to the east. L. J. Rose, Don 
Mateo Keller, Kohler and Frohling, and others were among the earlier manu 
facturers who spent much time and money in experimenting, introducing new 
varieties of grapes and improved methods of wine making. The cultivation of 
the white muscat grape for raisins began about 1877-78 and for a time this grape 
was planted very widely and raisins promised to become one of the greatest crops 
of the county, but the appearance of the vine disease about 1885 destroyed many 
vineyards and greatly discouraged both wine and raisin makers. 

In the early seventies attention was turned to wheat raising on an extensive 
scale. J. B. Lankershim was one of the first growers, planting a large acreage 
on the San Fernando rancho. He was also one of the owners of the first large 
flour mill erected in the county. Dan Freeman was another large wheat grower, 
on the Centinela rancho. In 1879 Los Angeles county produced 752,000 bushels 
of wheat, from 22,000 acres of land, according to Bancroft. Corn was also 
Irrgely cultivated and barley was raised for hay on a large scale. But as the 
possibilities of irrigation and horticulture developed, land became too valuable 
for wheat culture, as it had already advanced beyond the possibility of profitable 
use for grazing purposes. 

During the eighties the chief feature of agricultural development was the 
extension of irrigation systems. Irrigation had been practiced to some extent 
since the first settlement of the country. The San Gabriel and San Fernando 
missions and the settlers of Los Angeles had irrigated considerable areas and 
built somewhat elaborate works. The waters of the San Gabriel and Los Angeles 
rivers had been utilized by means of open ditches for many years ; but now 


began the formation of water companies who improved upon the old crude 
methods and developed water from unused sources. In 1867 the first artesian 
well was put down by Downey and Hellman about six miles from Wilmington. 
Artesian water was found to be available in many districts and has been devel 
oped until now probably half, at least, of the water used for irrigation in this 
county comes from this source. In 1876 the land under irrigation in the county 
was estimated at 26,900 acres; in 1890 70,164 acres were under irrigation, mostly 
devoted to citrus culture. 

The mission fathers planted orange trees at San Gabriel soon after its 
establishment. In 1834 Louis Vignes, a Frenchman, who was one of the first 
foreigners to locate in Los Angeles, planted an orange garden on his place, 
known at that time as " El Aliso." This garden, surrounded by a high adobe 
wall, contained not only oranges, but all the fruits then known in the country. 
He also had a considerable vineyard and established a winery, under the great 
sycamore tree, which gave the name of " El Aliso " to the place. In 1841 Wil 
liam Wolfskill set out two acres of oranges, procuring the stock from Sart 
Gabriel. These trees bore the first oranges that were ever put on the market 
in this state and yielded such large profits that in 1858 Mr. Wolfskill set out 
thirty acres on land lying between Alamecla and San Pedro, Third and Seventh 
streets. In 1852 B. D. Wilson set a grove at San Gabriel; but in 1856 there 
were only 100 orange bearing trees in the country, these surrounded by walls 
to keep out wandering cattle. The total yield was 100,000 oranges, which were 
sold by the hundred and brought a net income of $100 per tree, so Mr. Wolfskill 
stated. From this time the planting went on rapidly. About 1873 Thomas A. 
Garey, the pioneer nurseryman of the county, and L. J. Rose, B. D. Wilson and 
others began to introduce different varieties of citrus fruit, importing them from 
Europe, South America and Florida. The most valuable of these varieties proved 
to be the Mediterranean Sweet. About 1880 the Washington Navel was brought 
into the county from Riverside and its excellent qualities soon made it the favorite. 
Between 1880 and 1890 the planting of citrus fruit was at its height. Stimulated 
by the ready money and the exuberant hopes of boom times, large areas were 
put under irrigation and planted out. Pomona, Alhambra, Whittier, Sierra 
Madre and many other districts were thus started by people who looked forward 
to making an easy fortune from citrus culture. In 1874 there were 34,700 
bearing orange trees in the county; in 1880, 192,000 bearing trees, and in 1892 
1,500,000 trees were growing. 

In 1857 scale made its first appearance; but its inroads were not serious 
until the appearance of the cottony cushion scale about 1890. This especially 
affected trees near the coast and in a single year the crop in Los Angeles county 
fell from 2212 cars to 718 cars. But the introduction of the Australian "lady- 
bug " proved an effectual remedy and the groves were saved by this parasite. 
Many of the earliest seedling orchards have now passed out of existence, the 


land being used for town lots, or for alfalfa or truck farming. Yet Los Angeles 
county still leads in the production of citrus fruits, the value of the crop for 1906 
being estimated at $4,000,000 and there being 1,738,213 bearing orange trees 
in the county. 

The introduction of alfalfa from San Bernardino county in the later fifties 
gave a valuable crop for suitable lands and proved a great boon to the dairy 
farmer. The culture of the sugar beet was attempted about 1879 and in 1880 
Messrs. Nadeau and Gemmert planned to build a sugar factory at Florence. 
This did not materialize, but later the location of sugar factories at Chino, Ala- 
mitos and Oxnard supplied a market and a considerable acreage is annually 
planted to beets. The growing of vegetables and small fruits has become an 
important branch of our agriculture and large quantities are raised for home 
use and for shipping. 

Diversified farming and the small farm, intensively cultivated, is the rule 
in the vicinity of Los Angeles now. Oranges, lemons, walnuts, olives and decid 
uous fruits are raised with profit in many districts ; grain and hay are produced 
on " dry " farms and the northern portion of the county still furnishes range for 
cattle and sheep. Los Angeles is now one of the leading agricultural counties 
in the state, her horticultural and garden products, in 1902, being valued at 
$10,307,290, and her cereals and hay at over $1,000,000, with dairy produces of 
equal value. And the possibilities are by no means exhausted. There is yet 
much valuable land which can be utilized and much room for increased produc 
tion in lands already under cultivation. 



ALTHOUGH the first gold discovered in California was found in this 
county, Los Angeles has never ranked high in gold production. In 1852 
placer mines were found in the San Gabriel canon and quite an excite 
ment followed. Considerable gold dust was taken from these mines which con 
tinued to yield for many years in paying quantities. Gold was found on the Santa 
Anita ranch in 1856 and there was a rush in that direction ; some mines were also 
located on Catalina island and gold mines have been claimed at some other points 
in the county. But the only paying claims were those of the San Gabriel. Silver 
and other minerals have been found at various points ; but no very rich mines 
have been uncovered. 

The mineral wealth of the county is, however, large ; it produces a large 
quantity of petroleum which is quite as valuable, in its way, as gold. It is 


said that Andreas Pico used to supply the priests at San Fernando mission with 
oil from Pico canon, and it was from this district that the first oil was taken. 
In iS-;<) the Pioneer Oil Co. was formed and wells were bored on the La Brea 
ranclio and in other districts where brea or asphaltum indicated petroleum ; 
but no oil in merchantable quantity was found until about 1865, when wells 
were bored in Pico canon and a considerable oil excitement prevailed. The 
first shipment of crude oil was made from these wells in 1867. But no very 
active progress was made until improved machinery for drilling and pumping 
came into use about 1877. Then the Pico and Xewhall wells became large 
producers and the refinery at Xewhall was built and, for a number of years, 
was successfully operated. The demand for the petroleum was not very active 
until about 1885, when a company was formed to foster its use as a fuel and 
produced a distillate which could be used for domestic and manufacturing pur 
poses in a suitable burner. The Puente oil fields were exploited during the 
eighties : but the pre-eminence of this county as an oil producer did not com 
mence until the discovery of oil in Los Angeles city. In 1892, Messrs. Doheny 
and Conner drilled a well in the old West Second street park which proved to 
be a gusher. At once other wells were put down in this district and soon a 
forest of derricks had arisen. By 1895 over 3 wells were in operation in, or 
near, the city and their yield is put at 730,000 barrels. About this time an oil 
burner for use in locomotives was perfected and the Santa Fe road began to 
use crude oil as fuel. Manufacturing plants and steam vessels found oil from 
30 to 60 per cent, cheaper than coal. This fuel also presented many other ad 
vantages and rapidly grew in favor, so that in spite of the greatly increased 
output, the price rose. An oil " boom " naturally resulted. Oil companies were 
numerous and prospecting was done in all sorts of likely and unlikely districts. 
The Whittier field, the Sespe and other districts in Ventura county were devel 
oped. There are now several refineries in the county and in 1905 over 1200 
wells were yielding, their product reaching 4,000,000 barrels, valued at $1,755,000. 
The cheapness and abundance of oil has been one of the leading factors in the 
rapid progress of our county, giving a possibility of meeting eastern competition 
in manufacturing, and being a large element in the development of our electric 
railway systems and electrical power plants. Not its least benefit is in the im 
provement of our public roads through the use of crude oil. We have now 
about 7000 miles of public roads in the county. These, when properly treated 
with oil, become almost dustless and as hard as macadamized roads, an advantage 
of incalculable benefit in this country. 

Second in our list of mineral wealth comes the clay products of the county. 
Nearly all of the Californian dwellings and of the missions were built of un- 
burned brick. Tiling, ollas and clay utensils were made by the Indians and 
Mexicans. The first kiln-dried brick were made in Los Angeles in 1852 by 



Captain Jesse Hunter of the Mormon battalion, and used to build a house at 
the corner of Third and Main. In 1855 Mullaly, Porter and Aver started a 
brick yard and in 1858 manufactured 2,000,000 brick. It was known that a 
number of valuable clay beds existed and several brick yards utilized the clay ; 
but it was not until the nineties that the business assumed large proportions. 
With the steadily growing demand for building material, not only brick, but 
artificial stone, concrete blocks and many other forms of manufactured clay 
products for building purposes have been devised. Water pipe was first made 
at Santa Monica in 1877. The manufacture of water and sewer pipe is now 
a large business. There are eighteen or twenty establishments manufacturing 

brick, pipe, pottety, concrete, and so 
on and their annual production runs 
into the millions. An art tile factory 
has lately been established at Tropico. 
The first carriage in California. 
P>ancroft states, was purchased by 
Temple and Alexander of San Pedro 
in 1849, * ne price, including horses, 
being $1000. Its appearance created 
a sensation in Los Angeles. In 1853 
Anderson and Mathews advertised as 
carriage makers, and soon afterward 
John Goller began business as a black 
smith and wagon maker. Warner 
says that his first wagon remained on 
hand a good while, the native people 
gazing on it with curiosity and dis 
trust and then going back to their 
carretas. A number of firms now 
turn out vehicles to the amount of 

DON ABEL STEARNS. $7<I.72. > IO6. 

In 1851 the first flour mill was put 

up in Los Angeles; there had long been "el Molino " at San Gabriel. In 1855 
Don Abel Stearns and Jonathan R. Scott built a brick flour mill. About the same 
time Henry Dalton had a flour mill on his Azusa rancho. The Eagle mills were 
built in Los Angeles in 1865 and destroyed by fire in 1874. There are now a 
number of flouring and grist mills in the county and their product for 1906 is 
given as $3,038,855. 

In 1857 James Woodworth started a broom factory ; in 1861 Perry and 
Woodworth established their planing mill and also manufactured beehives, furni 
ture, etc. In 1873 Barnard brothers built a woolen mill on Pearl street. At 
this time the annual wool clip was very large and for some years this mill made 


blankets and woolen cloth ; but it seems never to have been very successful and 
at last shut down, while the mill was used for the first ice plant in the city. 

Within the last few years many new ventures in the way of manufactures 
have been made. In 1903 the model town of Dolgeville was established. Here 
felt is made and piano hammers and other articles for which felt is used. There 
are now several shoe factories in the county, one being located at San Pedro 
and one at Venice. The meat packing industry is one of the most important in 
the county, the product of packed meats, lard and by-products reaching $4,000,000. 

I.os Angeles does not claim pre-eminence as a manufacturing region, yet 
the last report of the state agricultural board lists her manufactured products 
as reaching a total of $20,000,000, which is not bad for a beginning. 



TRADING vessels had entered the port of San Pedro from the earliest his 
tory of California, and the port had been a busy place in the forties. In 
August, 1840, according to Henry Mellns, thirteen vessels touched at this 
port. In 1849 the first steamer, the Goldhunter, entered 
the port. The first steamer to make regular trips was 
the Ohio, which carried passengers to San Francisco, 
charging " $55 for cabin passage, the bill of fare consist 
ing of salt beef, hard bread, potatoes and coffee, without 
milk or sugar." Freight was $25 per ton. In 1872 the 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company put on its service, with 
passenger fare at $15 and freight $5 per ton. Before 
the building of the railroad in 1869 freight was hauled 
to the city by carts or wagons at the rate of $1.00 per 
hundredweight in the fifties. In 1852 Alexnnder & 
Banning put on the first stage, fare to the city $10; in 
1867 J. J. Tomlinson established a rival stage line and 
Benjamin Hayes writes : " I vividly remember stand 
ing in front of the United States Hotel in 1868, one 
night of a steamer's arrival, and hearing the rival stages 
of Banning and Tomlinson come up Main street, racing 
to get in first, the horses on the gallop and in the darkness a man on each stage 
blowing a horn to warn people in the street to clear the track:" 

In 1855 fifty-nine vessels landed at San Pedro; in 1865 101 vessels touched 
at the port and in 1875 426 vessels entered ; in 1906 1700 vessels arrived bringing 
imports to the value of $15,000,000. In 1858 the port was changed from San 
Pedro to Wilmington, through the action of Col. Phineas Banning in building 
up that town. In 1871 the government, after several preliminary surveys, made 




an appropriation and began improving the harbor. From that date to the 
present work has continued more or less intermittently, and a very large sum 
has been expended in carrying out the extensive plans for the improvement of 
the inner harbor and the construction of an outer harbor. 

We have seen the Californians galloping from San Diego to Monterey on 
their tough little horses, the best saddle horses in the world, all early visitors 
agree. Enroute they stopped at missions or ranches and received entertainment 
and found fresh horses furnished them at every stopping place. Or, if a party 

were traveling, it might be accompanied 
by two or three Indian servants, driving 
a band of horses which supplied fresh 
mounts each day. Their women, and 
their baggage or freight, were trans 
ported in carretas, the framework made 
of poles and hides and mounted on 
wooden wheels. The earliest mails were 
delivered more or less regularly by post 
riders. Even after the American occu 
pation Los Angeles had no regular mails 
and no stages for several years. 

In 1851, Gregory's Great Atlantic and 
Pacific Express arrived in Los Angeles, 
bringing the first direct overland mail to 
the town, forty-nine days from St. Louis. 
But one trip seems to have finished the 
Great Atlantic, etc. ; we hear no more of 
it. In 1852 a stage line was established 
between Los Angeles and the north, but 
it does not seem to have been main 
tained regularly until about 1857, when 

David Smith established a bi-monthly route via Visalia. In 1862 a reg 
ular tri-weekly stage ran from San Jose to Los Angeles. In the early 
fifties stages ran to San Bernardino, and Phineas Banning put on a regular 
stage between the city and San Pedro. In 1859 a weekly stage made trips to 
San Diego. In 1858 the Butterfield stage route was established. This carried 
the mails from St. Louis via the southern route through Los Angeles to San 
Francisco and gave the first regular overland mails ; the distance was 2880 miles 
and the shortest time made was twenty-one days. This service was a great 
advance over any previous one and was greatly appreciated; but in 1861 it was 
replaced by the pony express, which traveled the central route. In 1857 Wells 
Fargo opened an office in Los Angeles. For years this company did the banking 
of the country as well as the express business. 



In 1866 Banning & Co. put on a fast coach from Wilmington to Fort Yuma, 
giving a seventy-two-hour ride, which was considered a feat in those days. 
Tin' advertisement for this line reads : " Leave for Fort Yuma at 4 o'clock every 
Monday, passing through Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Returning, leave 
Fort Yuma every Sunday at 3 o'clock a.m." In 1867 a daily mail stage was 
maintained between Los Angeles and San Jose, then the terminus of the railroad. 
At the same time regular stage lines were operated between Los Angeles and 
Tucson, Arizona, and another line went to Prescott. 

As the central point for so many stage lines, and as the outfitting point for 
a large trade carried on by wagon trains, Los Angeles was not altogether dull 
in the days before the railroad came. In the fifties the trade with Salt Lake 
was established and for many years large quantities of freight were hauled to 
Salt Lake, to Arizona, and even as far north as Idaho and Montana. In March, 
1859, the Shir reports 150 wagons leaving with goods to the amount of $180,000. 
This freighting business was of such importance and profit that when a railroad 
from San Pedro to Los Angeles was first proposed, there was decided opposition 
to it ; and the Southern Pacific met the same obstacle when it made its first pro 
posals in this section. A bill for a railroad between the port and the city was 
proposed in 1861, but although the county was granted permission to vote bonds 
for the road, nothing was done until 1867, when the question of granting the 
directors a subsidy of $150,000 from the county and $75,000 from the city was 
submitted to the people and was carried by a vote of 672 to 700 a close shave. 
The road was completed in 1869 and, despite the gloomy forebodings of many 
citizens, soon proved itself a valuable asset to the county. In 1872 the Southern 
Pacific was building its line southward through the San Joaquin valley ; two 
routes were surveyed, one through the Soledad pass and San Fernando valley 
to Los Angeles, with heavy grades and costly tunnels ; the other crossed the 
Mojave desert to Needles, a comparatively easy route. After much discussion 
and negotiation, the railroad company agreed to take the Los Angeles route, 
provided the county would vote bonds to the amount of $500,000, including its 
holding in the Los Angeles and San Pedro road. The railway company on its 
part agreed to construct fifty miles of track within the county inside of eighteen 
months and within two years should connect Los Angeles and Anaheim by rail 
and should carry its ntain trunk line on its way to connect with any southern 
transcontinental line, through Los Angeles valley. The company carried out 
its agreement and completed its line north to San Fernando and east to Spadra, 
the first train going over the road April 4, 1874. The construction of the San 
Fernando tunnel required more than a year and the cost is reported at two and 
a half millions. The connection between Los Angeles and San Francisco was 
made September 8th, 1876 a great day in the annals of this county. The 
Southern Pacific was completed to its eastern connection in March, 1881, thus 


giving a through southern route a consummation which had been talked of since 
the early fifties. 

The building of the Los Angeles and Independence road from Santa Monica 
to Los Angeles has been gone into in the Santa Monica history. It was fully 
believed at the time that this line would be continued to Independence and pos 
sibly to a connection with the Central Pacific in Utah. In 1884 the Los Angeles 
and San Gabriel Valley road was constructed to Pasadena, its opening being 
celebrated by an enthusiastic excursion party, September I7th, 1885. Later it 
was completed to the San Gabriel river and in 1887 taken over by the Santa Fe 

In 1879 representatives of a new corporation, the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe, which was building a transcontinental line, visited California and 
decided upon San Diego as the terminus and the Cajon pass as the gateway for 
their road. In 1885 the Santa Fe company purchased the Southern Pacific 
branch already built from Needles to Mojave and built the connection between 
Barstovv and San Bernardino, thus completing its line and giving Southern Cal 
ifornia a second transcontinental line. November 29th, 1885, its trains began 
running into Los Angeles, using the Southern Pacific tracks from Colton until 
the completion of its own line in 1887. 

The completion of the Santa Fe led to a rate war which was the first cause 
of the " boom " of 1886-7. At first the passenger rate from Chicago was dropped 
from $115 to $70, while freight rates were mercilessly slashed. On February 
2ist, 1886, tickets between the coast and the Missouri river were sold for $25 ; 
March 6th the prices dropped to $20 from Chicago and $35 from New York. 
For a few hours on March 8th tickets were sold in Los Angeles by the Southern 
Pacific for a flat rate of $1.00 to Missouri river points. This was the culmination. 

Naturally, such an opportunity was seized by thousands of people who had 
hitherto never dreamed of seeing California ; and during the year thav rates were 
below the normal, the rush continued. At first the newcomers looked around 
and purchased improved property, at reasonable figures ; as the influx continued, 
prices rose and property in and about Los Angeles changed hands at figures 
which astonished old timers ; then the speculative fever seized old residents and 
new comers alike ; and professional boomers and real estate sharks helped to 
feed it. Townsites were laid out anywhere ; at first a business block, a hotel 
and water pipe and sidewalks were supplied ; later the bare ground staked off, 
was sold at the price of city lots. Advertising, auctions, bands and excursions 
helped the excitement and sold the property to people who confidently expected 
to make from fifty to five hundred per cent, on their deals as had been actually 
done in some cases. Many of the present thriving towns of this county were 
thus born and, having real merit in spite of the wild methods and hopes, they 
have survived their flimsy foundation. Such are Glendale, " Garvanzo ", " Ah- 
susah ", Glendora, Alhambra, University, and others. While the real estate 


boom had, of course, a tremendous reaction anci there were many losses, there 
was also large gain. Substantial improvements were made as a result which 
greatly enhanced the value of property and prepared the way for a more solid 
advance. Many water companies organized during this time developed the 
water supply ; many orchards set out as a speculative venture, proved to be solid 
investments ; many buildings which were put up under the influence of inflated 
values, helped to create confidence and soon became fitted to the demand. At 
the height of the boom, in May, June and July, 1887, usually the dullest months 
in the year, the real estate sales in this county reached $35,067,830, for the three 
months. After this sales began to drop off. Yet during 1887-8 nearly $20,- 
000,000 was expended in building. A large number of dummy, or narrow-guage 
roads were built during this period and many branches of the railway lines were 
completed. The cable system of Los Angeles was one result of the sudden ex 

In 1886 a narrow-gauge line was built between Los Angeles and Glendale 
and in 1887 another narrow-gauge road was built to Pasadena. This road, 
known as the " Cross " road, absorbed the Glendale branch. In 1890 the " Ter 
minal " Company, an organization of eastern capitalists, purchased the Cross 
roads and built a line to San Pedro. It was then believed that this was a move 
to secure terminal facilities at San Pedro for the Union Pacific ; but the plans 
for the completion of the line failed to materialize and it was not until 1900, 
when Senator W. A. Clark of Montana secured a controlling interest in the Ore 
gon Short Line, that active work began in carrying out the long-talked-of con 
nection between Los Angeles and Salt Lake. In 1906 the San Pedro and Salt 
Lake railway was completed, thus giving Southern California another transcon 
tinental line and opening up a new and rich territory tributary to Los Angeles. 
Los Angeles county now has nearly 700 miles of steam railway within her bor 
ders ; she has three transcontinental lines centering within her limits ; she has 
the fine harbor of San Pedro, beside ports at Port Los Angeles, Redondo and 
Long Ueach. She is thus fully equipped to hold her place as the distributing 
point for a very large territory and has at her command ample and easily reached 
markets for all of her surplus products. 



FROM the shrieking, log-wheeled, ox-drawn carretas, moving at the rate of 
two miles, or less, an hour to the broad gauge passenger coach, speeded 
by electric motive power at the rate of sixty miles an hour, is a transfor 
mation that some citizens of Los Angeles have seen. The changes in the business 
and social life of the people, in the building and the general aspect of the country 
are scarcely less amazing. The city of Los Angeles, which in 1880 had a pop 
ulation of n,ooo and was still for the most part made up of one-story adobes, 
has become a metropolitan, modern city, with a population of 250,000 and with 
twelve and fourteen story buildings equal to any in the United States. And 
the county has kept pace with the city. The assessment for 1880 for the county 
gave a total valuation of $18,593,773, while the assessment for 1907 was 
$375,719,358. In 1880 there were but three banks in the county, all in the city ; 
there are now about sixty banks doing business, nearly half of them in outside 
towns. In 1880 the county reported 192,000 bearing orange trees; the latest 
report of the State Board of Agriculture gives this county over 1,500,000 bear 
ing orange trees and over 3,000,000 bearing fruit trees of all varieties. These 
figures are but indications of the tremendous changes brought about in the past 
quarter of a century by the development of our natural resources, the exploita 
tion of our incomparable climate and the influx of eastern capital which has 
built up our railway systems. There can be no question that a large credit for 
our prosperity is due to our transportation facilities. The advance movement 
in the county began with the entry of the Souhern Pacific and Santa Fe roads ; 
during the boom years a number of " dummy " roads were built, connecting 
the city with Pasadena, Glendale, Hollywood and Norwalk, and a broad gauge 
road to Santa Monica. During these years the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific 
built many branch roads Pasadena, Santa Ana, and intermediate points ; 
Redondo ; Ballona and Santa Monica ; Long Beach, and Orange. Many new 
town sprang up along these lines and older places, like Downey, Compton, 
Florence, and a dozen other farming communities, took on a new aspect under 
the stimulus of the railroad. 

In 1874 the first street-car line in the city of Los Angeles was built, run 
ning down Spring street to Sixth. Horses, or more likely mules, were the 
motive power. A number of other horse-car lines followed and it was consid 
ered in those days that Los Angeles was very well provided for in the way of 
transportation. In 1884 the first cable line was built, out West Second street 
to Belmont hill. This did not prove a successful venture and was aban- 


doned, as was an electric line attempted that same year, running out Pico street. 
During the boom a company was organized and plans were laid for a cable 
system which should give rapid transit to all parts of the city. Under the super 
vision of Col. J. C. Robinson, an experienced engineer, these plans were carried 
out and Tune 8th, 1889, the first division of the new service, the line starting at 
the Grand Avenue power house, now the postoffice, down Seventh and " Fort " 
streets to the Baker block, was put in operation. The Temple street, Boyle 
Heights and Downey avenue divisions followed. 

In 189^ the West Second street electric line was built and the first car went 
over it July 1st. This line over the heaviest grades in the city was looked upon 
with very serious doubts at first. But when its success was assured, develop 
ments were rapid. In 1892 the Pasadena and Mount Wilson Company was 
organized by T. S. C. Lowe, and this, at the time the most remarkable moun 
tain road in the world, was completed in 1893. 

In 1895 Messrs. Sherman and Clark built the electric line to Pasadena. 
This was the first inter-urban street-car line and it was freely predicted that 
" it would never pay. 1 ' Yet the next year the same gentlemen announced their 
intention of building an electric line to Santa Monica, and carried out their 
purpose. In 1895 the Traction Company entered the field and built their Uni 
versity line. 

But the trolley history of the county really began when the Cable Railway 
system was sold under foreclosure to the Electric Street Railway Company, in 
1898, for $1,344,320. The company was at once reorganized and in 1901 H. 
E. Huntington was announced as its head. The extension of lines in the city 
since that date has gone steadily on. But the greatest work has been in the 
building of suburban lines. First the Pasadena line was extended to Altadena 
and the foot of the Mt. Lowe Incline ; lines were built to Alhambra and 
San Gabriel, to Hollywood and Glendale. Then Long Beach, San Pedro, 
Rcdondo, and Newport were reached. These lines were constructed by the 
Pacific Electric Company and the Los Angeles Pacific. Within the past two 
or three years, roads have been built to Whittier, Monrovia, Covina, and Santa 
Ana. In 1903 the Pacific Electric constructed its building in Los Angeles, 
which gives a central point for its suburban lines. A number of elaborate and 
costly power plants supply the motive power and a large number of sub-stations 
distribute it. The expenditure of the many millions of dollars necessary to build 
and maintain this network of railways has been no small factor in our general 

The extension of these roads with their frequent and comfortable service 
caused an expansion of the beach towns. Long Beach, San Pedro, Redondo 
and Santa Monica experienced a sudden rise in values that recalled the days 
of '87. New beach settlements, Ocean Park, Venice, Playa del Rey, Manhat- 


tan, Hermosa, and half a dozen others were platted and put on the market. The 
quick transit brought new settlers to the beach ; it also brought crowds of 
pleasure seekers ; and at once new bathhouses and pavilions, hotels and piers 
were provided. It is probably safe to say that the population of our beach 
towns has been more than doubled during the past seven years. 

But the suburban lines have created many new settlements between the 
city and the beach. People who could never hope to own a home within the 
city have been able to purchase a lot or a tract outside of the city, and at the 
same time be within easy reach of their places of business, or of labor. Many 
handsome homes have been built along the electric lines and such residence 
districts as Beverly Hills, Brentwood, Hollywood, South Pasadena, Hunting- 
ton Park, and others, have shown that there is a demand for high class sub 
urban property. 

The electric lines also carry the mails, express and freight. So satisfac 
tory has their freight service proved that the older steam lines cannot compete 
with them.. They are now handling carload lots which are transferred direct 
to the steam lines. The fact that they can give a frequent service and stop 
wherever freight or express matter is to be handled has been of great benefit 
to the dairymen and small farmers. They are thus able to put their vegetables, 
berries and produce on the market with an ease and a promptness which adds 
largely to their profits. 

Los Angeles county increased in population at the rate of 67 per cent, be 
tween 1890 and 1900. And her progress in the present decade has been accel 
erated and will doubtless show an even greater gain in 1910. And we cannot 
question that there is a relation between the mileage of our electric railways, 
now about 700 miles in the county, and our growing population. 



THE history of the city of Los Angeles is so closely interwoven with that of 
the county that the two can hardly be separated. Although Monterey 
was the capital most of the time during the early history of the country, 
Los Angeles had more inhabitants and was the center of a larger settled district. 
After the gold rush of the early fifties, San Francisco, Sacramento, and a number 
of northern towns exceeded Los Angeles in population ; but within the past three 
decades Los Angeles has steadily passed its rivals until now it is the second county 
and the second city in the state. During the past twenty-six years Los Angeles 
has made the most rapid, as well as the most constant, growth in population 


of any important city in the United States, the population now being estimated 
at 300,000. 

There are now twenty-seven incorporated cities in the county, of which 
Pasadena, after Los Angeles, is the first in size. 


In August, 1873, a number of people, residents of Indiana, sent a committee 
to California to look over the country and select a tract for colonization, to be 
devoted to citrus and fruit culture. After traveling over Southern California 
these gentlemen decided upon a body of 4000 acres of the San Pasqual rancho. 
This grant had been made to Manuel Garfias in 1843 and was at this time owned 
by Dr. John S. Griffin and B. D. Wilson. The beautiful and highly improved 
ranches of L. J. Rose and Mr. Wilson, in this vicinity, showed what might be 
accomplished here. There were about fifty people in the original Indiana colony ; 
but many of these were unable to carry out their agreement and in consequence 
the purchase of the land was completed by a new organization, the Orange 
Grove Association. Each shareholder received a fifteen-acre tract while the 
balance of the land was held for the benefit of the company. In 1875 the name 
of Pasadena, meaning " Crown of the Valley ", taken from some Indian dialect, 
was adopted in place of " Indiana Colony." 

The original irrigation system of the Orange Grove Association was the 
first in California to distribute water under pressure, through iron pipe. The 
plan was such a radical change from the old system of earthen ditches and 
little wooden flumes that it was much commented upon and criticised; but it 
has since then been largely imitated. 

The settlers built homes and started a school, in 1874, in a private house. 
The first church, the Presbyterian, was built in 1875-6 at a cost of $4200. In 
March, 1880, Pasadena held a citrus fair which attracted many visitors and 
showed the quality of fruit that could be produced. At this time the town had 
a tri-wcekly stage and mail service. In 1882 the Pasadena Land and Water 
Company was formed and took over the rights and properties of the Orange 
Grove Association. The Lake Vineyard Company had been formed in 1874 
and had purchased land adjoining that of the Orange Grove Company, secur 
ing their water rights from the heirs of B. D. Wilson. They had sold a con 
siderable area which was tinder irrigation and was known as the " east side ", 
while the settlement of the Indiana Colony was the " west side." A conflict 
grew out of the adjustment of the water rights of these two associations which, 
after a number of years of uncertainty, was settled by a compromise satisfactory 
to all. 

In 1884 the Los Angeles and San Gabriel road was built to Pasadena; in 

1887 this became a part of the Santa Fe system. The Cross " dummy '' road 

reached the town in 1887, and the first street car line was built this year. The 

old Raymond hotel was built in 1886 and first drew the attention of the tourist 


world to the attractions offered by Pasadena and its environs. The burning 
of this hotel in 1895 was a severe blow. 

The town was incorporated in 1886. In 1901 it adopted a freeholder's 
charter. It is known as one of the best governed and most orderly towns of 
the country ; while its municipal improvements are unexcelled. In Throop 
College, established in 1894, it has the only strictly technical school in Southern 
California. Pasadena is a city of beautiful homes and magnificent hotels. It 
is now a mecca for the wealthy easterner who wishes to escape winter severities. 
The perfection of the trolley lines enables its people to do business in Los Angeles 
and has practically given the smaller city all the advantages of the larger place 
while still maintaining her own restful distinctiveness. 


The town of Long Beach was started about 1882 and had, at first, a very 
gradual growth. It was first known as a summer resort for those wishing a 
quiet, orderly place. Its fine beach gave it a strong attraction. For many years 
the Methodists held their annual campmeeting here. The Chautauqua Associa 
tion adopted it as their center, also, and a large pavilion to accommodate their 
summer assemblies was erected about 1890. The town has always been a " no 
license '' place and still remains so. It was incorporated in 1888 and disincor 
porated in 1896. The following year it was reincorporated and in 1907 adopted 
a freeholder's charter. In 1900 it had a population of 2252; in 1906 when the 
census was taken for the charter election, the population' was 12,591, and 15,000 
is now claimed. The town has taken on new life since the completion of the 
trolley line and has made a record for building and improvements of every 

An inland harbor is being constructed here and a large shipping plant 
is in course of construction. With the completion of these improvements Long 
Beach will become an important shipping center. 


In 1874 the Los Angeles Land and Water Company, of which Thomas 
A. Garey, C. E. White, L. M. Holt, Milton Thomas, R. M. Town and H. G. 
Crow were members, purchased from J. S. Philips, a tract of land which had 
been a part of the San Jose grant, made to Jose Palomares. The company 
secured water rights from the Palomares heirs and also put down four artesian 
wells from which a considerable flow was obtained. A town site was laid 
out and the land surrounding it was divided into tracts. In February, 1876. 
an auction sale of these lots was held which resulted in disposing of $19,000 
worth of land a surprising feat for that time. A number of houses were 
built and orchards set out and a little town grew up. In 1877 a fire almost 
destroyed the settlement and for some time the place did not recover itself. 


The Southern Pacific reached the town in 1876. In 1882 the Pomona Land 
and \Yuter Company was formed and by vigorous action placed the irrigation 
system upon a sounder basis and secured an increased supply of water. Like 
all Southern California towns, Pomona experienced rapid growth during the 
years of 1886-1887, and many new buildings were put up at that time. A 
handsome hotel, the Palomares, was built ; banks, school houses and street 
improvements added. The town was incorporated in 1888. Claremont was 
started in 1887, its chief inducement for the prospective buyer being a very 
handsome " boom " hotel. This was later made the seat of Claremont College, 
one of thy largest preparatory schools in this part of the state. The town is 
practically a part of Pomona. 

In 1889 the beautiful statue of Pomona was presented to the city by one 
of her pione< r residents, Rev. C. F. Loop. Pomona is the center of a very rich 
farming section and of the finest citrus orchards in the country. Its shipments 
of fruit, both fresh and canned or dried, is very large. 


About 1887 a colony of Friends from Indiana located on a tract of the 
Paso de Bartolo rancho, near Ranchita, as the ranch house of Pio Pico was 
known. The settlers at first devoted themselves almost exclusively to citrus 
culture and the little village prospered as its orchards came into bearing. 
About 1890 it was chosen as the site of the State Industrial Home, for the 
accommodation of which buildings to the value of nearly a million dollars 
have been erected. About 1895 the Whittier oil fields were developed and 
since that date a very large amount of high-grade oil has been annually pro 
duced by this section. It is estimated that the product for the last year brought 
$1,000,000 into the community. In 1898 the town was incorporated. In 1900 
the census gave it a population of 1,590, but it has grown very rapidly, 
especially since the completion of the electric line and there are now between 
five and six thousand inhabitants. A Friends' college, with an endowment of 
150,000, is maintained. 


In 1886 \Y. X. Monroe laid out the townsite of Monrovia. Its beautiful 
location in the foothills of the Santa Anita rancho, attracted a number of wealthy 
families who built handsome homes. A large number of orange groves were 
set out ; water was procured from Sawpit Canyon, and the town grew rapidly 
during the boom years. It was incorporated December I2th, 1887. Like all 
Los Angeles county towns it has taken on a new lease of life within the past 
few years. The completion of the electric line to the place in 1906 gave an 
added impetus to its growth. It now claims 4,000 inhabitants. 



In 1849 but a single building stood upon the bluff, known as Timm's 
landing. About this point a little settlement grew up in the early fifties ; a 
wharf was built and a warehouse and some stores and residences followed. 
But in 1858 General Phineas Banning, who handled most of the stage and freight- 


ing business from the port, started a new town some six miles to the north 
and for a time the first town languished. However, after the building of the 
railroad in 1869, the old settlement revived. In 1888 the town was incorporated. 
The completion of the Terminal road and the extension of the Southern Pacific 
service gave improved facilities. The vast sums of money expended by the 
government in improving the harbor have also been of great benefit in building 
up the town of San Pedro. It is now the most important port in California. 
after San Francisco, and the volume of business carried on through the place is 
constantly increasing. Since the building of an electric line in 1905, a large 
addition to the business has been made and many public improvements have 
been undertaken. 


In 1858 Phineas Banning, J. G. Downey and B. D. Wilson purchased a 
tract of land and laid out the town of " New San Pedro." A wharf and ware 
house was built here and all the business of the Banning Company was trans 
ferred to this point. A reservation was donated to the government for barracks. 
Here Drum Barracks was built, and from the beginning of the civil war until 1865 
or later, large numbers of troops passed through this port and were garrisoned 
here. It was the miltary headquarters, at that time, for this section and Arizona. 


In 1863 the name was changed by act of the legislature to Wilmington and 
in 1874 the government changed the name of the port to Wilmington, which 
is still the official title of the harbor. In 1864 General Banning established the 
ll'iliniiigton Journal, the first paper in the county outside of Los Angeles. 
It was a well put up and newsy sheet. As the starting point for stages for 
Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Arizona points, Wilmington was a lively 
place during the later sixties. 

In 1873 Wilson College, endowed by B. D. Wilson, was opened and for 
a number of years prospered, under the Rev. Dr. Campbell. The building 
was 'a large two-story house, which accommodated a number of boarding pupils. 
The rebuilding of " Old San Pedro " took away the prestige of Wilmington. 
The. town which had been incorporated in 1872, repealed its incorporation in 
1887 and remained a village until 1905, when it was reincorporated as a city 
of the sixth class. 

The improvement of the harbor has greatly benefited Wilmington and a 
large amount of shipping business is now clone at its wharves. 


The town of Redondo was started in 1887, by a company which built a 
very large and handsome hotel and also supplied a wharf. The Santa Fe, after 
making an attempt to secure suitable terminal facilities at Ballona Port, 
determined upon Redondo as a harbor and entered the town with its railroad 
in 1888. The town was incorporated in 1892. It was Breached by an electric 
line in 1904 and now has two electric lines connecting it with the city. The 
Pacific Light and Power plant, one of the largest in the L^nited States, is located 
here. A large amount of freight is handled, especially lumber from the 
coastwise steamers. 


Other incorporated towns not mentioned are Alhambra, Arcadia, Azusa, 
Claremont, Compton, Covina, Glendale, Hermosa Beach, Hollywood, Hunt- 
ington Park, Sierra Madre, Vernon and Watts. Many of these have grown up 
within the past four or five years, a number of them, as Claremont, Hermosa 
Beach, Huntington Park, Sierra Madre and Watts have been incorporated 
within the past year. 


History of Santa Monica Bay Cities. 



THE BAY OF SAXTA MONICA extends along the coast from Point 
Vicente, latitude 33 40' to Point Dume. latitude 34 a distance of seven 
teen miles, north by west. The coast line of the bay makes an inward 
sweep which is some ten miles deep at its extreme point, in the neighborhood 
of Port Los Angeles, and includes an area of 25,000 miles. The waters of this 
bay are, ordinarily, quiet since the force of the waves is broken by the seaward 
islands and the deep, recessed position of the shore line. The depth of the 
water increases from the beach outward with an easy and gradual slope for 
several miles. 

The shore line is most varied. At its northern extremity, Point Dume 
rises, domelike, to a height of 200 feet, and back of it the Santa Monica range 
rises abruptly almost from the waters of the shore to a height of 2,000 feet 
and forms the northern border of the bay. Gradually the slope falls into the 
palisades and sinks to the sand dunes and the Ballona lagoon, then rises again 
into low hills along the southern rim. Back from the palisades sweep the gently 
rising plateaus of the San Vicente and San Jose de Buenos Ayres ranches. 
Southward extend the cienegas and pastures of the Ballona creek district and 
the low, rolling ranges of the Sausal Redondo and San Pedro region. 

The Santa Monica Bay territory thus includes a large variety of scenery, 
a most varied topography and a wide range of resources. Its mountains fur 
nish an invaluable water supply ; the greater part of its lower lands are readily 
supplied with water from wells, while a considerable portion of the region needs 
no irrigation and includes some of the most valuable farming land in Los An- 
geles county. The distinctive topography of this district accounts for a climate 
which is incomparable, since it has all the advantages of both coast and inland 
the freshness of the ocean air, with the freedom from harsh winds, of the 



The first explorer of the California coast, Cabrillo, after spending six days 
in San Diego Harbor, which he named San Miguel, sailed along "a mountainous 
coast, overhung with smoke," landed at Catalina to which he gave the name 
of Victoria, then anchored in a bay which he called "Bahia de Fumos'' (Bay of 
smoke), San Pedro Bay and, on October 9, 1542 he dropped anchor in an 
"ensanada" or bight which is generally granted to have been Santa Monica 
Bay. At just what point he anchored is not known, but undoubtedly Cabrillo 
was the first European to observe the palisades, the fair fields and gentle rolling 
hills that mark this coast. After this brief visit there is no record of vessel 
or visitor to this region for more than two hundred years. 


The waters of the bay were sometimes disturbed by the rude boats of the 
Santa Barbara Channel and Island Indians ; the valleys adjacent to the coast 
and the Santa Monica mountains were the homes of a people who have long 
since disappeared and of whose existence we know only by the occasional un 
covering of skeletons and relics. Several caves and mounds containing cur 
ious collections of implements, weapons and bones have been found on the 
Malibu ranch at various times. These Indians roamed over the plains and 
through the cienegas, killing rabbits and small game and gathering acorns and 
grasses, roots and berries. They also fished along the shore, mostly with nets, 
and gathered shells their most prized possession. It is said that these shells 
were particularly abundant along the shore where Ocean Park and Venice now 


stand and that th<- Indians from the interior and from Catalina used to visit this 
spot to secure shells which took the place of money with them. 

Vizcaino describes the Indians seen along the coast of California during 
his explorations early in the seventeenth century as of good form and of active 
character, the men wearing a short cloak made of rabbit or deer skins, htavily 
fringed, the more industrious having their garments embroidered with shells. 
He describes a rancheria seen along the shore in this vicinity as composed of 
about twenty houses made of rushes over a frame of poles driven into the ground. 
These were very like the brush ramadas still constructed by the Indians of 
California. Bancroft states that the Indians of Los Angeles county ate coyotes, 
skunks, wildcats and all sorts of small animals. They would not eat bear meat 
or the flesh of large game for superstitious reasons. They were poor hunters 
having no effective weapons, and hunted deer by hiding themselves under a 
skin with the head and horns intact, until they were within bowshot. They 
made fishhooks, needles and other small articles of bone and shell, ground their 
acorns and seeds in a metate, or stone mill, and constructed wooden boats or 
tule rafts for their fishing expeditions, using seines made of tough bark. 

THE NAM ic. 

The Indians were the only occupants of the coast for some time after the 
beginnings of settlement had been made at San Gabriel and Los Angeles. It 
is claimed that the party of Captain de Portala, which made the first overland 
expedition through California in 1769 in search of the Bay of Monterey, passed 
through a canada near the present location of the Soldier's Home and paused 
under a group of sycamores while Fathers Crespi and Gomez, the priests ac 
companying the expedition, said mass. A very old sycamore tree is pointed 
out as the one where the service was performed and is still looked upon with 

\\"e have no authentic account of how the name Santa Monica came to be 
applied ; but the old Spanish settlers have a legend of its origin which may be 
true. The story is that a couple of Spanish soldiers were given a furlough to 
explore the region about the new ."pueblo de Los Angeles." They came one 
day to a couple of clear bubbling springs near the ocean. After drinking, they 
threw themselves upon the ground between the springs to rest. As they lay 
there on the gently sloping hillside, overlooking the wide, green plains and the 
ocean, one of them asked, "And what shall we call this spot, brother?" 

And the other, turning from one glistening pool to the other, answered: 
"\Ye will call it Santa Monica, for the springs resemble the tears of the good 
Santa Monica shed for her erring son." 

The legend of Santa Monica is one of the most beautiful connected with 
the saints. According to tradition the holy woman was born in Africa about 
332 A. D. She was brought up so strictly that she was not allowed even a 


drink of water between meals and was early married to Patricius, a gentleman 
of hot and hasty temper. She had two sons and one of them Augustine, to the 
great grief of his mother, would not yield to her teachings and be baptized into 
the church. Instead, he was carried away by heresy and entered upon an 
immoral life. The mother spent much of her time in praying for and weeping 
over the wayward son. For many years she sorrowed and once, in her despair, 
she went to a good bishop and related her woes. " Wait," the bishop told her, 
" and keep on praying. The child of so many tears cannot perish." 

At last the son fell ill and came near death. He recovered, however, in 
answer to his mother's prayers and this so softened his heart that at last he 
saw the error of his ways and became a devout believer, finally becoming the 
great Saint Augustine. 

Whether we accept this legend or not, the bay and the region were certainly 
named for the good Santa Monica, whose day in the calendar was May 4th. 
The name does not seem to appear upon record until the petition for the grant 
known as San Vincente y Santa Monica was made by Don Francisco Sepulveda 
and Augustin Machado in 1827. The springs mentioned in the legend, later 
known as San Vincente springs were included in this grant. 


What is commonly known as the Santa Monica Bay region includes por 
tions of four land grants, Malibu extending twenty-two miles along the coast 
to the north ; Boca de Santa Monica, including the mouth of Santa Monica 
Canyon ; San Vicente y Santa Monica, which had an ocean frontage of a mile 
and a half and extended back four miles from the coast, covering an area of 
about 40,000 acres ; and La Ballona rancho, with an ocean frontage of four 

For nearly three quarters of a century after the first settlement was made 
on the Malibu tract in 1804, or possibly earlier, this entire region was given 
over to grazing herds of cattle and sheep and to grain raising, on a small scale. 
The haciendas of the grant owners were each a little community in itself and 
the simple, pastoral life of the Spanish occupation lingered, to an unusual degree 
until the final breaking up of these ranchos, during the past twenty-five years. 

Bill life in those slow-moving days, while not as strenuous as in our day 
of perpetual rush and change, had its occupations, its interests and its amuse 
ments. Most of these rancheros were also residents of Los Angeles and took 
an active part in municipal and territorial affairs. At their country homes they 
were surrounded by a large retinue of relations, retainers and servants, the 
latter mostly Indians. All of these were under the protection and command 
of the head of the house and all were fed, clothed, and provided for. The 
number of people about his place was a matter of pride with the ranchero. 


And the days on one of these large stock ranges were not all "siesta" by 
any means. Herds and flocks must be guarded from thieves and the ravages 
of wild beasts ; they must be shifted from plain to valley, from coast to moun 
tain-side, as the season demanded. There were rodeos, the annual rounding-up 
of stock, to attend and sometimes a large cattle owner must be present at several 
of these affairs in order to secure all of his stock. The rnatanza, or slaughter 
ing, was a busy season requiring careful selection of animals and good judg 
ment in bargaining with the traders of the hide droghers ; sheep-shearing was 
another period of arduous labor ; the tanning of hides, the rendering of tallow 
and the harvesting of grain all demand due attention. There were dry seasons 
when losses were heavy, and cold, wet years which were disastrous to cattle and 
i->peeiaily sheep. 

The greater part of the necessary supplies were raised upon the rancho, 
but yearly the hides and tallow were traded with the sailing vessels that put 
into San Pedro, for such supplies and luxuries as were brought from the Orient, 
or from Boston. Certainly the life of those years was not without its interests. 
The instability of political affairs the constaint bickering and jealously of 
Monterey and Santa Barbara on the one hand, and Los Angeles and San Diego, 
on the other ; the frequently changing and very uncertain orders and officials 
sent from Mexico, all of these afforded pretty steady excitement in Los Angeles. 
And Los Angeles seems never to have been a really dull place even in its 
sleepiest days. There was generally something doing if it was only a murder 
before breakfast. For amusements there were balls and weddings, horse races 
and bull fights and the various fiestas of the church. 

The ranches near the coast were not as exposed to depredations from the 
dreaded "desert" Indians as were the more interior locations, but there are still 
traditions of lively scraps with bands of thieving Indians on the Malibu and the 
San Vicente, and there is at least one " encino del Indias " located on the 
palisades where an Indian horse thief was hanged without legal preliminaries. 


The first land grant in this vicinity was that known as Topanga Malibu 
made in 1805 to Don Jose Bartolemeo Tapia. A deed executed in 1845 anc ^ 
recorded in the county records states that July 12, 1805, the "Governor o\ Loreto," 
then Governor of California decreed that certain " pasajes " which are called 
Malibu, Topango, Sottome, Simi and Sequit, be granted to Jose Bartolemeo 
Tapia. This deed further states that April 18, 1824, the property passed into 
hands of Seiior Tapia's heirs, Tomaso, Fernando, Juan Antonio and Tiburcio 
Tapia. The property is described as bounded on the north by the " Sierra Mayor, 
on the south, F,l Mar Oceano Pacifico; the east by Rancho Santa Monica and 
the west by el Rio de San Buena Ventura." In 1848 it passed into the pos- 



session of Maria Villeboso and Victor Leon Pruclliomme for " cuatro cientos 
pesos " four hundred dollars. 

The Malibu grant, with its almost impassable mountain ranges, extending; 
into the very ocean, its inacessible canyons, its hidden mesas and wildernesses, 
has always been a land of mystery and many romantic stories of smuggling, of 
buried treasure, of robbery and murder have been connected with it. 

The first grantee, Jose B. Tapia, must have stocked the place, as he willed 
it with its "ganado" or cattle, to his heirs. His son Tiburcio occupied the place, 
probably during the twenties and thirties and it is said buried a couple of chests 
of his abounding coin somewhere on the ranch. Tiburcio Tapia was one of the 

most interesting char 
acters of earlier Los 
Angeles history. 
Born in San Luis 
Obispo, w here his 
father was then act 
ing as Alcalde, in 
1789, he became a 
soldier. In 1824. he 
was a corporal of the 
guard at Purisima at 
the time of an In 
dian uprising which 
threatened the mas 
sacre of the entire 
Spanish population. 

With four or five men, Tapia defended the families and the padres during the 
night and only surrendered when the powder gave out. It is said that the rebels 
offered to spare Tapia, if he would give up his arms, but he declined the pro 

Soon after this he must have removed to Los Angeles, where he was one 
of the earliest merchants. Alfred Robinson says of him, "We stopped at the 
house of Don Tiburcio Tapia, the Alcalde Constitutional (Constitutional Judge) 
of the city, who was once a common soldier but who, by honest and industrious 
labor has amassed so much of this world's goods as to make him one of the 
wealthiest inhabitants of the place. His strict integrity gave him credit to any 
amount with the trading vessels, so that he was the principal merchant and the 
only native one in "el Pueblo cle Los Angeles." 

Don Tiburcio filled many positions of trust. In 1827, which must have 
been soon after his location in Los Angeles, he was chosen with Juan Bandini, 
Romualdo Pacheco and four other prominent citizens to act as vocale or member 
to represent the southern district in the territorial diputacion which convened 



at Monterey, the legislative body of that time. Don Tiburcio was mack a mem 
ber of the committee on police regulations, which must have been one of the 
most important subjects under consideration in those days. His record makes 
it appear that Serior Tapia was something of a politician, or so it would seem 
now-a-days ; but we are assured that in the early days of Los Angeles the office 
had to seek the man and sometimes went begging for an occupant, so we must 
put Senor Tapia down as one of the most self-sacrificing and public spirited 
citizens Los Angeles ever had. He was re-elected vocale twice. In 1831 he 
was alcalde (mayor) of Los Angeles; in 1833 he was "sindico," recorder; in 
1835 "encargado cle Indians"; 1836, alcalde second alcalde it took two mayors 
to keep things moving; In 1839 he was alcalde again and was also confirmed in 
the grant of the Cucamonga Rancho by governor Alvarado. In 1840 he was 
one of the five substitute judges elected by the junta, or superior court. In 
1844 he again served the city as alcalde. 

He must have been a busy man, as the leading merchant of the town and 
as one of the owners of the Topanga Malibu and, at the same time he was 
making extensive improvements on the Cucamonga Rancho, where he built a 
residence. It is said that as rumors of American designs upon California be 
came rife, Don Tiburcio became alarmed for his store of coin, which was un 
usually large for that period. He is said to have carried much of it to Cucamongo 
and buried it, and there are also stories of other chests of it hidden on the 
Malibu. Whatever treasures of silver and gold he may have stowed away, did 
him no good, for he died suddenly in 1845 ar >d it seems to have been lost to 
his family. He left one daughter, Maria Merced, who later married Leon 
V". Prudhomme, one of the early French settlers of Los Angeles, and who is 
still living in that city. 

An interesting tale of an early smuggling episode is also related to Malibu 
history. According to Bancroft, in 1819, a couple of American vessels, strongly 
suspected of smuggling intentions, were cruising along the coist of Southern 
California. One of these ships was signalled off the coast of the Malibu and 
induced to make a landing. Two men, Antonio Briones, who is stated to have 
been a claimant for the Malibu grant at one time, and Maximo Alanis, who 
was later the grantee of the Buenos Ayres Rancho, induced the smugglers to 
land their goods, then seized the sailors and declared that they would turn them 
over to the authorities unless a ransom of $1000 was paid to them. As their 
captors had conclusive evidence, the captain was about to pay over his thousand 
dollars, when one of the guard " celebrated " too soon and in his happy oblivion 
allowed the prisoners to escape. The booty, however, remained in the hands 
of Briones and Alanis, who decided to say nothing to the authorities about the 
little matter and keep the goods to recoup themselves for the ransom money 
they had lost. But the officials of that day seem to have had their eyes open 


and in some way discovered the mysterious doings on the Malibu coast. 
Briones and Alanis were arrested, the goods confiscated and these brilliant 
" promoters " of 1819 were imprisoned for six months in chains. It is to be 
hoped that somebody finally paid the duty on the consignment. 

In later years the Malibu was the favorite rendezvous of an extensive band 
of horse and cattle thieves. The early records of Los Angeles county contain 
many accounts of exciting chases and arrests made in the fastnesses of the 
Malibu, or Malaga, region. Don Tiburcio Tapia seems to have been a 
remarkable exception in his family, for the name Tapia appears almost as 

frequently in the criminal records as did Don Tibur- 
cio's in the political records of an earlier day. 

In the early sixties, the Malibu grant passed 
through tax sale into the hands of Mathew Keller, 
A-sr-j better known in those days as " Don Mateo." Mr. 

^^^(StJL^ Keller was born in Ireland and came to America at 

^1 an early date. After living in Mexico for a time, 

he came to California and located in Los Angeles 
about 1850, becoming one of its best known and 
most prominent citizens. He was one of the first to 
engage in wine-making and to plant out an exten 
sive vineyard, for which he imported stock from 
France. He devoted a great deal of attention 

DON MATED KELLER. to the cultivation of the grape and was also in 

terested in the early experiments in raising cot- 
ion. At one time he had a complete ginning outfit set up in Los Angeles 
and offered its use to any one who would raise cotton. He made a thor 
ough study of the process of making wine of different varieties and manu 
factured it in large quantities. He established houses in Los Angeles and 
San Francisco and was instrumental in introducing California wines in the 
east on a large scale, having extensive connections in New York for the hand 
ling of his 'own manufacture. 

He put up a large ranch house on the Malibu and made improvements 
there and when he died in 1881 he left the grant to his son, Henry \V. Keller, 
formerly of Santa Monica, who sold it in 1891 to the late Frederick H. Rindge. 
FREDERICK HASTINGS RINDGE was born in Cambridge, Mass., December 
21 st, 1857. He was a descendant of the Puritan stock which has furnished 
so large a portion of the best blood and ablest brains of our country. 
Among his ancestors were Daniel Rindge, who commanded the Ipswich troops 
in the campaign which destroyed King Philip, of the Naragansett ; Samuel 
Baker, one of the minute men who marched to the relief of Lexingtotn in 1775, 
and Daniel Harrington, a resident of Lexington who served through the Revolu- 



tionary war with distinction, retiring with the rank of captain. His father, 
Samuel Baker Rinclge was a merchant of very large estate, which he used most 
wisely. His mother, Clarissa Harrington, was a woman of fine character. 

Frederick- Rindge was the only surviving child of his parents and was left 
in a weakened state by an attack of scarlet fever in his childhood. His education 
was conducted with especial care and while still a youth he traveled extensively, 
visiting California in 1870 and during 1871-2 visiting many places of interest 
in Europe. He completed his preparation for college under Dr. James Laurence 
Laughlin and entered Harvard in 1875. Owing to illness, he was forced to 
leave college in his last year; but several years later he was given his degree. 
Soon after leaving college he succeeded to his father's estate, and at once entered 
upon an active business career which proved him to possess unusal qualities of 
good judgment and executive ability; although his character and tastes were 
strongly inclined to a studious life. 

He visited California again in 1880, in search of health, and returned to 
New England with renewed strength. For a number of years he devoted him 
self to the management of his large commercial interests in Massachusetts. As 
a testimonial of his love for his birthplace, he erected and presented to the city 
of Cambridge a city hall and, later, built for the city a beautiful public library 
building. He established there, and for ten years maintained, the Rindge 
Manual Training School for boys the first manual training school in the 

On May 27, 1887, he was married to Miss Rhoda May Knight, of Trenton, 
Michigan, daughter of James and Rhoda Lathrop Knight. They were the par 
ents of three children, Samuel Knight, Frederick Hastings and Rhoda Agatha. 

In 1887, he came to California to make his permanent home. He soon 
settled upon Southern California as his place of residence. In January, 1891, 
he purchased property on Ocean Avenue, Santa Monica and at once built a 
handsome residence. This home was occupied by the family, in conjunction 
with the ranch house on the Topanga Malibu until they removed to Los 
Angeles in 1903. 

In 1891 Mr. Rinclge purchased the property commonly known as the Malibu 
ranch, a Spanish land grant originally made to Jose B. Tapia in 1804, and later 
belonging to Don Mateo Keller. The original property extended along the 
coast northwesterly from Las Flores canyon for twenty miles. To this Mr. 
Rindge added other tracts until he owned a strip of land extending along the 
sea coast for twenty-four miles. Beautiful "pasages" or valleys ; fertile mesas, 
stretches of magnificent beach, lofty peaks and ridges, gave a wonderful variety 
of scenery and climate to this rancho. Mysterious caves, almost inaceesible can 
yons, groves of ancient oak and sycamore lent romance and charm. It is not 
strange that Mr. Rindge, with his poetical tendency of thought and spiritual 


trend of mind, found here his ideal home and loved this historical rancho not 
as property but as a divine inheritance. He built here a home that was per 
fect in its adaptation to the environment and he spent here some of his happiest 
hours. His book, "Happy Days in Southern California" is largely a tribute 
to his life upon the Malibu, although it deals with other aspects of California 
life also. 

But while he sought rest and inspiration in the seclusion of his ranch 
home, Mr. Rindge never shut himself out from active participation in business 
and public affairs. During the years of his residence in this state, from 1888 
to 1905, probably no other man was ever connected with so many and such 
large and varied interests. His investments were made not only with a view 
to the increase of his own wealth but, very largely, for the purpose of develop 
ing the resources of this country and thus giving opportunity to men of lesser 
means. For this reason he was a moving factor in a large number of companies 
organized to develop water and reclaim land, and in various other enterprises. 
Among the most important of thes<\ was the Conservative Life Insurance Com 
pany, of which he was president. Mr. Rindge, believing that a man should 
make his gifts while living, was a man of large yet unostentatious benevolences. 
He gave liberally to the Methodist church of which he was long a consistent 
member, being of a deeply religious nature. He aided many institutions, both 
in California and in New England, and lent a helping hand to many individuals. 
He was discriminating in his charities as a man of such great wealth must be 
if he is to be a power for good rather than for evil. 

While living in Santa Monica, Mr. Rindge closely associated himself with 
the life of the community. In 1895 he offered to erect and donate a church 
building to the Methodist society, provided the church would support a pastor 
and pay all incidental expenses. In consequence, a neat and commodious church, 
still in use, was built at a cost of $15,000 and dedicated before the end of the 
year. He took an active personal interest in the campaign which was made 
by the advocates of temperance and by the better class of business men to rid 
the town of saloons, speaking at the meetings and offering to indemnify the 
city treasury for the loss of revenue derived from the saloon licenses. Accord 
ingly, after the "anti-saloon" party carried the election, he presented his check 
for $2,500 to Mr. Robert F. Jones, then mayor of Santa Monica. He served 
for several years upon the school board of the town, was president of the Good 
Government League, and was a member of various local organizations. 

In 1903 the ranch house on the Malibu, with all its furnishings, including 
a part of Mr. Rindge's fine library, was destroyed by fire. About this time 
the family removed to Los Angeles where Mr. Rindge had erected a handsome 
house on Harvard Boulevard, in a section of the city he had helped to develop. 
On locating in Los Angeles, he identified himself with the Westlake M. E. 


church, to which he contributed liberally. He was also deeply interested in the 
Young Men's Christian Association, being an active member and aiding largely 
in lifting the debt which for many years hung over the Los Angeles association. 
He was one of the originators of the Ocean Park Y. M. C. A. Company, which 
started the town of Ocean Park. 

As a relaxation from his many cares, Mr. Rindge gave much attention to 
scientific research and the study of the early history of America and of California. 
He was a member of the New England Historical and Geneaological Society 
and of the Archaeological Institute of America. His collection of coins and 
of aboriginal arts was of such value that he was induced to place them 
in the loan exhibit of the Peabody Museum, at Harvard College, and also in 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. He gathered a large amount of material 
bearing on Pacific coast archaeology and his collection of memorials of California 
history was unequalled among private collections. 

In acknowledgement of the honor conferred upon him through his fore 
bears, he became a member of the Society of Colonial Wars and also of the Sons 
of the Revolution. He was president of the Harvard Club of Los Angeles, 
troin the time of its formation until his death. 

The death of Mr. Rindge, which occurred August 2gth, 1905, was in one 
sense, untimely. He was a comparatively young man and was in the midst of 
an active and useful life. Yet his existence had been a long struggle with 
weakness and his spirit was full-grown. Death may come at any time to such 
a man and we cannot say that it is premature. To his family, to his friends all 
over the United States, to the public generally, his departure meant a great 
loss and a great grief. But to himself it was only a passing on to a 
higher life. 

It was well said of his career : "Asa business man, as a church leader, 
as a Y. M. C. A. president, as a consistent worker for the development of 
the city and the state, Mr. Rindge made himself so useful that no othei man 
can take his place. He was a rich man ; but he employed his wealth for the 
greatest good of the greatest number not in selfish pleasure nor for personal 
aggrandizement. He was a man of strong religious convictions; but the grace 
of humility and a broad understanding prevented his religion from degenerat 
ing into religiosity. A staunch, steadfast, unassuming man, with all of his 
millions, those who differed from him in opinion could admire his fidelity to 
his ideals ; and those not blessed with money could be glad that such a fortune 
was entrusted to worthy hands." 

Knowing intimately the affairs and purposes of her husband, Mrs. Rindge, 
as executrix of the estate, is carrying forward with a steady hand the large 
enterprises which her husband had undertaken. 




It is probable that the rich grazing lands in the vicinity of Santa Monica 
were utilized early after the establishment of " el Pueblo de Los Angeles," for 
the herds of the settlers and of the missions multiplied with amazing rapidity 
and by 1800 the grazing land in the immediate vicinity of Los Angeles and 
San Gabriel was overstocked. After the granting of the Malibu, however, we 
have no record of settlement in this neighborhood until 1827 when Francisco 
Sepulveda and Augustin Machaclo, settlers of Los Angeles, petitioned for a 
tract of land. According to the testimony of Jose Antonio Carrillo, who was 

alcalde in 1828, he received an order from "the 
Hon. Jose Maria Echandia, a Political Chief, issued 
by virtue of a petition of several citizens, requesting 
to be placed in provisional possession of the com 
mon lands of the city held by them." 

Amongst these, he gave possession to Francisco 
Sepulveda of the lands known as San Vicente, with 
a piece of pasture (potrero) named Santa Monica. 
"The order of Gov. Echandia only had reference 
to parties who owned one hundred and fifty head 
of cattle, and as Sepulveda came within this con 
dition it was especially commanded to give him 
this land, with the adjoining potrero of Santa 
Monica." But the boundaries of the lands thus 
given possession of were not defined and there 
was soon dispute as to the territory included. 
December 2Oth, 1839, a title was issued to the rancho called San Vicente 
and Santa Monica, in favor of Don Francisco Sepulveda, "with the con 
dition of abiding whatever actions should be had thereon, in case such land 
may be comprised within the limits of the City of Los Angeles." This grant 
was made by Governor Alvarado ; but it still did not settle the question of 
boundary which was disputed on all sides. In 1840 Sepulveda petitioned the 
governor to place him in " pacific possession of the property, as Francisco 
Marquez and Ysidro Reyes have given a bad example of disobedience and that 
under the strength of discordant documents they remain in possession of the 
place called Santa Monica." In 1846 Governor Pico confirmed Sepulveda's 
grant, but as Marquez and Reyes also had a grant to the " potrero " of Santa 
Monica, the dispute over the boundaries continued and was not settled until the 
question came into the United States courts and after long litigation was decided. 
The San Vicente y Santa Monica grant was finally confirmed July 23rd, 1881, to 
include 30,259 acres instead of the 58,409 acres originally claimed. 




Aside from the question of boundaries, there has been much litigation over 
the possession of the San Vicente lands. On the death of Don Francisco, the 
property was left to his wife and children, and several lawsuits were necessary 
in the family before the lands were satisfactorily divided. 

Don Francisco Sepulveda, the original grantee, with two brothers, were 
among the earliest settlers of California. He was first a soldier in San Diego, 
but in 1815 was a citizen of Los Angeles, cultivating pueblo lands. The 
Sepulveda family has played an important part in the history of Southern 
California and is connected with many of the best families of today. Don 
Francisco had a large family. One of his sons, Don Jose, was grantee of the 
San Joaquin rancho and took a leading part in early local and political affairs. 

He was the father of 
Judge Ygnacio Sepulveda 
and Mrs. Thomas Moct. 
Don Francisco built a 
ranch house near the San 
Vicente springs in 1837. 
Here he set out vineyards 
and orchards and at least 
three of his sons resided 
with him or built houses 
near by. These were Juan 
Maria, Carmel and Do 
lores. Traces of these 
buildings can still be 

seen, although the original ranch houses have all disappeared. The last 
home of Dolores Sepulveda, built in 1863, an adobe house well preserved 
and very typical of the ranch house of early days, still stands. At one end 
is a very old walnut tree and back of it stand the twin sycamores which have 
long been a landmark. 

Don Francisco also had a home in Los Angeles and was frequently con 
cerned in municipal affairs. In 1824 he was " regidor " or recorder, of the 
pueblo ; later he was alcalde and on the secularization of the missions, he was 
made administrator of San Juan Capistrano. In 1831 he was one of the 
victims of Governor Victoria's arbitrary orders and with Tomas Talmantes, 
Jose Maria Avila, Maximo Alanis, Demisio Dominguez and Jose Aguilar, 
was imprisoned for supposed implication in the removal of the presiding 
alcalde, Vicente Sanchez, whom the citizens of Los Angeles had removed from 
office, because of alleged incompetence to hold the position, and whom they 
refused to restore to the alcaldeship when Victoria so ordered. 

The Sepulveda family were given to horse racing, as appears from various 




records. There seems to have been bitter rivalry between the Sepulvedas 
and the Picos, in the matter of horses. In 1840, according to Bancroft, a 
horse race took place between animals owned by Andreas Pico and Fernando 
Sepulveda, a minor. The result led to a dispute and a suit against Sepulveda 
for the stakes. The father was finally forced to pay the stake by Alcalde 
Lugo. The matter was appealed to the governor, who on the advice of the 
judges of the first district, decided that Lugo must pay back the stakes and be 
suspended from office until he should do so. Lugo refused to be suspended, 
or to pay the stakes, except after legal proceedings by the junta. He claimed 
that the governor and the Monterey judge had acted as partisans, and that 
they had made many blunders and that the affair was none of their business, any 
how, but belonged to the superior tribunal, and if there was no such body, it 
was their own fault. He said that Francisco Sepulveda was present at the race 
and had in other races paid his son's losses without objection. The final 
decisions of this interesting case does not appear on record ; but it is evident 
that the affair led to a long and bitter trial of horse-flesh between the Picos 
and Sepulvedas. 

In 1852, a race took place which has become historical. The Picos owned 
a gelding which had beaten every other animal put up against it. Jose 
Sepulveda, after repeated losses, was eager to seize any chance to " down " 
Pico's horse. While on a trip to San Diego, he saw a mare which attracted 
his attention. It proved to be an English thoroughbred, just brought over from 
Australia. He at once negotiated for the animal, it is said, offering to pay 
the owners ten thousand dollars for her. He returned north and made the 
arrangement for a race of three leagues, at San Pedro, to be run to a stake and 
back again. Excitement ran high and on the day of the race the entire 
population of the country, with visitors from Santa Barbara and even Monterey, 
and all San Diego, were present. The horse was to be ridden California style, 
the rider strapped to his bare back and the owners and backers permitted to 
ride beside him and use the whip. The mare was equipped in the American 
style, with light racing saddle and a little jockey. 

Betting ran high. It was the custom among Californians to hand over 
the sum of money bet to the taker. After the race, the holder kept the money, 
if he won, or returned it double, if he lost. No papers or guarantees were 
necessary, for a California's word was as good, or better, than a bond. On 
this occasion the Californians all bet heavily on Pico's horse, while the Amer 
icans backed Don Jose's Black Swan. The Swan, after a terrific struggle, 
won, and it is said Sepulveda won nearly fifty thousand dollars. After the 
race was over, he took the bridle from the mare and declared that she should 
never again wear bridle or saddle, and he kept his word. She passed the rest 



of her life free upon the plains. He had won from the Pico's that was triumph 

Another instance of the horsemanship of the family is related by Major 
Horace Bell in his " Reminiscences of a Ranger." He describes a rodeo held in 
May, 1853, at San Joaquin rancho, the home of Don Jose Sepulveda. On the 
third night of the affair at midnight Don Jose and his brother Don Fernando 
were still talking gaily with their guests. A little later a messenger arrived 
with the news that their aged father, Don Francisco Sepulveda, was about to 
pass away. The brothers at once mounted. Major Bell and another American 
decided to accompany them, although warned that they could not keep up. As 
Don Jose was then sixty years of age, they felt confident that they would be able 
to hold their own ; but before the party reached Los Nietos, the Sepulvedas had 
disappeared in a cloud of dust and the Americans drew rein, having ridden 
forty-three miles in three hours. 


One of the earliest settlers in the pueblo de Los Angeles was Francisco 
Reyes, who came with a party in 1785. Very soon thereafter he must have 

taken possession of 
lands in the vicinity 
of San Fernando, 
for in 1797 the 
Rancho Encino 
held by him was 
taken from him and 
both land and build 
ings appropriated to 
the San Fernando 
Mission. His son, 
Ysidro, was born i;i 
Los Angeles and in 
1828 he, with Fran- 


cisco Marquez was 
given a provisional 

grant to lands already occupied by them for grazing purposes in the Santa 
Monica Canyon. This grant was known as the " Boca de Santa Monica " 
(the mouth of Santa Monica). The land included in it was later claimed 
to be a part of Santa Monica potrero granted to Francisco Sepulveda. In 
1839, Governor Alvarado investigated the conflicting claims and regranted 
each tract to the original holders. Still the question of the boundary was 
disputed and was not finally disposed of until about 1880, when the United 


States courts fixed the limits of the Boca de Santa Monica and July 2ist, 1882, 
a patent for 6,656 acres of land was confirmed to Marquez and Reyes. 

Ygnacio Reyes built a ranch house in Rustic Canyon and the family have 
continuously occupied the land since 1824, part of the grant still being owned 
by the descendants of the original grantees. This is an unusual case for 
generally the great land grants of the state have passed entirely out of the 
hands of the Californians, and the families of the original claimants have 
profited nothing by the marvelous increase in values. 

Ygnacio Reyes also owned a home in Los Angeles, on Main street, near 
Fourth, and is frequently mentioned in the annals of the town. He died there 
during- an epidemic of smallpox in 1863. Three sons still survive him, 
Guadalupe of Sawtelle ; Ysidro and Antonio of Los Angeles. 

Francisco Marquez built his ranch house on the edge of the bluff, about 
at the end of Seventh street. Here it was a landmark for many years, having 
been destroyed within the past few years. Members of the family still live 
in Santa Monica Canyon and retain a part of the original lands. 


La Ballona rancho, or as it was named in the original document " La 
Ballena" (the whale), was formally granted to a company composed of 
Augustin and Ygnacio Machado, Felipe and Tomas Talamantes, all citizens of 
Los Angeles, by Governor Alvarado in 1839. There is evidence to show that 
prior to this grant, a tract of land nearer to Los Angeles had been occupied by 
the same citizens as a stock range but had been taken from them, either because 
it was too near the city, or was needed for the stock of San Gabriel. 

At any rate they received a princely domain in the fertile fields and rich 
pastures of " La Ballena," and at once stocked it and built residences upon it. 
The haciendas of the Machados on this ranch were among the best examples 
of the California home. They are still standing that of Augustin Machado, 
a large and most substantial adobe, the walls and roof of which is still intact, 
is unoccupied at present and is used as a store house. It seems a pity that this, 
one of the best specimens of the early California homes should not be preserved. 
The home of Ygnacio Machado, a little distance away, is now occupied by one 
of his sons, Antonio, and the part which remains is in good repair and is a 
fine sample of the simplicity and solidity of the genuine adobe house of the 
better class. This house once contained fourteen rooms built about a court, 
but a portion of these have now been removed. 

The Machado brothers were prominent among early residents of Los 
Angeles. They owned a tract of two acres of land in the vicinity of Second 
and Main streets, where each of them had homes. Augustin Machado served 
" el pueblo de Los Angeles " as alcalde, and was frequently concerned in public 


affairs. He married Ramona, a daughter of Don Francisco Sepulveda, of the 
San Vicente, and their home both in Los Angeles and at La Ballona, was a 
center of social gaity. Of this marriage there are still living Bernardino, 
Andreas and Jose de Luz, all of whom reside on Ballona lands. One son, 
Dolores, died in 1906, leaving a family which resides in Ocean Park; two 
daughters, Mrs. Juan Barnard and Ascencion, have recently died. Don 
Augustin died in Los Angeles in 1865. 

Bancroft tells this story of Don Augustin : " The merchant, Don Jose 
Antonio Aguirre, owner of the Ship Joven Guipuzcoana, once had a new 
supercargo, who was a stranger to and ignorant of affairs in California. 
While the ship lay at San Pedro, Aguirre being absent, Augustin Machado, a 
well-to-do ranchero, and a man of sterling character, but who could neither 
read nor write, went on board to make purchases, his carretas being at the 
landing. After selecting his goods, as he was about to place them in a launch 
to be carried on shore, the sunpercargo asked him for payment, or some 
guaranty or note of hand. Machado stared at him in great astonishment ; at 
first he could not comprehend what the man meant. Such a demand had never 
been made from him before, nor, in fact, from any other ranchero. After a 
while the idea struck him that he was distrusted. Plucking one hair from his 
beard, he seriously handed it to the supercargo, saying, ' Here, deliver this to 
Senor Aguirre and tell it is a hair from the beard of Augustin Machado. It 
will cover your responsibility it is sufficient guaranty.' The young man, 
much abashed, took the hair and placed it carefully in his books and Machado- 
carried away the goods. Aguirre was chagrined on hearing the story, for 
Machado's word was as good as the best bond. Jose M. Estudillo relates this 
incident and also the following: In 1850 Aguirre sent Estudillo to Los 
Angeles to collect old bills, many of which were outlawed ; but the greater part 
of which were finally paid. He visited Machado's rancho at La Ballona, to 
collect a balance of abort $4000 and happened to arrive when the house was 
full of company. He was cordially received as a guest and when apprised of 
the object of his visit, Machado said that he had been for some time thinking 
that he was indebted to Aguirre, and promised to meet Estudillo in Los 
Angeles in two days. At the time appointed Machado was there and delivered 
the whole sum at the door of Manuel Requena's house, refusing to take a 
receipt, saying that Aguirre was not in the habit of collecting the same 
bill twice." 

Ygnacio Machado married Estefania Palomares, daughter of a well-known 
Spanish family of Los Angeles county. Three of their sons still survive, 
Antonio, living in the old house ; Andres, who lives at Hollywood, and Cristo 
bal, now in Texas. Don Ygnacio is described as a man of stern, yet generous 
mold. It was his habit to rise very early and waken his household to join him- 


in the morning song, with which it was the custom for all good Spanish 
families to begin the day. Of Ygnacio Machado, J. J. Warner wrote in 1876: 
" Don Ygnacio survives the others (of his company) those faithful friends of 
his earlier days, at the age of eighty-two, he grasps the hand as warmly as 
ever, rides on horseback, as usual ; patriarch to whom the community bears 
respect almost filial." The Machado brothers were widely known and deeply 
respected as honorable and just men, generous and ever kind. The present 
head of this branch of the family, Antonio Machado, son of Ygnacio, is a 
worthy successor of his father. Simple, unassuming, courtly, of good judg 
ment and kindly heart, he looks back to the old days and the care-free life of 
the past with wistful eyes. 

The Ballona grant of 13,919 acres was confirmed to the Machados Decem 
ber 8th, 1873. It was at once divided among the members of the family and 
tracts of it were sold. It comprised nearly two thousand acres of first-class 
irrigable land, two thousand acres of damp lands which needed no irrigation, and 
the rest was pasture land. In early days it was chiefly occupied as a stock 
range, although some grain was raised and orchards of various fruits were 
planted about the haciendas. The district was occupied by a number of families 
in the fifties and sixties and was one of the first townships set aside, originally 
including San Vicente, Boca de Santa Monica, Malibu and a large territory. 
It was organized into a school district during the sixties and was a factor in 
the elections of early days. During the seventies Francisco Machado, a son of 
Augustin, was one of the county supervisors and political " boss " of the dis 
trict. Although many prosperous American fanners are now residents of Bal- 
loni lands and the towns of Palms, Ocean Park and Venice are located on lands 
originally belonging to the rancho, the Machados still retain a part of the original 
grant and a considerable number of native Californians are found in the vicinity. 

Antonio Machado married Manuela Valuenza and has a number of children, 
most of whom are still living at home. Andreas, a son of Augustin, lives on 
the old Augustin Machado place and has recently built a very comfortable home. 
Jose la Luz also lives in the neighborhood in a neat cottage. 

In 1861 a military camp was located on La Ballona, near the creek about 
three-quarters of a mile from the present town of Palms. This was made the 
headquarters of the First California Volunteer Infantry, Gen. J. H. Carleton, 
commanding officer. The camp was established in September, being occupied 
by Company A, under Col. Latham, for whom the station was named Camp 
Latham. Several companies were encamped here and at one time there were 
probably 1500 men present. They were sent from here to Arizona to protect 
the mail service and the camp was not occupied after 1862. A couple of soldiers 
were buried here and in 1895 tneir neglected graves were remembered by the 
veterans of Santa Monica, who made a special trip to decorate them. 




UP TO 1870 the Santa Monica bay region had scarcely felt the stirring of 
the new spirit brought into the country by the American occupation. 
The original ranches were still intact and occupied chiefly as grazing 
land, and very few Americans had obtained land holdings. Santa Monica Canon 
was the one attraction of the entire coast at this time. Here a few American 
families each year camped under the sycamores. In 1871 Mr. B. L. Peel erected 
a large tent " to accommodate 25 or 30 families '' and over 300 visitors are 
reported for one Sunday in August, drawn by a dance that " lasted all night." 
With 1872, Santa Monica Canon suddenly became famous. The Express found 
it of enough importance to publish the following : " Santa Monica, the Long 
Branch of California, or Camp Haywarcl. Seventeen years ago Santa Monica 
was selected as a summer resort by Dr. Hayward and until the last five years 
he and his family were the only ones who availed themselves of its delights 
and benefits. Santa Monica proper is a farm house located on the ridge one 
and a half miles from where the camp is located. At this lone house the road 
descends into a deep ravine or canon, at the foot of which, near the confluence 
with the ocean, is a thick growth of old sycamores. Here is the camp. Beyond 
stretches the Malaga ranch, the rendezvous of horsethieves. The beach between 
the camp and the point affords a magnificent drive as does the shore in a south 
erly direction toward " Shoo Fly Landing ", a mile or better distant. It is at 
the latter place that the greater part of the asphaltum sent to San Francisco 
from La Brea rancho is shipped." 

In the summer of 1872 a hotel was opened at the canon and the proprietor 
advertises, " Come and enjoy yourself. A week at the beach will add ten years 
to your life !" Mr. John Reynolds announces in July that he will " despatch 
coaches to Santa Monica every Wednesday and Saturday a.m." A small skiff 
was brought around from San Pedro this summer and added to the attractions 
of surf bathing, drives and picnics along the beach and up the many beautiful 
canons and dancing in the " big tent." Among the diversions was the excite 
ment of prospecting, as it was rumored that a rich ledge of quartz rock existed 
on the beach, at a point only exposed for a few moments at low tide. The 
belief was founded on the fact that some of the native Caliform'ans of the dis 
trict exhibited rich rock which they claimed to have obtained from this ledge. 


In September, 1872, an event took place which marks a new era in the 
history of this vicinity. This was the sale of the San Vicente and Santa Monica 
y San Vicente ranches by Jose del Carmen Sepulveda, and others, to Robert 
S. Baker. The first sale included 38,409 acres of land and the price was reported 
as $54,000. 

COL. ROBERT S. BAKER, who thus became an important factor in the history 
of Santa Monica, was a descendant of an old and well-known family of Rhode 
Island. He came to California in 1849 and engaged in business in San Fran 
cisco, being a member of the firm of Cooke and Baker, who dealt largely in 
mining supplies. Later he became associated with General Beale in the cattle 
and sheep business in the northern part of the state and in the Tejon country. 
With his purchase of the San Vicente, he located in Los Angeles and in 1874 
married Mrs. Arcadia Bandini de Stearns, widow of Don Abel Stearns, one of 
the earliest American settlers of Southern California, and daughter of Juan 
Bandini, one of the wealthiest and most distinguished of the early Californians. 
In 1878, he built the Baker block in Los Angeles, at that time the finest business 
block in the city. He owned, through his wife, the Puente and Laguna ranches 
and had other large business interests. He was quiet in his tastes and made 
no effort to enter into public life, but devoted his time to the management of 
his large interests. He was most genial in character and he and his beautiful 
wife were noted for their lavish entertainments of guests, and they at one time 
and another were hosts to many distinguished people. 

Colonel Baker died March nth, 1894. His wife still survives him and 
is now a resident of Santa Monica, passing a beautiful old age in a modest cot 
tage on Ocean avenue, although she is rated as one of the wealthiest women in 
California and certainly none of the living daughters of California have had 
a more romantic or interesting history than Seiiora Arcadia de Baker. 

Colonel Baker at once proceeded to perfect his title to all the Sepulveda 
holdings by subsequent purchases, thus obtaining: possession of a magnificent 
tract of land, with a mile and a half of ocean frontage and including the San 
Vicente and numerous other springs, as well as several small mountain streams. 
With characteristic enterprise he began efforts to utilize his domain for some 
thing beside a sheep pasture. He interested his friend, General E. F. Beale, 
who was one of the earliest and most successful promoters known in California 
history so successful that President Lincoln remarked of him when he was 
surveyor-general of the state in 1861, that " Beale had, indeed, become monarch 
of all he surveyed." The Express of December 22nd, 1873, announces, " Gen 
eral Beale has arrived here with an eastern capitalist who contemplates the 
purchase of the San Vicente ranch with the view to the construction of a wharf 
at Shoo Fly Landing and building a narrow-gauge road from there to the city." 
This eastern capitalist seems to have fallen down, however, for in 1874 it is 
stated " Col. Baker has connected with himself several wealthy Englishmen 



and a well-known and distinguished Californian (Beale). They contemplate 
constructing a road to Los Angeles, a branch of the Southern Transcontinental 
line. Wharves are to be built and Pacific Mail steamships will land here. The 
name of this embryo metropolis of the southern coast is to be Truxton." The 
San Francisco Post of September, 1874, contains a glowing description of the 
" Tmxton scheme " which ends by saying: " Why the Los Angeles people ever 
adopted the Wilmington road to shoal water is one of those things no fellow 
can find out. At two-thirds the distance they can reach deep water at the place 
called Truxton, on a bay right north of Wilmington. Here, at a comparatively 


light expense, for wharves, they can bring ship and cars together." The plans 
for Truxton included beside wharf and railway, a magnificent seaside hotel 
and a townsite ; but they never seem to have gotten beyond the paper stage. 

During the summer of 1874 Santa Monica Canon continued to be the chief 
summer resort of the Angeleiios. Two hotels, the Morongo House and the 
Seaside Hotel, kept by Wolf and Steadman, were filled with guests. Many 
improvements were made in the camping arrangements and the season was a 
gay one. A new resort, known as " Will Tell's " also nourished this summer 
on the Ballona lagoon, almost where the Del Key hotel now stands. This was 
especially attractive to sportsmen, as the lagoon was famous for its duck and 
game birds, and a number of prominent Los Angeles men kept boats on the 

At this time a road, so narrow that the wheels touched the sides of the 
bank, had been worn down through the arroyo, about at the foot of the present 


Colorado street in Santa Monica, and a small landing was built on the shore. 
Here Major Hancock shipped large quantities of brea, which was hauled by 
ox teams from his Brea rancho, on small coast vessels to San Francisco. This 
was the first " commerce " of Santa Monica bay. 

In December, 1874, the Los Angeles papers chronicle the first visit of 
United States Senator John P. Jones of Nevada. Glowing tributes were paid 
the distinguished guest and much curiosity and enthusiasm over the possible 
results of his advent into Southern California were indulged in. He was known 
to be fabulously rich and to have railroad ambitions. 

Southern California was a hotbed of railroad schemes. Already the iron 
hand of the Central Pacific monopoly was being felt, although the little road 
to San Pedro was then the only railroad in this en'd of the state. A transcon 
tinental line south of the Central Pacific was considered absolutely certain, at 
this time ; but who would build it and where it would reach the coast were 
matters of the wildest speculation. San Diego was making frantic efforts to 
secure railway connection of some sort and was looking hopefully forward to 
the magnificent promises held out by Tom Scott, the brilliant promoter of the 
Atlantic and Pacific railway scheme, of the early seventies. 

The Southern Pacific was building its branch from Los Angeles eastward 
and had decided to leave San Bernardino, the oldest and most important town 
east of Los Angeles, off the line. Naturally she was bitter against the Southern 
Pacific and was casting about for any relief in the way of transportation facili 
ties. Los Angeles was eagerly watching for any movement in 1 her direction 
which gave promise of a competing line, although the Southern Pacific was 
not yet fairly built and there was no railroad connection with San Francisco, 
or with the east. Consequently, when in January, 1875, it was announced that 
Senator Jones had purchased a two-thirds interest in the San Vicente rancho, 
paying therefore about $150,000, and that a new railroad was assured, there 
was rejoicing long and loud throughout Southern California. 

The Los Angeles and Independence railroad was organized in January, 
1875, with F. P. F. Temple, a banker of Los Angeles, John P. Jones, Robert 
S. Baker, T. N. Park, James A. Pritchard, J. S. Slauson of Los Angeles, and 
Col. J. U. Crawford, as directors. 

Right of way between Los Angeles and Santa Monica was secured at once 
and without difficulty, it may be added, and Col. Crawford, the engineer and 
general manager of the road, at once began active operations. It was announced 
that the road would be pushed through to Independence, where were located the 
Panamint mines, owned by Senator Jones, and then supposed to rival the Gold 
Hill district in richness. There were rumors also that the line would be carried 
across Nevada to Salt Lake and the papers frequently referred to it as the 
beginning and ocean terminus of a transcontinental line. 

As soon as the railroad work was fairlv started the construction of a wharf 


was begun. This was located near the old " Shoo Fly " landing and near the 
present foot of Colorado street, where a stub of the old wharf still remains. 
The first pile was driven April 22nd, 1875, and the first boat landed at the wharf 
in June. This wharf was 1700 feet in length and reached a depth of thirty 
feet at low tide. It was substantially built, with depot, and warehouses at 
its terminus and cost about $45,000. 

In the meantime, Messrs. Jones and Baker had laid out a townsite which 
extended from the bluff back to Twenty-sixth street and from Montana avenue 
on the north to the arroyo, or Railroad street, as it was then called, on the 
south. This original plat of Santa Monica was planned on a generous scale. 
The blocks were 320 by 600 feet; lots 150 by 50, with twenty- foot alleys. A 
plaza, the present Seventh-street park, blocks for hotels, one on the ocean front, 
the persent location of Mirimar, and one on Eighth street, facing the plaza; 
for public buildings, the block between Fifteenth and Sixteenth, Nevada and 
California ; also blocks for a university and a young ladies' seminary, were 
reserved on the map. The ocean front was kept intact and Ocean avenue was 
made 200 feet in width, the other streets and avenues 80 and 100 feet in width. 
A water system had already been planned and work begun on a large reservoir 
to be filled from the San Vicente springs. The slope of the land gave ample 
water pressure and provided excellent natural drainage. Much of the present 
desirability of Santa Monica as a residence town is due to the liberal allotment 
and unequaled natural advantages of this original townsite. 

The establishment of this new " commercial center of the southwest " and 
the ambitious plans of its projectors, together with much wild conjecturing by 
the Ix>s Angeles papers, had attracted wide attention. On the day announced 
for the first sale of lots, July 15*, 1875, several hundred people gathered about 
the stand on the bluff. Many of these were from Los Angeles and Southern 
California points, although the only way to reach the spot was by a long and 
dusty drive. The steamer, Senator, which is remembered by all old settlers, 
came in from San Francisco that day with a number of parties who had come 
down especially to attend this sale. This was the first landing of the Senator 
at Santa Monica. It was also the last boat to land at the " old wharf." 

A dry and barren plain rolled away from the bluff and there was no shade 
from the blazing July sun. One board shack the beginning of the Hotel Santa 
Monica, and a few tents were the only " improvements " aside from the par 
tially-built wharf, visible. The Honorable Tom Fitch, the " silver-tongued " 
orator, made the great speech of the day a speech in which he let his rich 
imagination run riot, as may be gathered from the following extract : 

" On Wednesday afternoon at one o'clock we will sell at public outcry to 

the highest bidder, the Pacific ocean, draped with a western sky of scarlet and 

gold ; we will sell a bay filled with white-winged ships ; we will sell a southern 

horizon, rimmed with a choice collection of purple mountains, carved in castles 



and turrets and domes; we will sell a frostless, bracing, warm, yet unlanguid 
air, braided in and in with sunshine and odored with the breath of flowers. The 
purchaser of this job lot of climate and scenery will be presented with a deed 
to a piece of land 50 by 100 feet, known as ' lot A, in block 251.' The title to 
the land will be guaranteed by the present owner. The title to the ocean and 
the sunset, the hills and the clouds, the breath of the life-giving ozone and the 
song of the birds, is guaranteed by the beneficent God who bestowed them in 
all their beauty and affluence upon block 251, and attached them thereto by 
almighty warrant as an incorruptible hereditament to run with the land forever.'' 
Of this same effort, L. T. Fisher said in the Outlook, of July 131!!, 1887: 
" Under his eloquence many were led to believe that Santa Monica would at 
once leap to the front as a full-fledged seaport and commercial center. In fact, 
so strong was this impression that not a few prominent men of Los Angeles, 
who held large possessions there, were actually afraid that the precedence of 
the ' city of the Angels ' would slip away from her and be transferred to the 
seacoast. And, if we may be allowed the suggestion, it would have been a good 
thing for the country if it had. Here would have sprung up the great com 
mercial city of Southern California. It had all the advantages of climate, drain 
age and all of the best elements that should exist where a large population is 

Hon. Joseph Lynch, Major Ben Truman and Col. T. J. Ayers, the historic 
trio of Los Angeles editors, were present and also made glowing speeches as 
to the future of Santa Monica and Southern California. 

The first lot sold, lot M in block 173, the northeast corner of Utah and 
Ocean avenue, went to E. R. Zamoyski for $50x3. Other lots on Ocean 
avenue brought from $400 to $500, and the prices ran down to $75.00 for lots 
back from the shore. Among the first purchasers were Major Hancock, Judge 
O'Melveny, W. J. Broderick, I. W. Hellman, George Boehme, W. D. Vawter 
and sons, H. T. Giroux and others. The sale continued on the ground for three 
days and on Saturday an auction was held in Los Angeles. Probably about 
$100,000 worth of lots were disposed of during the week. 

The first building in Santa Monica was a rough board shack put up in 
April by J. C. Morgan, next to the Santa Monica Hotel and used as a boarding 
place for workmen. The first business house completed was that of H. T. 
Giroux on Second street, still occupied by him. The first general store was 
opened by W. D. Vawter, who purchased three lots on the last day of the 
auction, on Fourth street between Utah and Oregon, paying $125.50 apiece for 
them. Two weeks from that day his store was ready for occupancy. Later 
this building was removed to Third street, where it is still used. The first 
brick building in the town was built by William Rapp, on Second street, between 
Utah and Oregon. It is still in use. A postoffice was established at once and 


W. H. Williams served as the first postmaster, the office being located in a 
building on Second street where the Union livery stable now stands. 

The growth of the new town was most promising. A Los Angeles pajjer 
of September i-jth thus summarizes the advance made: 

" Two months since the site of Santa Monica was a plain under the do 
minion of a sheepherder. Today nearly one hundred substantial houses line its 
broad streets. Two hotels are overflowing with guests. Its lumber yards are 
doing the business of a metropolis and dealers in coal, wood, dry-goods and 
groceries are rushing about in energetic ardor to keep up their stock of goods 
which are bought out as rapidly as exposed for sale. The price of town lots 
continues. The fare from San Francisco is $12.00 by boat, while it is $20.00 by 
continuous. The fare from San Francisco is $12.00 by boat, while it is $20 by 
rail, including a stage ride of no miles (the S. P. was not yet completed)''. 

Allowing for newspaper exaggeration, we may conclude that the first two 
months of the new town's existence were certainly lively ones. While buildings 
and business sprang up so magically, the new town also provided for the mental 
and moral needs of its citizens. On October I3th, 1875, appeared the first 
number of the Santa Monica Outlook, a neat and well-filled four-page weekly, 
with L. T. Fisher as editor. He began at once that consistent and persistent 
support of the interests of the town which can only be supplied by a first-class 
local newspaper. 

He records in his first number the business houses and advance already 
made and the prospects for the future. Some extracts from early numbers 
of the Outlook will give a clear idea of the new town. " On the I5th of July, 
1875, the first lot was sold at Santa Monica. At the date of this writing, October 
nth, 1875, six hundred and fifteen lots have been sold by the land company 
for $131,745 ; 119 houses and shops have been erected. The water of San Vicente 
springs has been collected in two large reservoirs, forming pretty lakes in the 
proposed park, and the flow of half a million gallons per day is in process of 
being distributed in iron mains all over the townsite." Outlook, October I3th, 

" Santa Monica continues to advance. We now have a wharf where the 
largest Panama steamers have landed ; a railroad completed to Los Angeles ; 
a telegraph station, a newspaper, postoffice, two hotels, one handsome clubhouse, 
several lodging houses, eight restaurants, a number of saloons, four groceries, 
three drygoods stores, two hardware stores, three fruit stores, one wool com 
mission house, one news depot and book store, one variety store, one bakery, 
one jeweler and watchmaker, one boot and shoe maker, one tin shop, two livery- 
stables, one dressmaker, two tin shops, several contractors and builders, three 
real estate agencies, one insurance agency, one coal yard, one brick yard, two 
lumber yards, two private schools and in a short time we shall have two churches 
and a public school." Outlook, November 24th, 1875. 


First Resident Preacher of Santa Monica. 


Among the merchants of the first year we find W. D. Vawter & Sons, Fourth 
street, dealer in dry-goods, clothing, etc. ; M. J. Bundy, dealer in paints, oils, 
glass; tin shop, Boehme & Kilgariff; M. Boufosky, groceries, liquors, etc.; H. 
Giroux & Bro., groceries, liquors, etc. ; Wilson news depot, which handled every 
thing from eastern periodicals to gents' furnishing goods, drugs and medicines; 
Tell's " Lookout ", which combined " native wines and brandies, fresh fruit, 
vegetables and fish ", with a " livery and feed stable." The hotels were the 
Santa Monica House, kept by J. C. Morgan and C. M. Monroe for a few months 
and then by J. W. Scott, and the Ocean View House, corner of Oregon and 
Second, kept by Malcom & Harper. 

The first child born in Santa Monica was Earnest Majors, who made his 
appearance on August 2nd and who grew to manhood in this city. The first 
marriage ceremony took place January 2Oth, 1876, when Alfred Hayes wedded 
Miss Mattie Mountain, Rev. J. D. Crum officiating. The first sermon was 
preached by the Rev. A. F. White in September. In October, the Rev. Mr. 
Crum began holding Methodist services in Brady's hall, over a store on the coi 
ner of Oregon and Fifth streets. The first church organized was the Meth 
odist and they dedicated their first chapel on January 2nd, 1876. A private 
school, known as the Santa Monica Academy, was opened by D. G. C. Baker 
and wife. November 8th, 1875, and the first public school was opened in the 
Presbyterian chapel on the corner of Third and Arizona, March 6th, 1876, with 
Mr. H. P. McCusick as teacher. 

October 17th, 1875, the first railroad train left Santa Monica for Los An 
geles, flat cars being used, as the passenger coaches had not arrived. Three 
trips were made that day and passengers from the steamer Senator were landed 
in Los Angeles twelve hours in advance of those who went on to San Pedro. 
On November 3rd the Outlook exults over "A Busy Scene. We watched a 
lively scene on Santa Monica wharf last Thursday that is decidedly encouraging. 
On one side the schooner John Hancock was discharging a large cargo of lum 
ber; on the opposite side the schooner Newton Booth had just arrived with 
railroad ties ; further along the barkentine Ella was unloading coal. The Sen 
ator was discharging a large cargo of passengers and freight, including several 
race horses. A train of cars was waiting to transport the whole into the back 
country. And it must be remembered that only a few months ago the site of 
this growing town was a sheep pasture and the spot occupied by wharf and 
vessels a lonely waste of waters." 

The same month the coast steamers began to make regular stops at the 
new town, and the Outlook states that at one time 28 mule teams were loaded 
with freight for San Bernardino. On Sunday, December 5th, the new road 
was so far completed that an excursion of 400 people, the first one entering Santa 
Monica, was brought in. Two trains a day were put on and the fare was $1.00; 
freight. $1.00 per ton between Los Angeles and Santa Monica. The Southern 


Pacific, when the Jones road and wharf were assured had dropped the freight 
rate between Los Angeles and San Pedro from $5.00 per ton to $2.50 and on 
the completion of the line it dropped to $1.00 for freight and 50 cents for pas 
sengers, thus forcing- the new road to begin operating at losing rates. The 
people of Los Angeles in their first gratitude for the loosening of the Southern 
Pacific monopoly, declared that they would stand by the Jones road and handle 
their trade over the Santa Monica wharf. 

The year 1876 opened with the brightest prospects for the new town Its beau 
tiful situation, the ample space given to streets and alleys, the uniform method 
of tree planting which had been adopted, the park and school building which 
were already planned for, added to the favorable outlook for a steadily increasing 
volume of business, drew many people to adopt Santa Monica as a home. 

In February a meeting was called to consider the question of incorporating 
the new town ; but after a very lively discussion 1 the proposition received but 
one aye. In April the Outlook, which was an energetic agent and exponent of 
Santa Monica progress, published its first " special edition " reviewing the 
achievements of the first six months of existence. It states that 1000 lots in 
the town and thirty-five acre villa lots had already been sold ; 2000 acres of the 
San Vicente ranch, lying along the L. A. & I. road in the vicinity of San Vicente 
springs had been divided into villa farms, to be sold at $100 per acre. The 
population of the town is given as between 800 and 900, with 116 school children. 
A school district had been organized with J. W. Scott, L. T. Fisher and John 
Freeman as trustees and March nth, 1876, a special election was held and $5000 
tax voted for school purposes. The schoolhouse, located on Sixth street, was 
ready for use in September, 1876. 

In April Michael Duffy's bath house was completed, the first one in Santa 
Monica, and a pavilion was built on the beach by Jones and Baker. The Santa 
Monica Hotel was enlarged and several business houses built. There were 
many visitors and campers both at North Beach and at the canon. One of the 
greatest attractions was a series of ring tournaments between mounted knights, 
one side, of Americans, led by B. F. Reid, the other composed of native Cali- 
fornians was under the command of J. J. Carrillo. 

In March I. W. Scott made the first " addition " to the town of Santa 
Monica, a tract of forty-three acres lying east of town between Fifth and Eighth 
streets, and known as " Prospect Hill." Mr. Scott laid this off into lots, planted 
a thousand " blue gum " trees, and put in a bridge across Sixth street to connect 
it with the town. An auction was held March 315! and fifty lots were sold at 
prices ranging from $77 to $200. 

This year a road was opened between Santa Monica and San Fernando 
valley, through the efforts of Isaac Lankershim, who wished to ship the grain 
from his ioo,ooo-acre ranch by way of Santa Monica and thus save the cost of 
the road in a single year. But the Southern Pacific at once dropped its rate 



and thus the Santa Monica road was never used by Lankershim, although it 
was a paying investment for him to build it. The California Coast Steamship 
Co., whose object was to carry on a freight and passenger traffic between San 
Francisco and Santa Monica, was organized this year, with a capital stock of 
$400,000. " Lucky " Baldwin is credited with $75,000 stock and Col. Baker 
with $25,000, but the plans of the company never materialized. 

A great deal of anxiety was manifested as to the completion of the L. A. 
& I. road, which had come to a stop when it reached Los Angeles. It was still 
beiieved that it would be continued to Independence and possibly further. This 

belief was strength 
ened by the actual 
work of a grading 
force in the Cajon 
Pass. But no final 
decision as to a route 
between Los Angeles 
and the pass was 
made. San Bernar 
dino talked of raising 
a subsidy to secure 
the line and Santa 
Ana and Riverside 
had hopes. Los Ange 
les citizens held meet 
ings to discuss the 
desirability of aiding the Independence road. Already it was seen that the 
influence and competition of the Southern Pacific was bearing heavily on the 
new road ; but the papers and the people held out strongly against any suggestion 
that their independent line might be absorbed by the monopoly. 

During 1877 Santa Monica continued to hold its own in growth. A new 
bath house was erected by the L. A. & I. road on the beach front and fully 
equipped with hot steam baths, plunge and facilities for salt-water bathing in 
all its forms. A billiard room, bowling alley, skating rink and refreshment 
rooms were added to the pavilion. Altogether the finest accommodations on 
the coast were offered here. The Ocean House under the management of C. 
A. Sumner was opened this season, and the number of visitors and campers 
increased over any previous season. 

In May, William ' Spencer burned 4000 feet of clay pipe which was pur 
chased by B. D. Wilson for use in the extensive irrigation system which he 
and Shorb were then constructing near San Gabriel. The Santa Monica pipe 
proved so satisfactory that large orders were placed for it and in' the fall work 



was begun on a clay pipe manufactory, a two-story building, 40 by 60, with 
a large furnace. This was the first utilization of the Santa Monica clay beds. 

The plaza between California and Nevada streets had been planted with 
Monterey cypress, blue gum, live oak, pepper, weeping willow and iron-bark 
trees. Jones and Baker had set out 4200 blue gum and pepper trees along the 
streets, and these had already begun to make a showing. The extraordinary 
fertility of the soil in Santa Monica and vicinity was a constant source of wonder. 
Blue gums planted in August, 1875, measured 12 to 15 feet high in November, 
1877. The Outlook frequently referred to a tomato vine which became one of 
the sights of the town. It was trained by J. W. Scott against his house and 
reached a height of twenty-five feet, while it bore profusely. Corn 14 feet tall 
is reported and the beautiful flower gardens which were the result of a little 
care and attention were the admiration of all visitors. 

The question of the ownership of the beach front had already come up. 
Some parties claimed that the beach was government property and the question 
led to more or less friction. A very sad outcome of this dispute occurred in 
October, 1877. A carpenter, John V. Fonck, was working on a small bath house 
which was being put up on land in dispute. C. M. Waller, who was in charge 
of the bath house and beach property of the land company, ordered him to quit 
work. Upon his refusal to do so, Waller fired and wounded him fatally. He 
claimed that he thought the gun was loaded with bird shot and that he was 
acting under the orders of E. S. Parker, the representative of Jones and Baker. 
On trial, he was sentenced for one year. Parker was also tried, and although 
it did not appear that he had given direct orders, he was sentenced to ten years 
in the penitentiary. He was released to await a new trial ; but as a result of 
the affair his young wife died and a week later Parker also died of a broken 
heart, so his friends believed. This unfortunate affair gave rise to much feel 
ing, as it had been believed by many that purchasers of lots were entitled to put 
up a bath house for private use on the beach. The question of beach ownership 
continued troublesome and there were constant difficulties over it until the courts 
decided, in 1888, that the boundary of the San Vicente ranch extended to tide 
water and therefore Jones and Baker had the ownership to that point. 

The railroad question continued to be the most vital one to Santa Monica 
and, indeed, to Southern California. The influence and competition of the 
Southern Pacific was proving too strong to be overcome by the Los Angeles 
and Independence road, single-handed. Under the conditions, it could not be 
made a paying proposition. The Panamint mines had not panned out as was 
expected, and the idea of continuing the road to Independence had been aban 
doned. Senator Jones had already sunk a million dollars in the enterprise ; but 
he could not be expected to go on indefinitely losing money. He offered to sell 
the road at cost to the people of Los Angeles county. Many were strongly 
favorable to this idea. The Outlook and its editor, L. T. Fisher, made a strong 


fight against the " monopoly." In one of his editorials, he sets forth the follow 
ing reasons why the L. A. & I. road is a " good thing ", and should be owned 
by the county : 

" i. The railway from Los Angeles to Santa Monica has given the people 
another outlet to the ocean. 

" 2. It has brought the cars and the largest deep-sea vessels together. 

" 3. It has shortened the ocean passage from San Francisco to 34 miles 
and the time to Los Angeles from six to ten hours. 

" 4. It enables parties who wish to make the most of their time to remain 
several hours longer in Los Angeles and then catch the same steamer as pas 
sengers by way of the Southern Pacific and San Pedro. 

" 5. It has reduced freight from $5.00 per ton to $1.00 and passenger rate 
from $2.50 to 50 cents. 

" 6. It has reduced the price of lumber in Los Angeles and along the line 
of the S. P. not less than $5.00 per thousand. 

" /. It has raised the price of land along its route not less than 100 per cent. 

" 8. It has greatly increased the inducements for settlement in a portion 
of Los Angeles cornty which has hitherto been neglected. 

" 9. It has established a cheap means by which the people of the interior 
and of Los Angeles can enjoy the benefits of the sea shore. 

" 10. It constitutes in itself property that adds greatly to the aggregate 
wealth of the county. 

" ii. It can he held as a check, not only upon existing roads in this 
locality, but upon all roads that may be built, because it furnishes a connection 
with ocean vessels that can reach all quarters of the world." 

Meetings were held to discuss plans for saving the road from the S. P. 
and other meetings were held which suggested all sorts of possible and im 
possible projects for saving the country from the complete domination of the 
Central Pacific. But all the talk and the many schemes proposed came to 
nothing. In March, 1877, Leland Stanford, president of the C. P., and General 
Colton, president of the S. P., with a corps of their assistants, visited Santa 
Monica, to " look around nothing doing," they assured the reporters. In 
May, another party of Central Pacific magnates came clown and looked over 
Santa Monica and brought speculation to fever heat. On June ^th, 1877, it 
was definitely announced that the Los Angeles and Independence road had 
been sold to the Central Pacific. Santa Monica people could only accept the 
change and make the best of it. At first the Outlook hopefully announced 
that it wasn't so bad the great company would undoubtedly improve the 
service and build up the trade. Its hopes were shortlived. In July the fare 
on the Pacific Coast steamers was increased from $12 to $15, and freight rates 
on steamers and by rail were soon increased. Then it was announced that 



hereafter only two small steamers, the Senator and Ancon, would ply along 
the coast, owing to the falling off in traffic. 

In this connection, some extracts from letters written by Crocker and 
Huntington will show the odds against which the promoters of the L. A. & I. 
railway struggled. On May i8th, 1875, Charles Crocker wrote: ''I notice 
what you say of Jones, Park, etc. I do not think they will hurt us much, at 
least, I should rather be in our places than theirs. I will ventilate their ' safe 
harbor.' " And on May 25th, Huntington responded : " I shall do my best 
to cave him (Jones) down the bank.'' 

During 1878 Santa Monica struggled against the hard fate that had 
befallen her. The Southern Pacific removed the depot from the wharf to its 
present location and gave, as a concession, a round-trip fare of $1.00 good for 
three days. Many excursions from interior towns were brought to the coast 
during the summer and Santa Monica remained the most popular resort, 
although it could no longer hope for a great commercial importance. But 
worse was to come. The S. P. sent one of its engineering force to examine 
the wharf. After a careful inspection, he reported that the condition of the 
piles was most alarming, owing to the ravages of the toredo, and that it was 
unsafe for trains unless at least three-fourths of the piles were replaced. As 
this would entail a large expense, he advised that the use of the wharf be 
abandoned. On September gth, the Senator made its last landing and the 
name of Santa Monica was taken off the steamer lists. 

It was a crushing blow that had been dealt the town which had started 
out so propitiously. Naturally, business dropped off and many people moved 
away. Partnerships were dissolved, mortgages foreclosed, a number of business 
houses sold out to satisfy their creditors. The population of the town melted 
away and the editor of the Outlook, who had made a brave fight for the town 
of his adoption, announced on December igth, 1878, that, the next week being 
Christmas, the paper would be omitted for a week. It was " omitted " for 
eight years. 

Early in 1879 the S. P. ordered the removal of the wharf. The citizens 
of Santa Monica protested and offered to purchase the structure as it stood, 
but the offer was declined and the work proceeded. In 1888, the editor of 
the Outlook had sufficiently recovered to be able to describe the sad scene : 

' A big bumper was planted upon the shore end to keep trains from 
running upon it, even by accident. Next came the order to tear down the 
structure. The work of destruction began one fine morning and the sea was 
as calm as if it had been a human being holding its breath in very wonder at 
such an exhibition of unjustifiable vandalism. It was a bright morning, but 
it was a blue day for the people who lived here. We heard the first blow 
of the destructive implement and remarked that it was the death knell of Santa 


Monica. And yet, in the midst of this industrial tragedy, there was an element 
of comedy. The workmen had had their minds so thoroughly impressed with the 
dangerous condition of the wharf that they tiptoed over the structure as if 
they expected every minute that it would crumble beneath them. They finally 
reached the outer end, tore vp the flooring, stripped off the stringers, removed 
the braces and then attempted to topple over the piles with long poles. These 
stumps of redwood wielded no more than if they had been growing trees. 
Next the stringers were replaced and a temporary flooring laid upon which 
a donkey engine was placed. A noose was made of a huge chain and dropped 
over the piles at the bottom. Even this power failed. As a finality, men were 
sent in boats at low tide with axes and the piles were chopped off at low 
water mark. The beach was strewn for a considerable distance with the timber 
that washed ashore. Upon examination many of these piles were found to be 
only a little worm eaten, which shows that the wharf at a comparatively little 
cost, could have been kept intact." Outlook, February 2Oth, 1888. 

As soon as it was definitely known that the S. P. would abandon the 
shipping business in Santa Monica Bay, new projects were talked of. It had 
already been proposed that the people of Los Angeles build a wharf and a 
narrow guage road and thus obtain a competing line. In October, 1878. a 
company of San Francisco capitalists proposed to construct a harbor at 
Santa Monica, build a narrow guage road and put on a line of steamers which 
should carry freight at $3.50 per ton and passengers at $8.00 between Los 
Angeles and San Francisco. The right of way was already secured and work 
was to be begun at once. In November agreements between John Hayes, of 
San Francisco, and citizens of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, were pub 
lished. These set forth that Hayes was to build a narrow guage road from 
Santa Monica to Los Angeles and ultimately to San Bernardino, and to carry 
passengers between Los Angeles and Santa Monica for 25 cents and freight 
for $1.00. Another agreement made by John Wright of San Francisco was to 
the effect that he would put on a line of substantial steamships, provided the 
citizens of Los Angeles would do all their shipping on them. 

Many other projects were discussed. The first one to show any signs 
of materializing was the building of a wharf by Juan Bernard, an old resident 
of Los Angeles, who had become one of the most prominent citizens. He 
had married a daughter of Atigustin Machado and was thus interested in South 
Santa Monica property. This wharf which was built from the foot of Strand 
street was intended to be fifteen hundred feet, but was not completed. A 
large warehouse was built, which was planned to be complete for commercial 
purposes, but the S. P. forbade the steamers to land here, and the fiat was 
obeyed. No boat ever unloaded there, and the wharf was finally carried out 
by a severe storm about 1883 and the timber used for other purposes. 


Only a few very stout hearted citizens still had faith that Santa Monica 
would ever again reach its former prosperity. But there were those who had 
become attached to the place and who felt confident that the great natural 
advantages afforded by the climate, the situation and the fertility of the soil, 
would eventually make up for the loss of shipping facilities. And so long as 
the people of Los Angeles and the interior could escape to Santa Monica during 
torrid days of summer and tourists and healthseekers could find here their 
ideal resting spot and homes, the place would still prosper. These few remained 
through the darkest days and gradually newcomers discovered the advantages 
here which could not be obtained elsewhere, and began to fill up the vacant 
houses and to purchase and improve other property. 

HON. JOHN PERCIVAI, JONES was born in a small village, in Herefordshire, 
England, January 27th, 1829. While he was still an infant, his family removed 
to the United States and settled near Cleveland, Ohio, Here the child grew 
to youth and acquired a public school education, after which he entered the 
service of a bank in Cleveland. But when the news of the gold discoveries 
of California penetrated the country and called to every youth with a bold 
heart and adventurous blood, young Jones joined forces with several other 
young men who were as eager for the change as himself. They secured a 
small vessel, sailed through the lakes and the St. Lawrence river and started 
on the long and perilous voyage around " the Horn." They were months on 
the ocean and experienced many hardships and dangerss before they finally 
reached San Francisco Bay, in the spring of 1850. The young adventurer at 
once hastened away to the mines to seek his fortune. For many years he was 
a typical California miner, sometimes finding his hopes fulfilled, often finding 
them dashed. 

In those days when thousands of men sought gold with fierce energy, 
living without homes, without comforts, without the restraints of civilization, 
it was only strong character and true manhood that withstood the temptations 
of the environment. Young Jones came of sturdy stock and proved himself 
a man and a leader, even in these early days. He served as sheriff in the 
county of Trinity at a time when the office required a stout heart and level 
head for to a large extent the sheriff was the law. From 1863 to 1868 he 
was a member of the state legislature of California. In the meantime, he 
had gained much experience in mines and mining propositions. When the 
great developments of the Comstock lode began to attract attention, he was 
one of the first on the ground. Later he was made the superintendent of the 
Crown Point mine. 

Thus he became a resident of Nevada and when in 1872, a critical period 
in the history of the young state approached, he was mentioned as a candidate 


for the United States senate. The contest was a hot one, he being at first 
opposed by William Sharon ; but the " Nevada Commoner," as Jones had come 
to be known, was regarded as a friend to the miners and in the end, he was 
elected and took his seat March, 1873. 

In 1876, the Monetary Commission of the senate was appointed to inquire 
into the relative value of gold and silver, the causes thereof and kindred 
questions, which vitally affected the mining interests and particularly the 
interests of the state of Nevada a silver-producing state. Senator Jones was 
chosen as chairman of this committee and entered upon the study of the ques 
tions arising, with keen interest. It is said of the report rendered by the 
Monetary Commission that, " Nothing so thoroughly exhaustive had ever been 
presented to Congress, and the view taken was favorable to the interests of 
Nevada and of the Comstock miners." 

Naturally, at the expiration of his term, Senator Jones who had acquitted 
nimself upon so important and vital an occasion with credit and made a strong 
argument for the silver of his state, was re-elected. For thirty years he con 
tinuously served in the United States senate, a record seldom equalled. He 
became, in his long career, a noted figure and was counted as one of the 
strongest men on the floor. A writer in Munsey's, some years ago, pays him 
this tribute : 

"Senator John P. Jones, who has just been re-elected to the United 
States senate for another period of six years, is one of the interesting figures 
of the upper house of congress. He was a warm personal friend of Senator 
Conklin and formerly belonged to the stalwart wing of the Republican party. 
Of recent years, he has been one of the strongest men of the ' silver party ' 
in the country, and last year he withdrew from the old party and supported 
Mr. Bryan for the presidency. 

" Mr. Jones is a very able man and has probably made more speeches on 
the financial question than all of the other members of the senate put together. 
He is a profound scholar and has the ability to marshal an imposing array of 
facts to support his arguments. 

" He was a delegate to the Brussels Monetary Conference which met during 
the administration of President Harrison. Before that body, he spoke for 
three days, the printed report of his speech containing over two hundred 
thousand words. A representative of the Rothschilds made the remark that if 
there were many men in America with Senator Jones' capacity for speaking, the 
advocates of the gold standard would do well to surrender at once. 

" Senator Jones is exceedingly popular in Washington. When he first 
entered the senate, he was many times a millionaire. Subsequently he lost 
most of his wealth, .but it is said that in later years he has been fortunate in his 
investments and is again a very rich man." 


. As will be seen, Senator Jones was a man of the people, a practical mining 
man as well as an expert in handling mines and mining stocks. He has made 
fortunes and lost them with the calm indifference of the true miner. But be 
side this, he is a man of great native ability, who, without the training of schools, 
has made himself an authority on financial questions and created the utmost 
confidence in his sound judgment and clear perception. 

Senator Jones has been intimately associated with the history of Santa 
Monica since its inception. In 1874, he purchased an interest in the San 
Vicente rancho and, with Col. R. S. Baker, laid out the townsite of Santa 
Monica. During the next two or three years, he spent a million dollars in 
Southern California, in building up Santa Monica and in building and carrying 
on the Los Angeles and Independence railway, which was intended to reach 
his Panamint mines and possibly be the terminus of another great trans 
continental line. In 1888, he built his beautiful home, Miramar, here and since 
that time this has been the residence of his family. Here the senator has 
himself come for rest and pleasure, when he could escape from his many 
public duties. 

Senator Jones has been twice married, his first wife being the daughter 
of Judge Conger, the second a daughter of Eugene A. Sullivan and a most 
accomplished and benevolent woman. The family consists of one son, Roy, 
and three daughters. 


WILLIAMSON DUNN VAWTKR, late merchant and banker of Santa Monica, 
was a pioneer settler of Southern California and a leading spirit in the material 
development and business life of his adopted city. He was a descendant of an 
old and distinguished family, his parents, William and Frances Vawter, both 
being natives of Virginia. He was born at Mount Glad, near Madison, Indiana, 
August 28th, 1815. About 1827 the family removed to Jennings county and 
located on a farm near the town of Vernon. The father proposed to make a 
farmer of his son ; but the lad had no liking for that vocation and soon after 
the age of twelve went to live with his uncle, Colonel John Vawter, for whom 
he had a great affection. His first work was driving an ox team between the 
towns of Madison and Vernon, freighted with merchandise for his uncle's store. 
This work, by reason of the difficult roads and occasional danger from savages, 
suited the daring spirit of the boy. Later he became a clerk in the store of his 
uncle and then partner in the same store, in company with his cousin, Smith 
Vawter. Together they carried on business in the old brick building at " Vaw 
ter 's Corner " in Vernon, for a period of forty years. 

Mr. Vawter served as postmaster of the town for a number of years. He 
was a leader in early temperance work and was treasurer and custodian of the 
Bible depository of Jennings county, a branch of the American Bible Society, 



from its organization. He always took a lively interest in municipal politics 
and in national affairs. He was a Whig during the life of that political party 
and a member of the Republican party from its birth. He voted for General 
William Henry Harrison and in 1888 cast his vote for General Benjamin Har 

Tn 1875 he came to California and was one of the original members of the 
Indiana colony which was the forerunner of the city of Pasadena. Mr. Vawter 
purchased a sixty-acre ranch in that colony, which is now occupied by the busi 
ness portion of the city. Drawn by report of the great advantages offered by 
the new settlement of Santa Monica which was to become the commercial metrop 
olis of Southern California, he with his sons located here and opened the first 
general store in the town, in a building on the lots on Fourth street still occupied 
by the Vawter residence. 

As the town commenced to grow he established lumber yards and soon 
built a planing mill, which proved a boon to home builders. He secured a fran 
chise in 1886 and with his sons built the first street railway, which was for some 
time operated at a loss. They demonstrated their faith in the future, however, 
by extending the line to the Soldiers' Home, a distance of about five miles, and 
he lived to see it a paying enterprise. With his sons he organized the First 
National Bank of Santa Monica and opened the same in the brick building on 
the southeast corner of Third and Oregon, which they built in 1888. 

Mr. Vawter was married, July I5th, 1834, to Mary Charlotte Tilghman 
Crowder of Baltimore, Maryland. She died September 22nd, 1851. Her chil 
dren were Mary Ellen, May, Jane Cravens, William Smith and Edwin James. 
Mr. Vawter married Charlotte Augusta Knowlton in November, 1852. She 
was a native of Shrewsbury, Mass. She died in Santa Monica, December 27th, 
180,3, leaving one daughter, Emma. A son, Charles Knowlton, had died pre 

Mr. Vawter was one of the founders of the Presbyterian church in Santa 
Monica and was always one of its staunch supporters. He was a man of pure 
life both in thought and action. He was pre-eminently just and never inten 
tionally did any man a wrong. At the same time, he was not a man of loud 
or bold pretense and moved along life's journey doing the right thing at the 
right time : " because it was the natural, outlet for energies which were attuned 
to those harmonies which could,only accord with what was best." The memory 
of his noble life will linger like a restraining benediction to call us up toward 
a better standard of thought and action. 

Mr. Vawter passed away at his home in Santa Monica, July loth, 1894. 

MARY ELLEN VAWTER, the first child of W. D. and Mary C. Vawter, was 
born at Vernon, Ind., October 28th, 1836. At the age of eighteen she began 
teaching school. At twenty-three she married Ward Leavitt of Chatauqua, N. 
Y. In the spring of 1875, Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt with their daughter, Florence, 
removed to California. They were stockholders in the Indiana colony, but after 


a short residence there located in Santa Monica. In 1880 they returned to Pasa 
dena and lived for some years upon their orange ranch. In 1887 they again 
located in Santa Monica, where Mr. Leavitt died, October 23th, 1896. Mrs. 
Leavitt and daughter still reside in Santa Monica. 

MAY VAWTER was born at Vcrnon, Ind., March 4th, 1838. She was edu 
cated in the schools of her native town and received a special musical training. 
After teaching school and traveling through the southern and eastern states 
and Canada, she accompanied her family to California in 1875. In the spring 
of 1876 she married Switzer S. Harwood, M.D. Dr. and Mrs. Harwood lived 
at San Pablo and in San Francisco and Yreka. They finally removed to Sydney, 
Australia, where they made their home. Mrs. Harwood was a self-reliant 
woman, adventurous from childhood, and she several times made the voyage 
between Sydney and California. 

She early united with the Vernon Presbyterian church and was a charter 
member of the First Presbyterian church of Santa Monica. She died in Sydney, 
Australia, March ist, 1884. 

JANE CRAVENS VAWTER is a native of Vernon, Ind. She received her edu 
cation in private and public schools of her native town and later studied under 
Dr. J. C. Burt, following a college course. She also took a special course of 
reading extending over several years. When very young she was interested in 
political and national questions and became a staunch abolitionist. She was for 
several years a teacher in the public schools of Indianapolis. 

She united with the Presbyterian church at Vernon, and was the projector 
and one of the founders of the first Sunday-school in Santa Monica. This was 
organized and carried on for some weeks in the home of W. D. Vawter. Miss 
Vawter was a charter member of the First Presbyterian church and served for 
some time as its Sunday-school superintendent. She was long a teacher in this 
school, taking children from their tenth year and holding them until they reached 
majority. She was one of the two solicitors who collected funds for the present 
beautiful Presbyterian building. She and her sister, Miss Emma, now live to 
gether in the fine old homestead on Fourth street. Santa Monica. 

ARAMATHA CHARLOTTE VAWTER was born in Vernon, Ind.. September 25th. 
1841. She was educated at Jennings Academy. Vernon, and at Oxford, Ohio. 
After teaching for a time, she was married, October i6th, 1866, to Septimus 
Vater, now a prominent banker of Lafayette, Ind. Mrs. Vater, who has always 
been an active worker in the Presbyterian church and its auxiliaries, has been 
ordained a deaconess in her home church and is widely known for her good 
works in her home city. 

WILLIAM S. VAWTER, the eldest son of W. D. and Alary C. Vawter, was 
born near Vernon, Ind., April ist, 1845. He passed through the graded schools 
of the town and graduated from a commercial college in Cincinnati, Ohio. Re 
turning to his native place, he was appointed deputy county clerk of Jennings 
county. Later he became editor and proprietor of the Vcrnon Banner, a weekly 


paper, which he conducted with success for a couple of years. He then entered 
the manufacturing business, which he continued until he came to California 
in 1875. 

After making investments in the Indiana colony, now Pasadena, the Vawters, 
father and two sons, opened the first general store in Santa Monica and con 
ducted an extensive mercantile business for ten years. They remained here dur 
ing the long period of depression succeeding the abandonment of the wharf by 
the Southern Pacific Company and, in spite of the most discouraging conditions, 
retained their faith in the future of this region. In 1884 the Vawters purchased 
too acres of the Lucas ranch, adjoining the then south boundary of the town. 
This land was later subdivided and sold in tracts and in lots and forms a large 
part of the present south end of the city of Santa Monica. During 1887-88 
they sold half of this property for more than the whole tract had cost them and 
W. S. Yawter built a handsome home in South Santa Monica, one of the first 
residences in that district. 

Mr. Yawter has served the city of Santa Monica in many capacities. He 
was one of the first board of trustees when the town was incorporated and 
served from 1886 to 1892; in 1903 he was again elected city trustee and served 
until 1906. 

He was interested in the establishment of the Santa Monica street railway 
system and the Soldiers' Home line, all of which were sold to the Los Angeles 
Pacific. With his brother, E. J. Vawter, Mr. Vawter organized the Santa 
Monica Mill and Lumber Company, in 1886; the Santa Monica Commercial Com 
pany in 1894; was interested in the First National Bank formed in 1888, and 
is now vice-president of the Merchants' National Bank of Santa Monica. He 
was one of the members of the City Water Company incorporated in 1896 to 
supply Ocean Park with water and has been connected with many other local 
business ventures. He is still largely interested in real estate and takes an active 
part in every movement for the advance of the town which he has aided in 
building up. 

Mr. Vawter has always been a loyal Republican in politics and has taken 
an active part in public affairs. During the administration of President Harri 
son, he served as postmaster of Santa Monica, resigning on the election of Pres 
ident Cleveland. In the spring of 1908 he was appointed a member of the 
State Board of Bank Commissioners, and accepted the position, resigning from 
the presidency of the Santa Monica Savings Bank and from the board of edu 
cation to do so. 

Mr. Vawter was married in 1868 to Miss Sarah M. McClaskey, a native 
of Jackson county, Indiana. They have one daughter, Mary C., now the wife 
of John S. Moore of Los Angeles. Mr. and Mrs. Vawter have a beautiful home 
on the corner of Second street and Arizona avenue, which is surrounded by 
stately trees, the growth of years. 


EDWIN JAMES VAWTER was born in Vernon, Incl., November 26tb, 1848. 
After being educated in the public schools, he showed a decided tendency for 
business and made his first venture as a newspaper man, on the Vernon Banner. 
He was soon taken into partnership with his father, W. D. Vawter, in his gen 
eral merchandise business, at the old " Vawter Corner ", in Vernon. On the 
removal to California in 1875, the partnership between father and son was con 
tinued, and he was also one of the stockholders in the Indiana colony. 'He 
located in Santa Monica when the family decided upon this as a residence. He 
has taken a large part in the financial and business affairs of this vicinity and 
has always been known as an enterprising investor in every effort which prom 
ised success. Many of the improvements which Santa Monica has enjoyed and 
is enjoying today have been inaugurated by the Vawter family and carried 
forward to completion with perseverance in the face of difficulties. Mr. E. J. 
\ r awter has had a large share in the enterprises which were organized by his 
father and brother, as well as having originated many other successful ventures 
himself. He was president of the City Water Company organized in 1896 to 
supply the district known as Ocean Park with water; he was cashier of the 
First National Bank of Santa Monica until it was sold to Senator Jones in 1893. 
In 1899 he began the development of what has proved to be one of the most 
important of Santa Monica industries that is the growing of carnations and 
other flowers for the market. A large tract of land is now under cultivation 
and the business is steadily increasing in value. 

He was the founder of the Santa Monica Commercial Company, organized 
to carry on real estate, banking, railroading and other transactions. He remains 
the president and manager of this company, which represents the properties left 
himself and four sisters by the will of their father. He organized the First 
National Bank of Ocean Park, in 1905, of which he was president until 1907. 

Mr. Vawter has always been closely identified with the public interests ; he 
has served the city as a member of the board of city trustees, and as member, 
of the library board and of the school board. He has also taken part in many 
of the political conventions of the Republican party and is identified with the 
Masonic order (being a 32nd degree Mason), Knights of Pythias, and Pioneers 
of Los Angeles county. 

He was married to Miss Laura E. Dixon in Indiana, in 1869. She died 
in 1886. They were the parents of one son, E. J. Vawter, Jr., who inherits 
the business ability of the family. 

In 1888 Mr. Vawter married Mrs. Isabella L. Nelson. She is gifted with 
a fine voice, which is often used in the aid of charitable causes. They have a 
pleasant home, in the midst of flowers, in South Santa Monica. 

EMMA KNOWLTON VAWTER was born in Vernon, Ind., August 2ist, 1853. 
She received her education in the public schools of Vernon, Ind., and in the 
Western Seminary and Oxford College, where she graduated in 1873. She 
came to California with her father's family and has since that time been a resi- 


dent of Santa Monica. Having received a good musical education, she acted 
as organist for the First Presbyterian church from its organization until 1903. 
She resides with her sister, Jane Cravens, in the old home at Santa Monica. 

CHARLES KNOWLTON VAWTER, son of Williamson D. and Charlotte Knowl- 
ton Vawter, was born in Vernon, September 7th, 1855. He was delicate from 
birth, having a spinal difficulty which resulted in the complete loss of sight. He 
died September 29th, 1879. 

EDWIN JA.MES VAWTER, JR., son of Edwin James and Laura Dixon Vawter, 
was born in Vernon, Ind., June loth, 1871. He came to California with his 
parents and after his mother's death in 1886, lived for a time with his grand 
father, W. D. Vawter. At sixteen he entered Purdue University, Indiana. In 
1888 he entered the State University at Berkeley, but owing to an attack of 
typhoid fever did not complete the course. 

In 1889 he took a position with the First National Bank of Santa Monica. 
On the organization of the Commercial Bank of Santa Monica, in 1894, he be 
came cashier of the institution. He was cashier of the Main-street Savings Bank 
of Los Angeles for five years and was connected with the Security Savings 
Bank. He then became cashier of the United States National Bank of the same 
city. He is now president of the First National Bank of Ocean Park. 

Politically he is a Republican. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias 
and organized a company of the " Uniform Rank " at Santa Monica, which 
he served for two years as captain. He is also a member of the Masonic order, 
and has taken the 32nd degree. He united with the Presbyterian church during 
boyhood and has served several years as trustee of that church. 

Mr. Vawter was married March 8th, 1899, to Miss Bessie M. Channell of 
Arkansas City, Kansas. They have two children, Marjorie Dixon and Helen 


FROM TOWN TO CITY. 1880-1890. 

THE opening of the new decade found Santa Monica in the midst of most 
discouraging circumstances. The population as shown by the United 
States census was 417, but this included the population of the entire 
township of La Ballona. Values had greatly depreciated. Three lots and a 
house on the corner of Oregon avenue and Second street were sold, about this 
time, for $750. L. T. Fisher sold his place on Third street, now known as the 
General Sargeant house, two lots, a small house and highly improved grounds, 
for $300. Three lots on the corner of Utah and Third, with improvements, 
sold for $1200. As late as 1885 the corner now occupied by the Santa Monica 
bank building sold at a probate sale for $400. These are but samples of the 
effect of the " dark days." But Santa Monica was not alone in her depression. 
The years from 1880 to 1885 were quiescent throughout Southern California. 
The chief enlivenment came through the operation of the Southern California 
Railroad which was building branch lines in preparation for the coming of the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe line, the completion of which ushered in the 
" boom " days of the later eighties. Santa Monica looked longingly toward 
this new line, the ocean terminus of which was not yet determined, north of 
San Diego. But the Southern Pacific hold on the situation here was too strong 
to tempt the California Southern this way, until after the failure to make a 
harbor at Ballona. 

Santa Monica still had advantages, however, which were not dependent 
upon any railroad. She continued to be the favorite summer resort for pleasure 
seekers from the interior towns of the southern end of the state and she offered 
mnny attractions to eastern tourists and health seekers when they were fortu 
nate enough to discover that such a place as Santa Monica existed. During 
1883 it became necessary to increase her hotel accommodations and the Santa 
Monica Hotel was remodeled and increased by the addition of twenty rooms. 
Several new cottages were built and many tents were grouped each summer 
on " north beach ", while the canon still was a favorite camping resort also. 
In 1884 the Vawters showed their solid faith in the future by purchasing 100 
acres of the Lucas tract, adjoining the town on the south, paying $40.00 per 
acre for the land. 

The summer of 1885 was an unusually gay one at the beach. Hotels and 
cottages were all full and more than 200 tents were occupied on North Beach. 
Sunday excursions brought crowds and the annual encampment of the G. A. R., 
in August, added to the enrollment. The Catholic church, which had been 


begun in 1884, was completed in 1885. The population of the town had so 
increased that three teachers were employed and additional school room was 
necessary. During 1885 a free reading room was established by the ladies of 
the Women's Christian Temperance Union in August. This effort, which was 
begun by a few brave, hard-working women, gradually developed into a library 
and became the foundation of the present public library. 


The completion of the through line of the Atchison & Topeka road in 
1885 led to the greatest " rate war " ever known in this country and was the 
immediate caxise of the marvelous influx of population and capital from which 
the later history of Southern California dates. The quickening of the real 
estate market, the breaking up of the large ranches in the vicinity of Santa 
Monica and the great projects for railroads and harbors which were in the air, 
revived land values in this place. In January, 1886, it was reported that the 
Santa Fe, or Atlantic & Pacific road, as it was then called, would build a line 
to South Santa Monica and there construct a wharf long enough to accommo 
date the largest ships. The company was also to build a three-story hotel on 
its reservation. In view of this rumor and of the purchase of right of way 
for the road, many improvements were made in that direction and new comers 
began to secure lands in South Santa Monica. But the hopes of that section 
were dashed when it was learned in October that the " Ballona Harbor Improve 
ment Company " had been incorporated and that the Los Angeles & Santa 
Monica road, which had been incorporated to connect the A. & P. with Santa 
Monica, had secured a franchise for a wharf and ship canal on Ballona slough. 
Work was at once begun at dredging for the harbor, which had been carefully 
planned by Hugh Crabbe, an engineer of some note. During the next two 
years extensive operations were carried on and a large sum of money was ex 
pended in the effort to create a harbor at Ballona Port. 

Another important event of 1886 was the building of the Hotel Arcadia. 
During the previous year, J. W. Scott, who had long been one of the most en 
terprising citizens of the town, and who had been host of the Santa Monica 
Hotel for a number of years, purchased from the railroad company a tract of 
land lying along the ocean front between Railroad and Front streets, paying 
for it $3000. He subdivided it into forty lots and sold thirty of them for $30,000. 
With this money he began the construction of a first-class hotel, a long-felt 
want in Santa Monica. The hotel, when completed January, 1887, was the 
finest seaside hotel in Southern California and was only equaled by the Del 
Monte at Monterey in the north. The grounds about it were at once improved 
and the place became the center of Santa Monica's attractions. A bath house 
and pavilion, and a gravity railway were among the features that were added 
by the enterprising management of the establishment. 


In November, 1886, another important step in the advancement of Santa 
Monica occurred. This was the incorporation of the town ; the election to 
decide the question being held November 3<3th and resulting in a vote of 97 for 
incorporation and 71 against. The boundaries as fixed were: "From the 
northern corner of Montana avenue and Seventeenth street, east along north 
erly line of Seventeenth street to the boundary line between San Vicente and 
La Ballona; thence west to the south line of Santa Monica and Compton road; 
thence southeast to the south line of Lucas tract ; thence to Pacific ocean." The 
first board of trustees chosen for the town was made up of John Steere, chair 
man : Dr. E. C. Folsom, A. E. Ladd, W. S. Yawter and J. W. Scott. Fred 
C. McKinnie was the first town clerk; H. C. Baggs, Jr., was elected marshal 
and E. K. Chapin treasurer. Baggs failing to qualify, Michael Noon was ap 
pointed in his place. 

While there was considerable opposition to incorporation by what the Ex 
press terms the " old fogies ", on the ground of the additional taxes to be ex 
pected as a result, the feeling in general was that the interests of the town de 
manded the change and that public improvements must be made, even though 
the wherewithal must come out of the pockets of the property owners. The 
board of trustees at once entered upon a campaign of public improvements 
which within the next few years transformed the rough, dusty and ungraded 
roads which were called streets and avenues into well graded, graveled streets 
with sidewalks, crossings, bridges, and which were sprinkled and shaded. Dur 
ing the 3'ear fifty-five new cottages were erected in the town, beside the business 
buildings and hotel, and a new era of growth was thus fairly inaugurated. 


The year of 1887 was the most phenomenal period in the history of this 
state. Santa Monica was not behind the other sections of Southern California 
in the real estate craze that beset the old settler and the " tenderfoot " alike. 
In January, L. T. Fisher, the former owner and editor of the Santa Monica 
Outlook, which had so ably represented the town in its first sunny days, returned 
to his first love and began the publication of a new series of the Outlook, joining 
with him T. J. Spencer, an experienced printer. This paper furnished the 
medium through which the real estate agents of the vicinity made their glowing 
announcements. One of the first firms to indulge in large capitals and superla 
tive adjectives was that of Tanner & Lewis R. R. Tanner and " Tom " Lewis, 
both of whom are well known in the annals of Santa Monica. They advertised 
in January " Bargains in Vawter tract, Central addition, Prospect Hill and 
other localities." On March 3rd a " Great auction sale " of Santa Monica lots 
offered by the land company, took place. Of this sale the Outlook says : " This 
valuable property will be sold on its merits. There will be no free band, no 
free lunch, no free ride." In this connection, it continued : " The S. P. rail- 


way company are daily making three trips between Los Angeles and Santa 
Monica, which shows the importance of the location. And yet this is a mere 
beginning. Another party is after a franchise for a dummy road from Los 
Angeles to the ocean, to pass along the Cahuenga foothills. Another company 
has organized with a capital of $500,000 to construct an electric railway from 
Pasadena to the ocean. Their objective point on the coast is not yet announced, 
but Santa Monica is no doubt the place, as the conditions are favorable to this 
view. It should also be remembered that large capital is backing the enterprise 
of constructing an artificial harbor at a point about four miles south of this 
place. And there is still another improvement in prospect. This is a wharf 
in front of Santa Monica to be constructed by the Southern Pacific Company." 
Lots to the amount of $42,000 were disposed of in this sale, which included prop 
erty from Ocean avenue to Twentieth street, and a few weeks later another 
auction sale disposed of a still larger number of lots at prices ranging nearly 
double those of the first sale. 

On June 2nd occurred a " grand excursion and auction ", with Ben F. 
Ward orator of the day. This was " East Santa Monica " and prospective 
visitors were directed to bring their appetites and pocketbooks. The same 
month the " Santa Fe " tract, with " ocean view, street cars, water, and stone 
pavement ", was put on the market. This included fifty-three acres of land 
. located in South Santa Monica and owned by Tanner & Lewis, purchased from 
the Vawters for $53,000. The " Wave Crest " and " Ocean Spray " tracts, also 
in South Santa Monica, were placed on the market about this time. Lots in 
these divisions brought as high as $1350, which to old settlers in Santa Monica 
seemed fabulous. But when it is remembered that these various tracts are 
now the site of Ocean Park district, the figures do not seem out of the way. 

One of the most important deals was the purchase for $55,575 of 247 acres 
of the Boca de Santa Monica, located on the bluff on the other side of " Old 
Santa Monica Canon ", by a syndicate of which Abbot Kinney was the moving 
spirit. It was proposed to make this the " Nob Hill " district of Santa Monica. 
Streets were laid out, trees planted, the Santa Monica Outlook Railway was 
organized, with Kinney as president, Patrick Robinson, vice-president, James 
Bettner secretary and treasurer, to build a steam road from the Southern Pacific 
depot along the base of the bluff to the mouth of the canon and up a branch 
of the Santa Monica canon to the " heights." Mr. Kinney was at that time 
secretary of the newly organized state board of forestry and offered to donate 
a site for a forestry station on the heights. The offer was accepted in Novem 
ber, 1887, $5000 was set aside to be devoted to the experimental station and 
H. Rowland Lee was sent to take charge of the work. 

By August the " free lunch free music " stage of auction sales had been 
reached, " round-trip fare fifty cents and twenty cars provided " for sales in 
the Ocean Spray and East Santa Monica tracts. Among other tracts of this 


time were the Crippen tract, the Arcadia and Van Every's addition, all of which 
were actively pushed. 

During this year the townsite of Palms was laid out, about five miles inland 
from Santa Monica, on the line of the Southern Pacific. The town of Sunset 
also sprang into existence. This was located on the Wolfskill ranch, which 
had been the old land grant of San Jose de Buenos Ayres. This tract of 4500 
acres had belonged to B. D. Wilson, who in 1865 mortgaged it for $6000. On 
this loan it passed into the hands of John Wolfskill, who during 1887 sold it 
to a syndicate for $440,000. A townsite and ten-acre tracts were laid out ; water 
was being developed ; a large hotel was planned and partially built ; even a news 
paper was started. The " foothill " line, which was to reach the ocean in the 
vicinity of Santa Monica canon was to cross the tract and a " grand boulevard "- 
that fair dream which has existed as a dream since the laying out of Santa 
Monica was to be constructed from 'Los Angeles to the ocean, passing through 
the city of Sunset. 

An improvement which had a more substantial basis and which has been 
of great advantage to Santa Monica and Southern California, was set under 
way during the year. This was the location of a branch of the National Home 
for Disabled Veterans in this vicinity. The board of managers of the institution 
were on the coast to locate a site for a Pacific branch. They were induced to 
visit Southern California, where various propositions were laid before them. 
Judge Walter Van Dyke, acting for Messrs. Jones and Baker and the owners 
of the Wolfskill tract, offered 600 acres of land in the San Vicente and Buenos 
Ayres grants, together with other valuable considerations. This proposition 
was accepted and the announcement was made in November, 1887, that the 
present site had been selected. The news was received with rejoicing in Santa 
Monica, which thus became the nearest base of supplies for the home. 

Naturally such rapid advance in real estate values produced a rapid growth 
in the town and a demand for improvements to correspond. Early in February 
two applications for franchises to build street car lines were received by the 
board of trustees, one from O. G. Weiss and others of Los Angeles, the other 
by W. D. Vawter of Santa Monica. The latter was granted ; work was at once 
begun, and on June igth the first car ran over the Ocean-avenue line and in 
the fall the extension 1 was completed, on Utah avenue and Third streets, up Ari 
zona to Seventh and on Seventh to Nevada. 

A franchise was also granted to a company which proposed to establish a 
gas plant and supply the town. This improvement, however, did not materialize 
and for years the only gas in the town was that manufactured by a private plant 
for the Arcadia Hotel, and two or three other private houses. The Ballona 
and Santa Monica railway was incorporated in 1887 to build a standard-gauge 
road from Ballona to Santa Monica, its board of directors being M. L. Wicks, 
J. Bernard, Jr., S. D. Northcutt, James Campbell and others. It was really an 

W. I. HULL. 


offshoot of the Santa Fe line and through it, the Santa Fe obtained a right of 
way through South Santa Monica to a junction with the S. P. on Railroad 
street. Work was continued during the year on the Ballona harbor project, 
and it was still hoped that the Santa Fe might make a terminus either at Ballona 
or Santa Monica. 

Among the buildings of the year, John Steere erected a two-story brick 
block on the northeast corner of Utah and Third, with a frontage of 50 by 75 
feet. The second floor contained a large hall which for many years was known 
as " Steere's Opera House ", and which served as a theater and public meeting 
place. The older residents of Santa Monica can look back upon many festal 
occasions enjoyed within and recall the remarkable display of stuffed birds which 
adorned its walls. Several other business blocks and a number of residences 
were built during the year. St. Augustine's Episcopal church was erected and 
the Catholic church at Palms was built. 

The Fourth of July this year was celebrated with a great deal of enthusiasm, 
a Jnrge crowd gathering to witness the proceedings and the Hon. Abbot Kinney 
delivering the address of the day. The flower festival in Los Angeles was a 
most pleasing and novel attraction. The Santa Monica booth, prepared by 
Mr. Tyler, Mrs. Chapin and other ladies of the town, was a representation of 
Santa Monica, with wharf and ship, made of flowers, and attracted a great 
deal of attention and praise as the most beautiful exhibit in the festival. In 
August the Lawn Tennis Association was incorporated and grounds were se 
cured and laid out on Third street. The first tournament of the Southern Cali 
fornia Tennis Association took place on these grounds and was a great success, 
closing with a grand ball at the new opera house. 


The year of 1888 was one of prosperity and advancement. While real 
estate movements were not so rapid nor so sensational as in the previous year 
and some of the wild schemes fell through, much solid and permanent develop 
ment went on. 

One of the most important indications of the change from village to city 
was the formation of a bank, the directors being mostly local capitalists. The 
First National Bank of Santa Monica was organized in January, with G. H. 
Bonebrake of Los Angeles, president ; John Steere, vice-president ; E. J. Vawter, 
cashier; G. S. Van Every, John Steere, Nathan Bundy, H. C. Baggs, G. H. 
Bonebrake, W. S. and E. J. Vawter, directors. It opened for business in March 
in the Central building on Third street and at once began to plan for a hand 
some building of its own. In April the contract was let for the erection of 
Senator Jones' new home on a block that had been reserved in the original town 
plat as a hotel site. This house was to cost between $30,000 and $40,000, and 
the fact thaUthe senator had selected Santa Monica as a permanent home went 


far toward insuring the future of the place, as the Jones interests were still the 
dominant factor in the town. The Santa Monica Improvement Company was 
organized this year with Abbot Kinney, P. Robertson and Thomas Rhodes as 
the controlling committee. This association at once began work in improving 
the grounds of the lawn tennis courts and in erecting the " Casino " on Third 
street. This was a substantial and beautiful club house, costing some $6000 
and for many years was the center of much social gayety and the scene of many 

In April, after a rather lively contest, three new trustees were elected, 
Thomas A. Lewis, Thomas Rhodes and J. J. Carrillo, the latter of whom served 
as trustee continuously until 1900 twelve years. The new board organized 
with W. S. Vawter president, and at once began a vigorous campaign for the 
improvement of streets. Before the end of the year active work had been begun 
and contracts let for the grading, curbing and graveling of streets to the amount 
of $23,000 while over $30,000 had been expended, or called for, in the putting 
down of cement sidewalks. The present day population owes much to' the board 
of trustees of 1888-89 who, in the face of much opposition from people who 
thought the town would be bankrupted forever by such extravagance, and in 
the face of many difficulties, persisted in making the streets of Santa Monica 
the best thoroughfares in the country. 

Railroad schemes were always on the tapis and hopes for rapid transit were 
afforded abundant material for building upon. The Outlook of July i8th talks 
cheerfully of the situation : " Santa Monica has excellent railroad accommoda 
tions. The S. P. trains now make four round trips on week days and six on 
Sundays. The round-trip fare is 75 cents except on Sundays when it is 50 cents. 
. . The Los Angeles County Railroad will in a short time have another 
route completed to Sonta Monica. The entire distance is now graded and the 
material and rolling stock is now on hand. This road starts from the terminus 
of the Temple street cable road in Los Angeles and skirts along the foothills, 
running over a most charming route and passing close to the Soldiers' Home. 
And yet this is not the end. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, which is now 
within five or six miles of this place, promises to extend its line to Santa Monica 
in the near future. The company already has a right of way along Lucas 
avenue in South Santa Monica and have graded a short section to hold their 
franchise. Nor does this close the programme. A rapid transit road is in pros 
pect which will start from some eligible point in Los Angeles and, paralleling 
the Southern Pacific as far as The Palms, will then cross to the south side, mak 
ing a beeline for South Santa Monica." 

Of these projects, the Los Angeles county road, or the Los Angeles & 
Pacific road, as it was later known, which was capitalized by Los Angeles men, 
completed its track to Santa Monica and in 1889 went into operation. But its 
career was short-lived. On January 29th, 1889, its first passenger train came 


into Santa Monica and was greeted with enthusiasm ; the officers, E. E. Hall, 
president, S. W. Luitweiler, vice-president, R. C. Shaw, superintendent, and 
Cornelius Cole, J. M. Hale, W. T. Spillman and Arthur Gaylord, directors, being 
on board. The road ran through Burbank, the Ostrich Farm at Kenilworth, 
Prospect Park, Hollywood, Cahuenga, Morocco, Sunset and Soldiers' Home, a 
distance of about 27 miles. Its terminus in Santa Monica was on the bluff 
near Utah avenue. In September, 1889, it went into the hands of a receiver and 
in October all trains but one a day were taken off. Soon afterward the rolling 
stock was taken possession of by the creditors and one more disastrous failure 
was added to the wreckage of the " boom period." 

Late this year a Board of Trade was organized and at once began to take 
an active part in pushing the vital interests of the town, which at this particular 
time were generally conceded to be the building of a wharf and the completion 
of the new water system. Work had been begun on a new reservoir, new pipe 
was being laid and the Water Company, otherwise Jones & Baker, proposed to 
expend some $60,000 in providing a suitable water supply. The Santa Monica 
Mill Company's plant was put in operation this year at a cost of fully $25.000. 
The Gates block on Third street was put up at a cost of $10,000 and other build 
ing improvements to the amount of about $100.000 made the town begin to 
assume the airs of a citv. 

The year 1889 opened with the burning of the Santa Monica Hotel which 
occurred January I5th and was a complete loss on account of the insufficient 
supply of water. This swept away one of the oldest landmarks of the place, as 
the hotel was the first building erected, having been put up by Jones and Baker 
in the spring of 1875. It had been added to at various times and was valued 
at some $25,000. The proprietor, T. R. Bennington, lost heavily on his furni 
ture, and Mrs. Senator Jones was a heavy loser of clothing and jewels. The 
place had had many ups and downs, having been " run " by many different par 
ties, taken over for debt, and closed entirely during 1880-81. Till the building 
of the Arcadia it had been the best hotel of the town and had been enlivened by 
many gay and festive scenes. The Outlook, in a reminiscent mood, recalls: 
Jim ' Eastman, in his palmy days, used to drive there in his fine turnout and 
throw up one or two hundred at a whack for champagne and swell dinners. Led- 
yard and Bullock, the once noted financiers of the Temple and Workman Bank, 
et id omnes genus, would also come down periodically and indulge in a little 
hilarity and the disbursement of some of their easily gotten wealth." 

On February nth, the First National Bank moved into its new two-story 
building, which was handsomely fitted up for its purposes. This spring the 
Jones mansion was completed and the family moved in. It at once became a 
social center whose hospitality was enjoyed by many distinguished people from 



all parts of the world. Among its first visitors were Senator Hoar, of Massa 
chusetts, Senator Allison, of Iowa, and Governor and Mrs. Stoneman, who were 
entertained in a party by Mrs. Jones. 

One of the most exciting questions of the year was that of the proposed 
outfall sewer from Los Angeles which was to be discharged into the ocean in 
the neighborhood of the present site of Venice, the city being vigorously cam 
paigned for votes on the bonding proposition to build the outfall. Santa Monica 
citizens entered a decided protest against such a plan as destructive to their beach 
interests ; meetings were held, the board of trustees and the Board of Trade 
passed vigorous resolutions and the town hired counsel to defend their rights. 
Citizens of Santa Monica attended anti-bond meetings in Los Angeles and took 

an active part in the fight. The question 
was settled in October, for the time being, 
by the defeat of the bond issue. 

During this year, the street railway, 
or the " mule line " as it was popularly 
known, was extended to Seventeenth 
street, thus giving the town four and a 
half miles of street railway. The drive 
way to the Soldiers' Home was also com 
pleted this year, a boulevard 100 feet 
wide, lined with trees set out under the 
supervision of Abbot Kinney, then road 
commissioner, and with four substantial 
bridges. It was proposed to complete 
this boulevard to Los Angeles, and a 
number of other roads were opened and 
improved and set with shade trees about this time. 

The Soldiers' Home improvements were now fully under way and a num 
ber of veterans had already been received. A brick kiln had been put into oper 
ation in Santa Monica by Messrs. Sam Cripe and C. F. Geltner, which supplied 
a large number of brick for the new buildings on the Soldiers' Home grounds. 
A franchise was secured to build a street railway from the terminus of the Vaw- 
ter line at Seventeenth street to the Home and this line was put into operation 
in 1890. 

Among the social events of the year may be chronicled the visit of Senator 
Hearst, who was entertained by the Board of Trade and of Fanny Davenport, 
who was so delighted with Santa Monica that she purchased a cottage and 
announced her intention of passing her old age here. The Polo Club, Tennis 
Association and a race course provided amusement for sport lovers. The town 
now hid five chvrches, and among the mam- church entertainments the Floral 



Festival, held in the new Presbyterian church, was an event that lingers in the 
memory of participants and beholders. 

One of the most magnificent of the many hopeful prospects of the year was 
the apparent certainty that this place had been chosen as the site for one of the 
largest Catholic schools in the country. In September it was announced that 
the Sisters of St. Joseph, a St. Louis order, had made arrangements with 
Messrs. Crippen, who were to donate a tract of twenty-two acres of the East 
Santa Monica tract for the location of a large school. Mr. John F. Hogan, who 
had been instrumental in bringing the Sisters to this location, reported that 
work would at once be begun on a building. The Outlook of September 25th 
says : " Heretofore rumor said that at least $350,000 would be expended upon 
the building alone, with a possible increase to $500,000. But it seems that 
even these figures are too small. The Mother Superior is so captivated with 
the location that she thinks the Sisters may decide to spend over a million 
before the improvements shall have been completed." December nth, it is 
announced that the final arrangements for the location of the Catholic College 
at Santa Monica have been completed and Mother General Agatha, of St. Louis, 
drove the first stake in the grounds, which " is the beginning of a series of 
dedicatory services that will close with the final imposing ceremonial that will 
be held at the completion of the grand edifice." The final grand dedicatorial 
service has not yet taken place ; Sister Agatha seems to have been too 

The Outlook of January 8th, 1890, says: "The popularity of Santa 
Monica as a seaside resort is shown by the large travel over the Southern 
Pacific and the L. A. & P. railroads. After careful estimates by the agent, we 
find the Southern Pacific brought 200,000 visitors to the beach during the year. 
To this must be added about a fourth as many for the L. A. & P. during the 
time. Then there were thousands who came by private conveyance. The 
highest number of visitors on any one day was on the first Sunday of the bal 
loon ascension, when the crowd was estimated at 12,000. When Los Angeles 
shall have doubled her population (as she will within a few years) and the 
lines of railway have quadrupled, and the fare been reduced to one-half, it is 
easy to imagine what an immense crowd will visit this beach each week." 

It is interesting to note that all of the above predictions have been ful 
filled long ago, except the reduction in railway fare, 

THE WHARF FIGHT. During the eighties the question of a wharf at 
Santa Monica was considered the most vital one of all that presented them 
selves. The people, the trustees, the Board of Trade, the contributors to the 
papers, and above all the editor of the Outlook, discussed this question in all 
its phases. The Outlook alternated between arguments to prove the necessity 
and the profits to be accrued from building a wharf; schemes for the building 


of a wharf and discourses upon the advisability of a harbor, or a breakwater, 
at Santa Monica. 

The first tangible step toward wharf building was the application, in Feb 
ruary, 1887, f the Southern Pacific for a franchise to build a wharf at the foot 
of Railroad street, where the old wharf had stood. This was a direct result 
of the efforts to establish a " harbor " at Ballona, which were backed by the 
Santa Fe. But as the harbor of Ballona failed to threaten their San Pedro 
business, the S. P. application lay dormant. When it became evident that the 
railroad company would do nothing, more talk followed and in December it 
was announced that Mr. Bernard, who had still the stump of his wharf, built 
in '79 at South Santa Monica, had formed a company of capitalists who 
would rebuild that structure. A committee was sent to San Francisco to inter 
view the railway people and the Outlook declares : " There is hardly any 
ground for doubt that we shall have a wharf within the next six months. . . . 
It is one of the anomalies of business that the old Santa Monica wharf was 
destroyed, not because it didn't pay, but because it did pay. That is to say, it 
paid the shipper and traveler and would have paid the railroad company had 
they not been interested at Wilmington and San Pedro." 

February ist, 1888, Geo. S. Van Every and T. A. Lewis, two well known 
residents of Santa Monica, made an application for a franchise to build a 
wharf at the foot of Bicknell avenue. At the next meeting of the city trustees 
a petition was presented by the Santa Monica Wharf Company, signed by forty- 
five citizens, asking that an election be called for the purpose of submitting the 
question of voting $10,000 bonds to be given to the company on the comple 
tion of the wharf according to the franchise asked by Messrs. Van Every and 
Lewis. The discussions and public meetings that followed this action were 
lively and some warm language must have been used, for a few weeks later 
the following note was published : " To the Honorable Board of Trustees of 
the town of Santa Monica. Gents : Whereas we hear it talked by divers per 
sons that the proposition to vote $10,000 subsidy to the ' Santa Monica Wharf 
and Shipping Company ' was simply a scheme to extort and obtain money from 
the said town for personal purposes ; and, whereas, from the said talk, we are 
advised and believe that the decision will be against us, therefore we beg to 
withdraw our proposition to construct a wharf and here announce that we will 
have nothing to do with the matter; but would recommend that the town vote 
bonds necessary to build and maintain a wharf of its own. George S. Van 
Every, T. A. Lewis." 

After more discussion and public meetings, it was generally agreed that 
it would be feasible for the town to vote bonds for a wharf; but this scheme 
was decided by the city attorney to be illegal and, notwithstanding their little 
" defi," Messrs. Van Every and Lewis again came to the front with an appli 
cation for a franchise, which was granted, to build a wharf at the foot of Front 


street. Mr. Van Every started north to investigate the cost of piles and the 
Outlook ventured a cautious blast of triumph with strings on it. Past expe 
rience was beginning to tell. After which there is an ominous quiet on the 
subject of a wharf until the organization of the Board of Trade in December, 
1888, which began an immediate agitation of the subject. The " Wharf Com 
mittee " reported in favor of organizing a stock company, which proposition 
was at once acted upon. Papers for subscriptions were circulated, the Los 
Angeles Chamber of Commerce and Board of Trade were entertained by the 
Santa Monica Board of Trade and, incidentally, urged to subscribe. More 
public meetings, more discussion, pro and con. But at last sufficient subscrip 
tions were obtained to warrant the incorporation of the " Santa Monica Wharf 
Company." July I3th " Critic " in the Outlook writes a sharp letter in which 
he objects to the acts of the committee in electing itself as directors of the new 
company and immediately demanding an assessment of 40 per cent from sub 
scribers. He also demands where the wharf is to be built and who is to decide 
that important question. 

Another lull followed while the question of the outfall sewer and an occa 
sional editoria! as to the " harbor " seemed to occupy the attention of Santa 
Monicans. But in December, Mr. J. B. Dunlap appeared before the board of 
trustees, representing " capitalists " that magic quantity and asked what 
subsidy Santa Monica was prepared to give for a wharf. This question led to 
the proposition that the town vote bonds for a sewer system and then pay a 
wharf company to carry their sewer out to sea. After much legal lore had 
been expended, it was decided that this might or might not be done. 

After which matters seem to have simmered until March, 1890, when the 
Outlook indulges in this mysterious language : " There is music in the air ! 
Glad tidings float on the breeze. Rumor says Santa Monica is to have a 
wharf! Our people generally believe it. So does the Outlook. We are not 
at liberty to enter into details, as everything is not beyond the possibility of 
failure. There is every reason to believe, however, that our wharf scheme, for 
which the Outlook and many zealous residents of Santa Monica have so striven, 
will be a most gratifying success, at an early day, and that, too, in a shape more 
satisfactory than any of us have dared hope for." 

At a public meeting of the subscribers to the " wharf fund " held May 6th, 
Messrs. L. R. Vincent, D. L. Bancroft and W. D. Vawter were elected com 
missioners to act for the subscribers, and S.-W. Luitweiler, representing the Los 
Angeles & Pacific Railroad, was present with a proposition. In June articles 
of incorporation for a new wharf company were filed. This was the " Santa 
Monica Wharf and Railway Terminal Company," the incorporators being J. 
A. Stanwood, E. E. Hall, Elwood Chaffey, Arthur Gayford and W. L. Cor- 
son; the capital stock fixed at $300,000, $80,000 of which had been subscribed. 
" The company have acquired an ocean frontage of about a mile and a half and 


a large tract of land" (the present site of Ocean Park and Venice). In the 
meantime many rumors were afloat as to the intentions of the Southern Pacific 
Company, which had again sent representatives to Santa Monica and looked 
at the old stump which still represented past commercial importance. During 
1890 the town was in a fever of expectation as to the possibilities of the South 
ern Pacific action and the probability of the Santa Monica Wharf and Railway 
Terminal Company actually doing something. But after waiting until the 
spring of I Q <)I for some tangible signs of fulfillment, the citizens again took a 
hand. In May a petition signed by about a hundred citizens was presented to 
the board of trustees requesting them to call an election to determine the ques 
tion of issuing bonds for the construction of a wharf. After a full and enthu 
siastic discussion of this project by the trustees and the citizens, the matter 
was put to vote and was defeated by the vote of two trustees. Another meet 
ing was called and some very hot language was used ; a new petition was pre 
pared, urging the trustees to respect the wishes of the citizens ; but the two 
obdurate members remained firm and again the petition was denied. The 
excitement ran high and the feeling against the two trustees was very bitter 
in some quarters. 

The following emphatic words expressed the feeling of the editor of the 
Outlook. " We haven't voted any bonds for a wharf at Santa Monica, nor has 
any person or persons agreed to build one ; yet when a location is mentioned 
for a wharf, it is like shaking a red rag at a mad bull. If there is any one 
thing that some Santa Monicans can do better than anything else, it is getting 
up a raging opposition when something is proposed upon which all should 
agree. If a man started out tomorrow with a pocket full of twenty-dollar gold 
pieces, some ' chronic ' would start a howl of opposition because the right per 
son, in his opinion, had not been selected to make the distribution.'' 

But the question of building a wharf and of selecting a location was at 
last settled, without regard to the opposition or opinions of Santa Monicans. 
On August ist, 1891, the Southern Pacific Engineering Corps began a survey 
in " old " Santa Monica canyon, and it was definitely known that C. P. Hunt- 
ington had decided on a wharf for Santa Monica. Thus ended the history of 
the agitation for a wharf. 

JOHN T. CARRILLO. There is no better known figure in Santa Monica 
than that of John T. Carrillo, at present Police Judge of the city. He is a 
native son the son and the grandson of native sons, and belongs to one of tin- 
oldest and best known families of California. He is a descendant of Jose 
Raymundo Carrillo, a native of Loreto, who came to California in 1769. Of 
him Bancroft says: " He may be regarded as the founder of the Carrillo fam 
ily, which must be considered in several respects the leading one in California, 
by reason of the number and prominence of its members and of their connec 
tion by marriage with so many 'of the best families, both native and pioneer." 


Captain Carrillo married Tomasa Ignacia Lugo and their sons, Carlos, Jose 
and Domingo, were among the most prominent citizens of the Mexican period 
of California history. Their only daughter, Maria Antonia, married Captain 
Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, one of the most brilliant figures in Santa Barbara 

Carlos Antonio Carrillo, grandfather of Juan J., was born at Santa Bar 
bara in 1783. He began life as a soldier and was engaged in many military 
affairs. In 1830 he was elected a member of the Mexican Congress and worked 
earnestly for the interests of his country and the preservation of the missions. 
One of his speeches, "El Exposicion sobre el Fondo Piadoso " was the first 
production of a native Calif ornian, printed in book form. In 1837, his brother 
Jose Antonio, who was an active politician, secured for Carlos an appointment 
as governor of California, with the privilege of locating the capital of the state 
at his pleasure. In consequence of this document, the original of which is now 
in the possession of Mr. Juan J. Carrillo, Senor Carlos Carrillo chose Los 
Angeles as capital and was inaugurated there with an elaborate ceremony the 
only time that Los Angeles was ever made the capital. The distinction was 
short-lived, however, as Governor Alvarado refused to recognize the authority 
of his Uncle Carlos and after a brief and bloodless military campaign, Don 
Carlos retired from the field. He was the grantee of the Sespe Rancho and 
of Santa Rosa Island. He died in 1852. Bancroft says of him: "In person 
Don Carlos, like most of his brothers and cousins, was large and of magnifi 
cent presence, distinguished for his courteous and gentlemanly manners. In 
all California there was no more kind-hearted, generous, popular and inoffen 
sive citizen than he." His wife was Josefa Castro : his sons, Jose, Pedro C. 
and Jose Jesus ; his daughters, Josefa, wife of Win. J. Dana ; Encarnacion, 
wife of Thomas Robbins ; Francisca, wife of A. B. Thompson ; Manuela, wife 
of John C. Jones, and Maria Antonia, wife of Lewis Burton. 

Pedro C. Carrillo, father of Juan J., was born in Santa Barbara and was 
educated in Honolulu and Boston. On his return to California he took an act 
ive part in affairs, filling various offices in Santa Barbara and Los Angeles and 
being the grantee of Alamos y Agua Caliente, Camulos ranches and San Diego 
island. During the American conquest, he favored the Americans and was 
active in their behalf. In 1847 he was the guide who led a messenger from 
Stockton to Fremont through the enemy's country. He was made receiver of 
the port of San Diego, after the American occupation and later served as 
receiver of port at Santa Barbara and at San Pedro. He spent the last years 
of his life in Santa Monica and died here May 28th, 1888. His wife was Josefa 
Bandini, a sister of Mrs. Arcadia de Baker and the oldest one of the famous 
Bandini sisters. It was she who made the American flag which was used by 
Commodore Stockton at San Diego the first American flag raised in South 
ern California. 


Juan J. Carrillo was born in Santa Barbara, September 8th, 1842. When 
he was ten years old he was sent with a party of boys, sons of Californians, to 
New York, making the trip around the Isthmus of Panama in charge of a 
priest, who placed the youths in a private family in New York City. The 
woman in charge proved to be a fraud, and the boys were taught nothing and 
were badly treated in every way, until an old friend of Mr. Carrillo's father 
discovered them. Then Juan and his brother were removed to the College of 
the Holy Cross at Worcester, Mass., near Boston. Here they remained six 
years, returning to California in 1858. 

In 1864 Mr. Carrillo came to Los Angeles and entered the store of Caswell, 
Ellis and Wright, then one of the largest establishments in the state. He re 
mained with this firm for 14 years, then served for four years as city marshal 
of I.os Angeles. In 1881 he located in Santa Monica and has since that date 
been intimately associated with the history of this place. He acted for a time as 
agent for the Baker interests in this vicinity and has been instrumental in se 
curing many valuable concessions for the city. For instance, in 1884 Mrs. Baker 
deeded the site of Woodlawn cemetery to him and he in turn, without compen 
sation, deeded the same to the city. In 1888 he was elected as city trustee and 
for twelve years thereafter he was re-elected regularly, thus serving the city 
longer than any other trustee ever chosen. During this time he was for seven 
years, from 189x5 to 1897, president of the board and thus acting mayor of the 
city. During his entire service he gave much time and energy to city affairs 
and Santa Monica has never had a more disinterested and honest official. In 
1888 he took an active part in tie contest made by Santa Monica against the 
proposed outfall sewer of Los Angeles, with its discharge on the beach between 
what is now Pier avenue and Venice. Mr. Carrillo personally canvassed the 
Ballona district and secured the signatures of the property owners to a protest 
against this action and to an agreement which prevented Los Angeles from 
securing the proposed right of way for the sewer. When the first board of trade 
was organized in 1888, Mr. Carrillo was chosen as secretary, an office which he 
filled for seven years. He was one of the active movers in the efforts to secure 
a wharf and a sewer system, and has always been a strong advocate of good 
roads and parks. During his service on the board of trustees he accomplished 
much toward securing improved roads and streets. Old citizens have not for 
gotten the long and weary fight he made to secure the road to Calabasas in 
January, 1897. After his retirement from the council he served two years as 
superintendent of streets, from 1904 to 1906. 

In personal appearance and in character Mr. Carrillo is a worthy son of his 
ancestors, indeed, the description of his grandfather might apply with equal 
truth to himself. Honorable in all his dealings, generous to a fault and kind- 
hearted, even to his enemies, probably no man in Santa Monica commands a 
more sincere regard. He was married, October 7th, 1869, to Miss Francisca 



Roldan, a woman of great beauty of character and person. She died in Los 
Angeles March 2nd, 1897, and her funeral here in Santa Monica was a rare testi 
monial of the love and respect which were felt for her and her family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carrillo had 13 children, of whom are now living Elisa, Mrs. 
Eliza Lopez; Atala, Mrs. A. H. Calkins; Diana, Mrs. Will Holton; of the sons, 
Ygnacio is a well-known dentist, practicing in Los Angeles ; Eulogio is assistant 
engineer on the Southern Pacific; Leopold, or Leo, as he is more familiarly 
known, is traveling in the east, where his talents as a monologist and caricaturist 
have given him distinction. One son, Charles, died in Santa Monica, April ist, 
1905, anA the youngest son, Octavio, is now in the employ of the Southern' Pa 
cific. In 1904 Mr. Carrillo married a second time, Mrs. Eva Fellner, an accom 
plished and beautiful woman. 



GROWTH. 1890-1900. 

NATURALLY, Santa Monica shared in the reaction which followed the 
too rapid expansion of 1887-88; but she did not suffer the collapse which 
followed in many sections of Southern California. She was in no sense 
a " boom " town and aside from some speculation in South Santa Monica prop 
erty and some rather previous railway schemes, her growth had been a natural 
result of her advantages and it continued during the new decade with a steady 
forward movement which gave a solid basis for the marvelous prosperity of her 
later history. 

The population of the town, as shown by the census of 1890, was 1580, an 
increase of over 400 per cent, above the population of 1880. The assessed 
valuation of the town, which under the inflated values of 1887 had been swelled 
to $2,405,048, dropped back to $1,565.773 in 1891. Since that date, however, 
the annual assessments have shown a remarkably even and healthy increase up 
to the present time. 

One of the most important events of the year 1890 was the completion of 
the street car line to the Soldiers' Home. This line ran out Nevada street and 
was formally opened to the public April 3rd, with a special trip followed by a 
banquet at the Hotel Arcadia, where many complimentary things were said of 
W. D. Yawter, whose enterprise had provided the town with a street car service 
-extending from the southern limits of the city to the Soldiers' Home. The 
route from the railroad bridge was along Ocean avenue to Utah, on Utah to 
Third, thence on Third to Nevada avenue, which leads in a direct line to the 
Soldiers' Home, a distance of three miles. This boulevard had already been 
improved and adorned with handsome shade trees. All " old timers " retain 
many recollections of this line which, for a number of years, was the only means 
of communication with the home and which was only superseded by the present 
electric line in 1905. 

There was a strong feeling that Santa Monica was now sufficiently urban 
1o support an electric light system and applications for franchises for this pur 
pose were made by two different parties ; one was granted to Messrs. H. M. 
Russell and H. A. Winslow, but they were apparently not able to " make good " 
at this time. 

Tn February, W. S. Vawter was appointed postmaster to succeed Miss Mag 
gie Finn, who had held the office during the past four years. Many people yet 


recall their astonishment when, on going for their mail on the morning of April 
ist, 1890, to the old location on Second street, where the postoffice had been for 
years, they found no postoffice there. During the previous night the change of 
administration had unexpectedly taken place and the postoffice had been moved 
to its new quarters in the bank building on Third street. The new offices were 
fitted up temporarily, but within a few weeks were supplied with the latest style 
of boxes and conveniences and was then counted as being one of the best equipped 
postoffices in the county. It was presided over at this time by " Johnny " Sum- 
merfield, who made a genial deputy postmaster. 

In April, 1890, the new board of trustees, after the election of Messrs. John 
Steere and J. L. Allen, was made up of these two with J. J. Carrillo, who was 
elected president of the board, a position which he ably filled for seven years, 
T. L. Lewis and E. J. Vawter. E. K. Chapin was re-elected treasurer, M. 
K. Barretto was marshal and H. E. Pollard town clerk. The matter of licenses 
aroused a good deal of discussion this year, as many objected to the plan of 
licensing business houses at all, and others thought the licenses altogether more 
than the traffic could bear. But, in spite of much pressure, the new board made 
few changes and continued the liquor license at $300 per year, only making an 
effort to limit the number of saloons to ten. 

Messrs. Jones and Baker this year deeded the bluff and the city park to the 
town, on condition that they be kept up as public parks. A large number of streets 
were graded, graveled and sidewalked. The question of providing for some 
disposition of the sewage was also agitated and a solution was thought to be 
offered to that and the wharf problem which so troubled the town. But after 
much talk, legal advice was sought and, in view of the later developments, the 
following extracts may be of interest : " In order that there might be no un 
certainty in the matter, the town attorney was instructed to employ assistant 
counsel. This was done and two opinions were read before the board and a 
number of citizens on Monday night, one from R. F. H. Variel, the other from 
Messrs. Edgerton & Blades. Shorn of all unnecessary verbiage, the opinions 
were based upon the proposition, can the town authorities of Santa Monica 
legally submit to the voters, at an election called for that purpose, the proposi 
tion of voting $40,000 in bonds for the ostensible purpose of constructing a 
sewer system, having its outlet in the ocean, but really for the purpose of aiding 
a private corporation in building a wharf? This proposition was ably argued 
by the gentlemen and they very properly came to the conclusion that the city's 
funds could not be legally expended in that way." 

In November the ladies of the W. C. T. U., who had maintained a public 
reading room and library since 1886, offered to turn their library of 800 volumes 
over to the city, provided the city would maintain it as a public library. The 
proposition was accepted and the Santa Monica public library was thus established^ 



This is a memorable year in Santa Monica annals for many reasons. It 
developed that the Southern Pacific had secured the right of way along the 
beach to the canon and purchased the Santa Monica Heights tract. In the 
fall surveyors began work and the company secured a franchise from the city 
to build a line under the bluff and to build a wharf, within one year, under a 
$5000 forfeit. At the same time the Santa Monica Wharf and Railway Ter 
minal Company was applying for a franchise to build a wharf at South Santa 
Monica and offered to put up a tract of thirteen acres of land as indemnity. 
This offer was received with a good deal of derision at the time, as the land 
was supposed to be utterly useless " sand dunes." The Los Angeles and Pacific 
road had been revived to a certain extent and was also endeavoring to secure 
a franchise to build a wharf ; but the $5000 forfeit demanded by the board of 
trustees seemed to put a damper upon their wharf ambitions. With so many 
propositions coming before it, the board of trustees had some very lively sessions, 
especially as there were strong objections to everything proposed and much 
" kicking " at the meetings and through the papers. The harbor question also 
demanded more or less attention and the board of trustees and board of trade 
were prompt to act whenever an opportunity presented itself. 

In October H. M. Russell and VI. A. Winslow, two enterprising citizens of 
Santa Monica, again applied for a franchise for an electric light plant, which 
was at once granted them. They took steps to carry out their plans and made 
a beginning toward this important improvement. 

Among the business buildings of the year was the Bryson block on the 
corner of Utah avenue and Second street, which was erected at a cost of some 
$15,000. Other buildings were the handsome home of Dr. Elliott, a Minneapolis 
capitalist, on the corner of Nevada and Fifth and the homes of Dr. Place and 
J. L. Allen. In January, 1891, Mr. Frederick Rindge visited Santa Monica and 
was so pleased with the place that he purchased two lots on Ocean avenue and 
soon thereafterward began the erection of a residence which cost some Si 2,000 
and was occupied for a number of years by his family as a home. At the same 
time he began making other investments in this locality and in 1892 purchased 
the Malibn ranch of H. W. Keller and at once built a handsome residence and 
made substantial improvements on this fine property. 


The year of 1892 was a prosperous one. The reaction after the depression 
of the past two or three years had set in here, although this was generally a 
season of depression in the state. The Southern Pacific pushed its improve 
ments and work was well under way on the long wharf before the close of the 
year. It is estimated that their expenditures in the vicinity of Santa Monica 
for the year were not less than $200,000. The Santa Fe also came in during 



the year and spent considerable money in making improvements in South Santa 
Monica. A large amount of money was also expended at the Soldiers' Home 
in putting up new buildings and improving the water service. These large sums 
put into circulation, of course, meant much to the merchants and the working 
men of Santa Monica. The Keller block on the corner of Third and Utah was 
planned and partially built, at a cost of $25,000. The Windemere and the Para 
dise, both intended as first-class family hotels, were built during the year. 

During the summer there were no vacant houses and tennis, polo and cricket 
games and tournaments were attractions which drew many visitors. On June 
1 8th the Santa Fe trains reached Santa Monica and the event was duly cele 
brated. The road at 
once put on seven 
trains daily and made 
a round-trip fare of 
seventy- five cents. 
The Outlook esti 
mates that in July 
frlly 5000 people 
came to Santa Monica 
on one Sunday. In 
September the fare 
to Santa Monica was 
d r o p p e d to fifty 
cents, the rcsrlt of 
competition. The Los 
Angeles and Pacific 
road was not yet 

dead and many rumors were rife about it during the season. It had now 
passed into the hands of the Terminal Company and great things were promised 
from it. 


In 1893 Messrs. W. D., W. S. and E. T. Yawter sold their interest in " The 
First National Bank of Santa Monica" to Senator Jones and the bank passed 
under the new administration, with Robert F. Jones president and cashier. It 
was soon afterward made a state bank under the name of the " Bank of Santa 
Monica." During the panic of July, 1893, this bank was undisturbed and it 
has since that time enjoyed the favor of Santa Monicans. The Keller block 
when completed was one of the largest and handsomest structures in Santa 
Monica. The upper stories were opened as a first-class hotel, while J. B. Folsom 
and \V. T. Gillis occupied the large storerooms below. The Yawter block on 
Third street was completed in September. This was a one-story block, hand- 



somely finished, to be used as the office of the Santa Monica Commercial Com 
pany, the Santa Monica Mill and Lumber Company and the Santa Monica and 
Soldiers' Home Company, all of which were Vawter interests. The Santa Mon 
ica soda plant was a new establishment of this year, under the management of 
Carl F. Schader and Jesse Yoakum. One of the most substantial improvements 
was the erection of the handsome residence on the corner of Ocean avenue and 
Arizona by Mrs. Doria Jones, now the Elks' club house. The North Beach 
Bath House Company was incorporated in December by the Jones interests to 
build the North Beach bath house and pavilion. This establishment when finished 
was one of the most complete in equipment in the country. July ist the Arcadia 
was opened under new management, having been closed for a yeai or more, 
liefore opening it was thoroughly renovated and refitted, some $10,000 being 
spent in bringing it up to date. 

A special election was called for March 2ist to vote upon the question of 
bonding the town to the amount of $40,000 for the construction of a sewer 
system. The cairpaign elicited a good deal of discussion and considerable feel 
ing, if we may jrdge by this letter which the Outlook published, with a dignified 
reply : 

" Messrs. Fisher & Wooclworth : There is an understanding on the streets 
that if you publish to malign any one who votes against bonds, your press will 
be taken and throwed into the sea and your papers, public and private, will be 
taken for a bonfire." 

Notwithstanding the talk the vote cast was light and stood 148 against and 
only 84 for, thus disposing of the sewer question for the time being. But the 
" sewer question " is one which will not down for long in Santa Monica, and 
it continued to be a subject of interest and contention. In June J. J. Davis 
of Los Angeles applied for a franchise for electric light plant, agreeing to pay 
therefor $25.00 annually for fifty years. September loth electric lights were 
turned on the street for the first time, twelve incandescent lights being furnished. 

The year was prolific in " gala " days. July 4th was celebrated with unusual 
vigor, speeches, bands and amusements of every kind being provided and the 
largest crowds ever known in the history of Santa Monica being present, esti 
mated at from ten to fifteen thousand. The visit of Vice-President Stevenson 
was duly noted. In October the new restaurant on the big " long wharf " was 
opened with an elaborate banquet. 


This was a comparatively quiet year. The great strikes and the general 
depression in the east caused a cessation of large investments and no railroad 
extensions of account were made. After a very exciting contest Messrs. Robert 
F. Jones and Norman A. Roth were elected trustees, while Messrs. Carrillo, 
Yawter and Lewis held over. Mr. Robert F. Jones served continvorsly as 


trustee from this time until 1902 and after 1896 was president of the board and 
acting mayor of the town. 

The most important improvement of the year was the North Beach bath 
house, which was opened to the public in the spring. This building was 450 
by 100 feet and was provided with a large plunge, elegantly furnished parlor, 
ballroom, hot and cold salt water bath, two dining rooms, roof garden, etc. ; the 
whole structure represented an outlay of $50,000 and was at the time the most 
complete establishment of the kind on the Pacific coast. The electric light plant 
was completed during the year and was considered one of the best in the country, 
furnishing satisfactory service at very reasonable rates. The water company 
expended some $15,000 in improving its service and the Outlook estimates that 
about two hundred thousand dollars represented the cost of improvements which 
included a large number of residences. 


The year 1895 opened with a flurry of excitement over the treatment the 
harbor question and Santa Monica were receiving from the Los Angeles Herald. 
This paper had at first been an able advocate of the Santa Monica side of the 
harbor question; but during 1894 it passed under new management and at once 
changed front and began making most unjustifiable attacks upon this town, Port 
Los Angeles and the Southern Pacific Company. On Wednesday evening, Jan 
uary 23rd, one of the most exciting meetings ever held in Santa Monica took 
place under the auspices of the board of trade. The resolutions passed will 
show the bitterness which had been engendered by the " harbor fight." 

" Whereas, on numerous occasions, a morning paper published in the city 
of Los Angeles, has taken occasion to publish in its columns, as true, many false 
and misleading statements respecting the unfitness as it falsely alleges of 
Port Los Angeles for improvement by the general government as a deep-water 
harbor for the city of Los Angeles, and in support of its alleged unfitness has 
published communications containing false and defamatory statements in rela 
tion to the effect of storms in and upon the bay of Santa Monica, the wharf 
therein, the principal projector thereof, and the landing, loading and unloading 
of vessels thereat; and has been endeavoring by fraud to induce Congress, with 
out further examination or evidence, to make large appropriations and have them 
expended in what we believe to be useless attempts to make of the bay of San 
Pedro a safe, useful and valuable deep-water harbor. And whereas, it is falsely, 
maliciously and fraudulently asserted that ' the legislative delegation from South 
ern California are (is) a unit for a deep-water harbor at San Pedro ', and ' only 
those who are controlled by the influences which emanate from the councils and 
cabals of C. P. Huntington ever attempt to combat the plain expression of public 
opinion ' and ' only occult and venal influences can defeat the object of the 
present agitation.' And whereas, the said newspaper has recently published a 


communication on the harbor question (purporting to be by a Santa Monican) 
which is grossly false (as has been incontrovertibly shown). 

"' Therefore, be it resolved, that the aforesaid editorials and communications 
which have from time to time appeared in the aforesaid paper are malicious 
libels of the bona fide residents of Santa Monica and others who advocate the 
superior fitness and claims of Santa Monica harbor as a site for a deep-water 
harbor and the people of Santa Monica are advised that the paper is unworthy 
of the support of the citizens of Santa Monica and the surrounding country." 

These resolutions were enforced by ringing and heated speeches from many 
citizens and were adopted with much applause. About this time occurred the 
famous episode of the " fake " list of Santa Monicans sent into this same paper 
which was getting up a memorial, signed by citizens. The initials of the "faked " 
names, which were published in good faith by the paper in question spelled an 
acrostic ' The Fool Herald." It was this same petition in favor of San Pedro 
which, according to the Times, was made up after " much consultation from 
directories, compilation of acrostics and waste of editorial perspiration, and was. 
lost and not even the office cat could give any idea of its whereabouts." The 
Herald claimed that it had been stolen, presumably by advocates of the Santa 
Monica side, and offered a reward ; later the document mysteriously reappeared ; 
but the amount of influence it carried with it when finally delivered to the legis 
lators probably did not seriously injure the Santa Monica side of the question. 

In March, the board of trade, which had done most efficient service in pro 
tecting and promoting the interests of Santa Monica, took steps to incorporate 
as a chamber of commerce. The officers chosen under the new form were : 
President, Robert F. Jones ; secretary, J. J. Carrillo, who had continuously served 
as secretary for the board of trade for seven years, without compensation ; treas 
urer, W. T. Gillis. Numerous committees were named and action was at once 
taken to secure the encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic for the 
coming summer and to arrange for representation at the Los Angeles fiesta. The 
labors of the latter committee resulted in a beautiful floral float in the floral day 
parade of La Fiesta. 

In April the articles of incorporation of the Los Angeles and Santa Monica 
Electric Railway Company were filed. The Outlook says : " This proposed 
line is separate and apart from the bicycle line road promoted by Maj. Barrett, 
-which it is understood will be backed by abundant eastern capital. This rather 
unique style of road is to be operated upon a single rail with guard rail above. 
A similar line is now in operation on Long Island. It has a speed possibility 
far exceeding a mile a minute. The service is quick, safe and economical for 
both passengers and freight. Maj. Barrett claims that the company organiza 
tion is complete and the right-of-way agents will be in' the field within thirty 
days." There was considerable talk about this " bicycle railway " and some 
people really had hopes of speeding a mile a minute between Los Angeles and 


Santa Monica. In June a petition was received from Gen. Sherman of the 
Pasadena and Pacific road asking for a franchise. But the trustees, having hud 
a long and troublesome experience with the Los Angeles and Pacific road, were 
wary of promises and denied this franchise; but in an amended form it was 
granted later and active work on the line began. Some alarm was felt among 
merchants and dealers of the town lest the coming of the electric road should 
do them harm ; but the majority was largely in favor of the improvement. This 
year steps were taken to construct a wagon road across the mountains to the 
wilds of Calabasas and a good deal of talk was indulged in as to a bicycle path 
from Los Angeles to Santa Monica, which should develope into a " boulevard." 
Cyclemania was at its head during this period and for two or three summers 
the greatest event of the season was the annual road race on July fourth from 
the city to Santa Monica. A bicycle race track was completed by the Southern 
Pacific with a grand stand which is described thus : " It lifts itself into the air 
and spreadeth itself over a great area. It vaunteth itself as greater by far than 
anything within 'steen yards, and it attracts as much attention as a bloomer club 
upon parade. It is in very fact a thing to be proud of and carries the prophecy 
of great races on the track and great crowds to see them and much comfort to 
many people." In order to induce the " great crowds " the Southern Pacific 
resorted to what were known as " postage stamp " tickets, entitling the holder 
to passage both ways and admission to the bicycle track for the regular price 
of the ticket. This created feeling on the part of the Santa Fe people and the 
S. P. responded that they had expended some $12,000 in building the track and 
if the Santa Fe people would bear half the expense, their tickets would be hon 
ored also. The Santa Fe chose a less expensive way of retaliation. They 
dropped the round-trip fare between Los Angeles and Santa Monica to twenty- 
five cents and on Saturday and Sunday, October igth and 2Oth, 1895, the Santa 
Fe sold round-trip tickets for five cents. Certainly Santa Monicans had " reason 
able rates " for once. 

The question of sewer bonds was again submitted to the people this year 
and after some vigorous work on the part of the more progressive on September 
3rd the $40,000 bonds were voted by a majority of seven to one, and thus the 
first steps in creating a sewer system were at last taken. 

Among other improvements of the year was the building of a new pavilion 
on the beach by Eckert and Hopf, the gentlemen who had probably banqueted 
more distinguished people than any other firm in Southern California : the build 
ing of the Prohibition Congregational church and the plans for a Methodist 
church to be built by F. H. Rindge. - On the South Side, the Santa Fe Company 
were constructing their iron pipe wharf ; the Young Men's Christian Association 
erected a pavilion and a number of cottages ; and a number of other cottages and 
brildings were erected. 



The completion of the electric line to Santa Monica was heralded as another 
" Sherman's March to the Sea." The initial trip was made on Wednesday, 
April 1st, 1896, but it was no April fool this time at last Santa Monica had 
a real sure enough transportation line. Over five hundred guests were enter 
tained by Santa Monica in honor of the day. The power house was decorated, 
the schools dismissed at noon and the population turned out en masse. The 
first car to arrive over the line was No. 65, with Pete Reel as motorneer, which 
appeared at 3 140 in the afternoon, bringing city and county officials and prom 
inent citizens and followed by a car loaded with tourists from Minneapolis. 
Guns were fired and bands played and General Sherman and Mayor Pratt of 
Minneapolis were decorated with floral offerings. Refreshments and speeches 
followed, the principal address being made by John W. Mitchell. The officers 
of the road were Gen. M. H. Sherman, E. P. Clark and W. D. Larrabee, to 
whose enterprise and progressive spirit the city of Santa Monica and the entire 
community owe one of the most completely equipped and satisfactory trolley 
systems in the United States. 

The municipal campaign this year was a lively one, several tickets being in 
the field. As usual the question of licenses was the disturbing element. The 
election resulted in the following officials : Trustees, Moses Hostetter, Robert 
C. Gillis and J. J. Carrillo; library trustees, Dr. P. S. Lindsey, Fred H. Taft, J. 
Walter Gray, T. H. Wells and William Stevenson ; clerk, Charles S. Dales ; treas 
urer, E. W. Boehme ; marshal, George B. Dexter. This board took up the con 
tinued story of the sewer troubles. A contract had been let to Frank H. Mohr 
to construct the mains, and he put up a certified check for $1000 as security. 
He failed to make good on his contract and the check was retained by the city. 
The history of this check and the amount of legislation and law expended upon 
the matter would fill a good-sized volume in itself. In the end, after a decision 
by the Superior court, in 1897, the check was finally returned to the assigns of 
the contractor. It was discovered that the sewer bonds were illegal anyway 
after the contract had been forfeited, and during the fall work was begun on the 
construction of a main sewer under the Yrooman act, which is the beginning of 
a new chapter in sewer matters. 

In May the police department was created and Messrs. George F. See and 
A. L. Forsyth were appointed policemen. Arrangements were completed this 
year for sprinkling the streets with salt water. Owing to the long continued 
dry season the supply of water for sprinkling had become diminished and economy 
was necessary here as elsewhere throughout Southern California. 

This was one of the gayest seasons ever known here. Tournaments, tennis, 
polo races, croquet, bicycle meets, horse races and swimming contests furnished 
amusement for the " smart set " and the Sunday crowds alike. Trolley parties 
were a new entertainment which found favor and were frequent. In April the 



Hotel Men's Mutual Association, with representatives from all parts of the 
United States, were entertained with a banquet and a day of sports, including 
a barbecue, a battle of flowers and a " ring " tournament. The Southern Cali 
fornia Editorial Association was banqueted at the pavilion of Eckert and Hopf. 
The Knights of Pythias held their annual encampment in City Park and the 
district camp meeting of the Methodist church was held on the ocean front, a 
large tent having been put up there for their use. The Citrus Wheelmen of 
Los Angeles opened a club house on Utah avenue. At South Santa Monica there 
were many campers and cottagers, and band concerts and lectures provided en 

Notwithstanding the hard times of a dry season, considerable building was 
done during the year and a good deal of street work was put through. 


In February, 1897, the Santa Monica Water Company incorporated, with 
a capital stock of $1,000,000, all subscribed, Senator Jones holding 7845 shares 
of the shares issued. The board of directors were Juan Bandini, Charles 
H. Forbes, Roy Jones, E. J. Gorham and A. C. Hamilton. The objects of the 
corporation, " to deal in real estate and water rights, to erect buildings, construct 
reservoirs and pipe lines for the purpose of saving and distributing water for 
domestic purposes or irrigation and to furnish water to any town or city." 

The local Third-street electric line was opened in May and July ist the 
" short line " via Sixteenth street was first put in use and at once proved popular. 
It was double tracked and two miles shorter than the old route via Sherman. 
The entire line was double tracked this year and new cars added and this most 
important factor in the evolution of the city became at once so popular that 
the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe steam lines were compelled to take off their 
trains because of lack of patronage. 

On account of the proximity of the Soldiers' Home, Memorial day has al 
ways been an occasion of particularly interesting and memorable services in 
Santa Monica. While the exercises at the home are always largely attended 
and most interesting, a large number of the veterans usually join in the celebra 
tion at Santa Monica. Fort Fisher Post, G. A. R 1 ., and the Women's Relief 
Corps, with the children of the public schools have taken the lead in these exer 
cises and many orators of note have spoken at them. General Horace Sargeant 
Binney, who was for a number of years a resident of Santa Monica, delivered 
some of the most notable addresses on these occasions. Maj. J. A. Donnell was 
another favorite speaker. 

On June 22nd the Queen's diamond jubilee was celebrated, one of the gala 
days in the memory of Santa Monicans. The affair was under the auspices of 
the British residents of Southern California, but was participated in by repre 
sentatives of every nation and land. A day of sports had been arranged and 
many prizes offered and the fun was fast and furious. 


The revival meetings of the Rev. Dr. Munhall held during June were some 
what novel in the annals of Santa Monica, as they attracted the attention and 
interest of large audiences and of many who were not in the habit of attending 
such services. The annual encampment of the Seventh Regiment was one of 
the memorable events of this summer, over five hundred members participating 
and giving Santa Monica a taste of military life with their cavalry men, naval 
reserves, drills and evolutions, to say nothing of the sports and grand ball. In 
Tune four hundred members of the Los Angeles chamber of commerce banqueted 
at Eckert & Hopf's pavilion. These gentlemen for many years sustained the 
reputation of serving the best fish dinner to be found in California and their 
restaurant and pavilion was the scene of many festal occasions. The Arcadia 
was this year sold by Simon Reinhart to the Pacific Improvement Company, 
otherwise the Southern Pacific, and passed under new management. 

The board of trustees spent much brain matter and nerve force in wrestling 
with the sewer problem. There was all sorts of trouble over rights of way for 
the proposed sewer and the citizens protested strongly against the plans to be 
carried out under the Yrooman act. Steps had already been taken to build the 
main sewer and the lines for it laid out, to be carried to the south city limits 
and fifteen hundred feet into the ocean for discharge. But, after a public meet 
ing, it was decided to again call a bond election and on August 4th the third 
election to vote sewer bonds took place and the proposition carried. A few 
weeks later these bonds were sold at a premium of $3355 nearly to the paralysis 
of the board and the town. This seems to have been a good year for bonds for 
the school bonds, $15,000, voted on September 4th, were also sold at a large 
premium. They bore interest at seven per cent., however. After long and 
persistent effort on the part of J. J. Carrillo, the sum of $800 was finally raised 
for the wagon road to the Calabasas district. The county added fifteen hundred 
and this road was finally built : also Ocean avenue was opened to the canon 
to connect with the new road. A systematic attempt to improve the bluff, which 
had been named Linda Vista Park, was undertaken this year. 


The year 180,8 opened with a vigorous stirring up of the saloon question 
and the revoking of two licenses by the board of trustees, for violation of the 
ordinance regulating the business. This was the occasion of much rejoicing 
on the part of the better element and was the forerunner of better things, the 
retail liquor license being raised in April to $500. A couple of weeks later five 
saloon keepers in Santa Monica canon were arrested for violating the county 

The " news from Manila " and the probable war was the absorbing interest 
of this year. There was much talk of the inadequacy of Pacific coast protection 
and timid souls feared to find a foreign war vessel swooping into Santa Monica 


harbor at almost any hour. In order to aid in protecting our country, a com 
pany of home guards was organized in Santa Monica, May 3rd ; J. B. Proctor, 
who was a past master in military tactics, being chosen captain, George Wil 
liams, who had seen twelve years of service in the regular army, was first lieuten 
ant ; Victor Hopf, second lieutenant. This company enrolled 75 members, many 
of them being prominent citizens of Santa Monica and a large number of them 
being native Californians. At the Soldiers' Home a company of five hundred 
veterans was already organized and had offered itself for service at the call of 
the government. With such an example at hand, it is no wonder that the 
younger generation in the vicinity were enthusiastic. The Santa Monica com 
pany was made Co. H of the Eighth regiment of National Guards. On the 
resignation of Mr. E. J. Vawter, Jr., who had succeeded Captain Proctor, C. 
M. O'Dell was chosen captain of the organization. It soon became apparent 
that the chances for the Eighth regiment to be called into service were slight 
and such of the members as were anxious to get into the field sought other op 
portunities to enlist. 

In March the Santa Monica Beach Improvement Company was organized, 
with a capital stock of $100,000, and with a strong directorate, consisting of 
F. A. Miller, then proprietor of the Hotel Arcadia : M. H. Sherman, president 
of the Pasadena and Pacific electric line ; E. P. Clark of the same company ; W. 
D. Larrabee, superintendent of the electric road ; F. W. Richardson, Jacob Kurtz. 
Robert F. Jones, Charles H. Forbes, W. H. Perry, Roy Jones and R. C. Gillis. 
The company proposed to secure a lease of the beach front, build a pleasure 
wharf, erect neat cottages and other buildings on the beach and maintain and 
operate boats for fishing and pleasure. 

The year opened with prospects of two new wharves which ought to have 
satisfied the most exacting. After infinite difficulties, bids were called for the 
outfall sewer and the wharf to carry it ; but when they were submitted, there 
were so many and strong protests that all were rejected. T. C. Elliott also 
applied for a franchise to build a wharf at the foot of Railroad street. This 
proposition was looked upon favorably ; but the Southern Pacific blocked it by 
claiming a previous franchise to this location. On Wednesday, April I4th, 1898, 
the contract for the outfall sewer was finally let to Thomas Thompson for the 
sum of $11,720, the deeds to the right of way having at last been secured. In 
June Kinney & Ryan applied for the use of the piles for the outfall sewer for 
wharf purposes and were granted the privilege. The same month it was an 
nounced that the new pleasure wharf would be built between Railroad avenue 
and the North Beach bath house and the contract was let for the same. Both 
of these structures were completed during the summer and added much to the 
beach attractions, as they furnished every convenience for boating and fishing. 

The Lincoln school building was completed in June and was dedicated by 
the graduating exercises of the high school class of the year. In September 


Santa Monica entertained three conventions at the same time, the Democratic, 
which met in a large tent on Ocean avenue ; the Silver Republican, which held 
forth at the Arcadia, and the People's party, which met in Odd Fellows' hall. 
This was the year of fusions and a great deal of " fusing " was clone during 
these sessions, with small results, as appeared in November. 


January, 1899, was marked by the launching of the Santa Monica Improve 
ment Club, an organization which had long been discussed and from which 
much was hoped. J. J. Davis was elected president, E. B. McComas vice- 
president, F. H. Taft secretary. Dr. S. P. Lindsey, treasurer. Sub-committees 
on finance, licenses, streets, pavilion, transportation, health and veterans' asso 
ciation were appointed and a vigorous campaign for lower fares ; for higher 
license for saloons ; to secure the erection of a suitable pavilion for public meet 
ings ; and to capture the annual encampment of the veterans' association was 
begun. But like many other good things in Santa Monica, the Improvement Club 
seems to have exhausted its energy in getting started and it soon disappears from 
the scene, having accomplished only one very substantial change. Largely 
through its efforts the liquor license was this year raised from $300 to $500. A 
lively contest between the saloon men and the druggists followed this action. 
It was claimed that the druggists were regularly selling liquor without paying 
any license, and after considerable sparring, a suit was begun against a drug 
gist. The druggists, however, pleaded unintentional violation of ordinance and 
the suits were dropped. 

During this year the electric line on Ocean avenue to Montana was built 
and the first car was run on December 28th. In October the Southern Pacific 
reduced its train service to one train a day, instead of three. As they had the 
contract for carrying the mails, this aroused great indignation and caused much 
inconvenience to the business men of the town. Vigorous protests were made 
and resulted in a mail service over the electric road. In August it was 
announced that a new electric line was proposed between Santa Monica and 
Redondo. Mr. Abbot Kinney was the originator of the scheme and was con 
fident that the project would be carried out, thus opening up a section of beach 
territory that had not yet been utilized and establishing a new and strong 
attraction for the tourist as well as a new and rapid transit line. This plan did 
not materialize at the time, but it has since been carried out in the Playa del 
Rev and Redondo line. Another ambitious scheme which was ahead of the 
time was the formation of the San Pedro and Santa Monica Excursion Com 
pany, which put the little steamer, J. C. Elliott, on to make daily trips between 
the two points, landing at the Kinney and Ryan wharf. Some very enjoyable 
trips were thus made, but the venture did not prove profitable and was dropped. 

Among new brildings of this year were an addition to the Bank of Santa 


Monica, the Collins building, corner of Utah and Second : the Tappener block 
on Third street, and the new power house of the Santa Monica 
Electric Company on the beach. This was a substantial improvement 
costing some $25,000. The gas plant was also built this year, including the 
largest gas tank in the state, the entire expenditure being over $40,000. Gas 
was turned into the mains December I4th and was a much appreciated improve 
ment. In July, Mr. R. C. Gillis purchased 1,000 feet of beach front, north of 
the North Beach Bathhouse, put in a walk and erected several well constructed 
cottages. The Sisters of the Holy Name selected Santa Monica as a site for their 
convent this year and opened their school on Fourth street during the construc 
tion of their handsome building on the corner of Third and Arizona. December 
27th saw the destruction by fire of the Casino, which was built by the Santa 
Monica Improvement Company in 1888 and which had been the summer home 
of tennis in Southern California for many years and had seen many brilliant 
social affairs. The fire was evidently the work of an incendiary and caused a 
heavy loss as the insurance was small. 

PORT Los ANGELES. From the time of the abandonment of the Santa 
Monica wharf by the Southern Pacific Company, in 1878, until the building 
of the " Long Wharf '' in 1892-3, the people of this city hoped and worked for 
a new commercial wharf, which they firmly believed was all that was necessary 
to make their town an important center of commerce. During the later 
eighties and 1890-91, the agitation for securing a wharf was constant and 
sometimes became acrimonious. 

About this time it became certain that the Santa Fe would build into Santa 
Monica. It also became evident that the new wharf completed in 1888 at Redondo 
was seriously encroaching on the business of San Pedro harbor and diverting 
freight from the Southern Pacific to the Santa Fe road. On Sunday, May 20. 
1890, C. P. Hvmtington, Col. Crocker and other Southern Pacific officials, visited 
Santa Monica and made a careful examination of the town and surroundings. 
Mr. Huntington listened attentively to the arguments which various citizens 
presented as to the expediency of building a wharf at Santa Monica, and the 
great railroad magnate assured them that Santa Monica ought to have a wharf. 
After this, other S. P. men visited the town and the citizens of Santa Monica 
appointed a committee to visit San Francisco and confer with the officials of the 
Southern Pacific and make propositions looking to the building of a wharf, 
even proposing to raise a subsidy to secure the prize. The community was kept 
in uncertainty as to the intention of the railroad people until 1890 when the 
Southern Pacific applied for a wharf franchise and put up a $5000 bond if the 
work were not begun within the specified time. 

In August, 1891, a corps of S. P. surveyors arrived, made camp in the 
canyon, and began to make surveys. It was then learned that the S. P. Com 
pany had secured title through Abbot Robinson to the Santa Monica Heights 


property, owned by Abbot Kinney, 247 acres on the north side of the canyon, 
with several hundred feet of beach frontage. It was also learned that right of 
way on the beach had been secured from Railroad street to the property of the 
company. By January, 1892, it was understood that the wharf was to be built 
north of the canyon and was to be the " longest wharf of its kind in the world." 
The people of Santa Monica were at first disappointed at the location of the new 
structure but when they learned of the elaborate plans to be carried out, they 
were satisfied to have the finest wharf in California no matter where it was 

March 6, 1892, the tunnel from the Railroad street to the beach was com 
pleted so that the first train went through it. July 25th the first pile was driven. 
The work was under the supervision of the Thomson Bridge Company, of San 
Francisco, and was pushed as rapidly as men and money could carry it. In 
November, J. M. Crawley General Manager of the S. P. brought down an 
excursion of 200 merchants and members of the Chamber of Commerce from 
Los Angeles to inspect the new structure which was then 2100 feet long; and a 
little later H. E. Huntington, J. C. Stubbs and others of the S. P. officials in 
spected the work and fully concurred in the decision that the best possible loca 
tion for the wharf had been selected. 

The first steamer landed on May i3th, and the Outlook, under the heading 
'The Dawn of Prosperity" discourses thus: ''Thursday, May nth, 1893, 
will long be remembered as a day fraught with deep significance to Santa 
Monica. It was the forerunner of an era of prosperity which shall grow into 
a permanent benefit, with results reaching into far ages. The important event 
was the landing of the first deep sea-vessel at the mammoth wharf, now nearly 
completed. The steamer San Mateo, of Comax, B. C., with a cargo of 430x3 
tons of coal consigned to the Southern Pacific, (Captain Edward Parks) 
enjoyed the honor of being the maiden vessel to touch at Port Los Angeles. 

The citizens turned out in force to welcome the steamer, and fully 1000 
people were present on the occasion, laden with flowers, the bright hues of which 
transformed the big collier into a " bower of beauty." Some of the citizens of 
Santa Monica had prepared speeches for the happy occasion, but evidently the 
flowers were enough for the old salt who commanded the San Mateo. The 
speeches were cut out. The editor of the Outlook had the advantage of the 
rest, however, he published his remarks in the next issue. Among them we 
find this statement : " The full significance of the opening of the deep sea-port, 
where rail and ship come together in this particular portion of the southwest, 
is not yet apparent. It is a link in a grand commercial chain that will eventually 
belt the globe with the shortest and quickest commercial transit." 

It was confidently believed at this time that the completion of this wharf 
would have an important bearing upon the " harbor question " and might ulti 
mately result in making Santa 'Monica Bay the deep-sea harbor of this coast. In 


the light of present developments, the importance attached to the building of 
the wharf seems rather exaggerated; but it was generally thought at this time 
that only facilities for shipping were needed to secure the trade of the Orient. 
The fact that trade necessitates reciprocity seems to have been overlooked. 

The wharf constructed at Port Los Angeles was certainly a structure worthy 
of attention and admiration. The last spike was driven by Vice-president 
Stevenson, who happened to be visiting in Santa Monica at the time, on July 
I4th, 1893. The structure is 4,700 feet from the shore. The Long Beach 
wharf, completed in May, of the same year, is 1600 feet; the Redondo wharf 
was 800 feet, and the Outlook chronicles the San Pedro wharf as " o " feet in 
length. In August the new pier was carefully inspected by the Board of Ex 
aminers representing the various Marine Insurance companies and shipowners 
and merchants. They stated : " A careful examination of the structure showed 
that in design and execution every precaution had been taken for strength, and 
due regard for safety while at same."- -"In view of the foregoing facts and with 
the experience gained by many year's use of other outside ports in that vicinity 
that are similarly situated, we are of the opinion that Port Los Angeles is a 
suitable port of discharge and loading for steamers and sailing vessels." 

In October the depot at the end of the wharf was completed and the dining 
room opened with a banquet to the wharf builders and several Santa Monica 
people. The wharf was at this time placed under the charge of A. M. Jamison, 
agent, who still retains this position ; T. M. Polhemus, chief clerk ; F. H. Oswald 
and W. T. Maher, clerks ; and Captain F. E. Dronfield, who had general super 
vision of the wharf and charge of the tug Collis. 

The approach of the wharf proper is 3120 feet long and 26 feet wide. On 
the south side is a walkway eight feet wide with railing on both sides. The 
materials used in the approach were 1500 piles, 975,000 feet of lumber and 37 
tons of bolts and spikes. The main wharf widens out to 130 feet and is over 
1500 feet in length. On the north side are coal bunkers and on the south the 
depot, warehouses and every convenience for passengers and shippers. The 
piles, of Oregon pine, were creosoted and set in such a manner as to make the 
wharf practically immovable. It is known as one of the most substantially built 
wharfs in the world and has stood the test of fifteen years without strain. 

The Southern Pacific Company, in locating its wharf here was obliged to 
do extensive work in order to secure a proper approach and ground for neces 
sary warehouses, engine houses, and so on. The entire expenditure for the 
Port Los Angeles undoubtedly reached a million dollars. 

As soon as completed the passenger business between Los Angeles and San 
Francisco practically ceased at other ports, as so much time was gained by land 
ing at Port Los Angeles. Los Angeles was made a Port of Entry in 1893, with 
Port Los Angeles, Redondo and San Pedro as sub-ports. Deep-sea vessels, 
which could not enter the inner harbor at San Pedro, but must unload by the 


aid of lighters, came to Port Los Angeles and nearly all deep-sea vessels reach 
ing this coast since the completion of this pier unload here. In the earlier years 
of its construction Port Los Angeles was the point of entry for the coal used 
on the Southern Pacific system, and this item alone created a large business. 
Very large shipments of railroad ties were also delivered here. With the adop 
tion of oil as a fuel on the railroads, shipments of coal have fallen off and, with 
the improvement of San Pedro inner harbor so that coastwise vessels can land, 
lumber shipments have decreased. But the bulk of the deep sea tonnage is 
received at Port Los Angeles, and is constantly increasing. Some statistics may 
be of interest : In 1903, 283 vessels entered at Port Los Angeles and 302 sailed ; 
18,733 passengers entered and 15,676 sailed. The import duties received were 
$311,740; in 1904-5 the duties were $309,826.48; in 1905-6 duties and tonnage 
amounted to $513,939.96. 


The question of the location of a deep-sea harbor to be constructed by the 
government of the United States upon the coast of Southern California was, 
for ten years, 1889-1899, the most vital interest of Santa Monica. It is true that 
the contest was waged for the most part in Los Angeles and Washington and 
between forces which gave little consideration to the interests of the town of 
Santa Monica. It became, indeed, a national question in which individual inter 
est was supposed to have little bearing; yet it directly affected every citizen of 
Santa Monica and made the name of this place a familiar one in the political 
and commercial world. 

From the time of the building of the first wharf at Santa Monica in 1875, 
the possibility of a breakwater and improvements which would make of this a 
safe harbor of refuge and of commerce had been discussed. As the commercial 
importance of Southern California increased, it became evident that in time the 
government must assist in creating a harbor on this coast. Since 1871 efforts 
had been made toward making an inner harbor at San Pedro and up to 1892 one 
million dollars had been expended upon operations there. After the great ex 
pansion in business of the later eighties, the question of what was to be done 
toward creating a deep-sea harbor was pressed at Washington and in response 
to it, a number of distinguished men, members of the Committee of Commerce 
of the United States Senate, visited California. 

During all the years of his editorship of the Outlook, L. T. Fisher had 
made a careful study of the conditions here. He was also thoroughly familiar 
with affairs at Wilmington. He had been assured by Captain H. C. Taylor, who in 
1874-5 conducted the coast survey on this coast and made a chart of this bay, that the 
conditions here were favorable to a deep-sea harbor, and he had consistently and 
effectively proclaimed the advantages of Santa Monica as a sea-port. 

October I3th, 1889. the Outlook publishes a "challenge" as follows: "We 


challenge Colonel Mendell, Dr. Widney, General Brierly, and all others who 
favor San Pedro as the best place for a harbor for deep-sea vessels to success 
fully disprove the following propositions : 

ist. Santa Monica is nearer by at least eight miles, to Los Angeles, the 
commercial and railroad center of Southern California, than San Pedro. 

2nd. Santa Monica Bay, by virtue of its shape, depth of water and general 
topography, is a more suitable place for a deep-sea harbor than San Pedro. 

3rd. Santa Monica Harbor, when enclosed by a breakwater, will remain 
unchanged for all time to come, while a similar enclosure at San Pedro will 
rapidly shoal and become worthless in less than a quarter of a century. 

4th. Santa Monica is within a few miles of the material for a break 
water, which can be obtained at less than two-thirds of the expense required at 
San Pedro. 

5th. Santa Monica having these advantages, it is neither the part of wisdom 
nor of economy, for the general government to expend a large sum of money 
upon a less favored community." 

October 26th, 1889, Senator Frye, chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Commerce, with Senators Dawe, of Massachusetts ; Platt, of Connecticut ; Davis, 
of Minnesota ; Morgan of Alabama and Turpie of Indiana, visited San Pedro 
and was shown the proposed deep water habor by Dr. Widney, Col. Mendell 
and others interested. On this occasion, after listening to their eloquent ex 
planations, Senator Frye remarked : " Well, as near as I can make out, you 
propose to ask the Government to create a harbor for you out of the whole 
cloth. The Lord has not given you much to start with, that is certain." A 
day or two later the same party visited Santa Monica, spending a couple of 
days here, as the guests of Senator Jones. That they were favorably impressed 
is shown by their remarks quoted in the following issue of the Outlook. One 
of them, after taking a view from the bluff, said, " Why, this is a better place 
for a harbor than San Pedro." Another declared, " more can be done here with 
$2000 than can be accomplished at San Pedro with $10,000. A third pointed 
to the mouth of Santa Monica canyon and declared that nature certainly intended 
that spot for a dock for repairing and building vessels. All of this, it must be 
remembered, was before there was any question of railroad control. It was 
considering the harbor proposition from a purely unbiased standpoint, by men 
who had no interest, except to secure the best returns for the money expended 
by the United States government. 

In January, 1890, the Santa Monica Board of Trade sent a strong resolu 
tion to General Vandever, then representing this district in Congress, asking 
him to call attention to the commercial need of a deep sea harbor and present 
the claims of Santa Monica Bay for the consideration of the government. As 
a result of the agitation for a deep-sea harbor located 6n the shores of Southern 
California, $5000 was appropriated to pay the expense of preparing 


a project for a deep-sea harbor, to be located between Points Dume and Capis- 
trano. A Board of Engineers of the War Department, consisting of Col. G. 
H. Mendell, Lieut-Col. G. L. Gillispie and Lieut.-Col. W. H. H. Benyaurd, 
was appointed. Of these men, Col. Mendell had been connected with the pro 
jects for improving the inner harbor at San Pedro since 1871 and Col. Benyaurd 
was then in charge of the work being done at that point. Naturally it Was 
objected that they could not be expected to give an impartial judgment. Novem 
ber 8th, 1890 these gentlemen visited Santa Monica and were driven about the 
town and taken out to the canyon to inspect the supply of stone in Cold Water 
canyon. They spent two days in this vicinity, made an examinationn of Ballona, 
Redondo and of other points and then went to San Francisco. December igth, 
1891 the report of this committee was submitted to Congress. Its conclusions 
were : " In view of the fact that San Pedro Bay in its natural condition affords 
better protection both from prevailing winds and from dangerous storms than Santa 
Monica Bay; 

"That protection can be secured at a less cost for equal development of 
breakwater at the former than at the latter ; 

"That a larger area of protected anchorage from the prevailing westerly 
swells can be secured, the severe storms from the southwest being infrequent ; 

"And that there is already an interior harbor that will be a valuable addition 
to the outer harbor ; 

"The Board considers San Pedro Bay as the better location for the deep- 
water harbor provided for by the act." 

Of course, the advocates of Santa Monica questioned whether any one of 
these conclusions was borne out by an unbiased examination into the facts. 

The Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles had already taken a prominent 
part in urging the necessity of a deep-water harbor in the vicinity of Los Angeles. 
It now took decided action to secure an appropriation for San Pedro. A com 
mittee consisting of H. Z. Osborne, Collector of Port; Henry T. Hazard, 
W. H. Workman, Hervey Lindley and James Cuzner, drew up a memorial to 
Congress and Gen. Lionel A. Sheldon was sent to Washington as the representa 
tive of the Chamber of Commerce, to assist Mr. Bowers, then representing this 

It was by this time generally known that the Southern Pacific had decided 
to abandon its wharf, upon which it had already expended a very large sum, at 
San Pedro and build the wharf at Port Los Angeles. This put a new face upon 
the situation. When it was known that one of the longest and most substantial 
wharves in the world was to be put in at this point, it was felt that a new and 
powerful argument had been added to those already presented in favor of Santa 
Monica. And when it became evident that Collis P. Huntington had decided 
that Santa Monica was the place for a deep-water harbor it was felt that victory 
was almost certain. And yet, the very fact of Mr. Huntington's advocacy and 


influence, was probably the fatal cause of San Pedro's final selection as the 
point for the harbor. Another new factor in the situation was the Terminal 
railway which, in 1891, built from Los Angeles to San Pedro and secured large 
holdings at San Pedro in anticipation of harbor facilities. 

When the matter of an appropriation for San Pedro was brought up in 
Congress the item was thrown out and a clause was inserted authorizing a board 
of five engineers, officers of the United States Army, to make a careful and 
critical examination for a proposed deep-water harbor at San Pedro or Santa 
Monica Bays and to report " which is a more eligible location for such a harbor 
in depth, width and capacity to accommodate the largest ocean-going vessels, 
and the commercial and naval necessities of the country, together with an esti 
mate for the cost of the same." 

In the summer of 1892, this new board, consisting of Colonel Wm. P. 
Craighill, Lieut.-Col. Henry M. Robert, Lieut.-Col. Peter C. Hains, Major C. 
VV. Raymond, and Major Thomas H. Handbury, all of the United States corps 
of engineers was appointed and in September they arrived on the- coast and 
announced a public meeting at the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce, Los 
Angeles. The Santa Monica side of the case was presented by Judge Carpenter, 
the San Pedro case was handled by J. de Barth Shorb, with Mr. Hood of the 
S. P. and Mr. Gibbon of the Terminal, as their respective assistants. This board 
submitted an elaborate and technical report which the editor of the Outlook 
reviews in a thorough manner. He says : " The engineers of this board appear 
to be handicapped also by circumstances. They were appointed by the Secre 
tary of War, who is a large stockholder in a railroad terminating at San Pedro. 

Then again, the preceding corps of engineers are government officers and 
it is difficult to get these army people to decide one against another, except there 
be some very glaring necessity for it. That Board should never have consisted 
wholly of army engineers, however well they may have been selected. No such 
body of men is capable of giving the best decision. Two of the men should have 
been competent engineers, one a citizen and the other a government engineer : 
another shot-Id have been a broad-guage commercial man, another a reputable 
navigator and another a well-known and capable railroad man. Such a com 
mittee would have represented every phase of the question in the most competent 

We have before us a copy of the report of the Board which contains 120 
pages, 26 of which constitute the report proper. A large share of the volume is 
irrelevant matter. One of the appendices consists of 18 pages of shipping 
statistics of Redondo. Turning to the report proper, there is a great deal of 
rubbish to be cleared away in order to get at the real, competing facts. When 
we come to the claims of San Pedro and Santa Monica as Harbor sites, which 
is the real question, it will be observed that these engineers draw largely on the 
report of their predecessors, whose work they were sent out here to revise and 


supplement. Another fact that crops out throughout the report, is the effort 
made to lessen the objections to San Pedro and exaggerate those of Santa 
Monica. Nor are the comparisons at all times fair. The important features of 
the discussion are literally buried under a mountain of verbosity and considera 
tion of irrelevant topics which makes the report exceedingly confusing to the 
general reader. 

In noticing the shore line of Santa Monica Bay the report mentions the 
rocky places, in front of which it is not proposed to place a breakwater and 
neglects the real point from the S. P. Wharf, southward, where there are no 
rocks and a good bottom for pile driving and anchorage. Again, on San Pedro 
Bay, from Point Fermin to Timm's Point, all of which will form a part of the 
shore line in the harbor, it is very rocky. This fact is not noticed, but mention 
is specially made of the shore line further south where there are no rocks, and 
which will not be within the limits of the harbor. It is claimed that the bottom 
is irregular in the bay of Santa Monica, deepening towards Point Dume and to 
wards Point Vincent. This is correct. But the bottom is regular and the water 
deepens gradually, at the point where it is proposed to locate the harbor. The 
area of San Pedro Bay is said to be a plateau, with the five fathom line half a 
mile from shore and with a rocky bottom in the present anchorage, as is shown 
by the presence of kelp. The facts show that the water is deep enough at 
either place, with rocks at San Pedro and none at Santa Monica. Then where 
does the superiority of San Pedro come in ? 

It is admitted that Santa Monica Bay is protected to the southward by the 
highlands and at the proposed harbor site it is protected from the northwest 
the exposure being mainly on the southwest. Catalina Island, it is admitted, 
also adds in some degree as a shelter. San Pedro Bay is protected from a 
northwester, and to some extent by Catalina, but entirely exposed to a south 
easter. It quotes from the report of 1890 and admits, " The aggregate angle of 
the exposure of the two bays is the same." Then, we ask again, what advantage 
has San Pedro over Santa Monica? in the way of protection? 

Santa Monica bay has also the advantage in being nearer Los Angeles, but 
the matter is slurred over with the remark that the cost of transportation depends 
upon grades and curves, and that the distance was so small that it was thought 
unnecessary to give them any important weight in selecting a site. With all 
deference to these learned gentlemen, we say that it is important. Fourteen 
miles in the round trip for a hundred cars a day (which is not a large day's 
run) would be 1400 miles on one car nearly half the distance to New York. 

Upon the cost of construction, the engineers differ. The report contends 
that rock could be transported by the scow-load from Catalina Island, twenty-one 
miles distant, to San Pedro cheaper than the same amount of material could be 
brought from Coldwater canyon, eleven miles down grade by rail to Santa 
Monica. Equally competent engineers deny this proposition. 


As we have before said, a harbor is an improvement whose utility extends 
indefinitely into the future. It is therefore of the first importance that a site 
should be selected where the status of the harbor is least likely to be disturbed. 
It is a well-known fact that the offing at San Pedro, which will be included in 
the breakwater, has been shoaling- for years, and that it would only be a question 
of time when the harbor would lose its usefulness, or else have to be kept open 
by expensive dredging. Even Col. Mendell admitted this point to the writer. 
Then why not, if necessary, expend a larger amount for a permanent harbor 
at Santa Monica?" 

After the making of this report, the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce 
sent Gen. Charles Forman as a special delegate to Congress, accompanied by T. 
E. Gibbon. They were the bearer of numerous petitions and resolutions from 
various individuals and organizations of Southern California, urging an immediate 
appropriation for the San Pedro harbor. But it was a " short session " and it 
was stated that appropriations would not be large, and, in fact, none was made. 
It was now claimed that the Southern Pacific was exercising undue influence to 
prevent the appropriation for San Pedro and the slogan of the " free harbor " 
was taken up. The Los Angeles Times threw itself into the fight with all its 
vigor and the Chamber of Commerce took a decided stand in favor of San 
Pedro. But the completion of the long wharf and the advantages thus given to 
Los Angeles merchants led many to begin to look upon the possibility that, after 
all, Santa Monica might not be so far off in her claims. A petition signed by 
eighty-three merchants of Los Angeles representing over ten millions of busi 
ness capital was drawn up and the Chamber of Commerce was asked to endorse it, 
which asked for an appropriation for " the construction of a breakwater and 
creation of a harbor at Santa Monica, independent of any appropriation which 
may be needed to maintain in good condition what is known as the inner harbor 
of San Pedro and Wilmington." 

A compromise resolution, asking an appropriation for a deep-water harbor 
at Santa Monica and also to dredge out and improve the inner harbor at San 
Pedro, was proposed, and a vigorous protest against both these resolutions was 
made. Mr. C. D. Willard, in his Free Harbor Contest, says : " The sessions 
of the board were supposed to be executive, but a reporter of the Express 
managed to smuggle himself into the room as an assistant clerk and remained 
there through the whole session. The next day the members of the Chamber 
became aware, through the publication of the debate, that the board was any 
thing but unanimous on the subject of the harbor site and the discussion was 
taken up in earnest all over the city. Henry T. Hazard, who was at that time 
mayor of the city, led the debate on the San Pedro side, seconded by Mr. Patter 
son and Gen. Forman ; and the principal Santa Monica advocates were Mr. James 
B. Lankershim and Mr. L. N. Breed. On three different occasions, when the 
matter was about to come to a vote, an adjournment was secured. Tn the course 


of the long debate, Santa Monica gained and San Pedro lost. At first it was 
the Santa Monica men that dared not come to a vote, but in the end the condi 
tions were reversed and it was clear that if a decision were reached in the board, 
it must be against San Pedro." 

" As a result of this situation, when it became evident that, if the board took 
action and it could not well be longer postponed the result would be a change 
of front for the Chamber, a ballot of the members of the organization was called 

: ' The weeks' campaign that followed was the most remarkable that ever 
occurred in the history of Los Angeles. The Times used every means in its 
power and the strongest language it could command to enforce the San Pedro 
side of the contest. The Terminal railway was equally active. The Santa Fe 
also took sides for San Pedro. April 7th, 1894 the members of the Chamber 
of Commerce balloted, the result being 328 for San Pedro and 131 for Santa 
Monica, which, with the influences at work, was a foregone conclusion. 

" In June the matter was brought up in Congress and after a hearing of 
several weeks, which attracted wide attention, because it was now made a fight 
for a ' free harbor ' as against a harbor control led by a ' monopoly,' a motion 
was passed deferring the decision to permit the members of the Committee of 
Commerce to visit the two harbors and form an opinion for themselves. 

" During the winter of 1894-95 the matter of the deep-water harbor was 
not brought up in Congress. The Chamber of Commerce continued its efforts 
in behalf of San Pedro, however, and the ' Free Harbor League ' was organized. 
In February, 1896, Col. H. G. Otis, Mr. W. G. Kerckhoff, Mr. W. C. Patter 
son and Mr. W. D. Woolwine, were elected a special delegation to go to Wash 
ington and lay the San Pedro case before the River and Harbor Committee of 
the House. Notwithstanding their able representation, the River and Harbor 
bill contained, when it was made up, two items : ' San Pedro, $392,000 and 
Santa Monica $3,098,000.' " 

The effect of this information upon the San Pedro advocates in Washington 
and .upon the public of Los Angeles, and, indeed all Southern California, was 
electrifying. The Chamber of Commerce and League, of course, at once took 
steps to re-affirm their position. Public mass meetings were held for each side. 
The city council and the Republican convention passed resolutions for both 
appropriations. Petitions for and against the proposed " double Harbor " 
scheme were circulated. Santa Monica people, took an active part in shaping 
the sentiment in favor of the Santa Monica appropriation and, naturally, were 
jubilant at the prospect of seeing their long hoped for dream fulfilled beyond the 
wildest hopes of even L. T. Fisher. The Santa Monica delegation in Wash 
ington was made up of Mr. J. S. Slauson, Col. J. B. Lankershim, Mr. John W. 
Mitchell and ex-Senator Cornelius Cole. On April 23rd, Robert F. Jones, 
President of the Santa Monica Chamber of Commerce, received this telegram 


from Mr. Mitchell. " Committee just voted Santa Monica Harbor one hundred 
thousand dollars immediately available, continuing contract system, which will 
permit contract for two million, eight hundred thousand to complete work. 
San Pedro inner harbor now being considered. Hard fight and close decision 
but think can be held in bill." 

Senator White and the advocates of San Pedro bitterly opposed the passage 
of this bill and finally, as a compromise, a bill was passed which carried the 
full appropriation for a deep sea harbor to be located by a commission consisting 
of an officer of the navy, to be named by the Secretary of the Navy ; an officer 
of the Coast Survey, named by the Superintendent ; and three civil engineers to 
be appointed by the president. " They are to make a close personal examination 
and report to the Secretary of War, whereupon he is to let the contract." 
This last " commission " was the result of one of the strongest contests ever made 
over a provision for appropriation in congress. Senators White and Perkins, 
Berry and Vest spoke on the one side, while Senator Frye made the speech for 
the Santa Monica harbor. 

In October the new board was announced; Rear Admiral John G. Walker, 
from the Navy; Augustus F. Rodgers, of the coast survey; Win. H. Burr, 
George S. Morrison and Richard P. Morgan, appointed by President Cleveland. 
In December the members of this board arrived and after looking over the 
ground, conducted a most exhaustive examination at the Chamber of Commerce 
rooms in Los Angeles. This was felt to be the last chance and both sides 
gathered all their evidence and put forth all their efforts. Santa Monica harbor 
was ably represented by Wm. H. Hood, E. L. Corthell, A. M. Jamison, J. S. 
Slauson, Cornelius Cole, John Cross, Captains Jackson, Pillsbury and Salmond. 
The San Pedro case was under the management of Robert Moore and H. Haw- 
good. The hearing lasted for seven days. The report was filed March ist, 
1897 and was a large volume, containing many maps, charts, and much matter 
not belonging strictly to the question in hand. 

The decision was in favor of San Pedro, largely because of the work already 
done there and the inadvisability of the government maintaining two separate 
harbors. They said : " It is the judgment of this Board that the best public 
policy, both in the interest of economy and for the attainment of a deep-water 
harbor for commerce and refuge demands the concentration of expenditure at 
one point, with the corresponding cumulative excellence of results, rather than 
a dispersion and weakening of results by a divided expenditure at the two loca 
tions. This conclusion gains considerable force through the fact that the selec 
tion of the San Pedro site will, for the reasons stated, undoubtedly involve 
materially less ultimate total expenditure than is certain to be incurred by the 
inevitable construction and maintenance of the two harbors, if Port Los Angeles 
were to be selected. The preponderance of physical advantages, therefore, 
which leads to the selection of the San Pedro site, is in line with the best re- 



quirements of the best public policy as to the matter entrusted to the decision of 
this Board." This report was signed by four members of the Board. Mr. 
Morgan submitted a minority report in favor of Port Los Angeles. 

This decision was regarded as final and Santa Monica citizens accepted it 
as such. However, it was not until April 6th, 1899, that the contract was 
awarded and the actual work on the harbor began. The event was celebrated 
by a " Jubilee " which had lost somewhat of spontaneity by its long delay. Since 
that time work has gone on at San Pedro, but the deep-water harbor is yet in 
the future. 




EXPANSION. 1900-1908. 

THE year 1900 was an epoch-making one for Santa Monica since it brought 
with it many events which were far-reaching in their influence and which 
were important factors in the era of unprecedented prosperity and growth 
which has marked the first years of the new century. 

A radical change in the history of the town was brought about by the passage 
of the ordinance which made it a " no-saloon " town. Santa Monica had always 
been a " wide-open " town and while its citizens were just as respectable and 
law-abiding as those of any other beach town, the place had undoubtedly always 
been the favorite resort of the sporting element of Los Angeles. The proximity 
of the Soldier's Home had also made it the scene of the " old boy's " license, 
when pension money was plenty. Every effort was made to suppress the dis 
orderly element and as good order was maintained here, as a rule, as elsewhere; 
yet the town had long borne the reputation of being a " tough " place. 

With the opening of 1900 a determined effort was made to secure a better 
order of things. One of the leaders in this attempt, was the late Federick H. 
Rindge, a man of great wealth, sincere religious zeal and large philanthropy. 
He devoted his time, energy and money to this fight for the good standing of 
Santa Monica, which was then his home city. The campaign opened with an 
all day Sunday service devoted to temperance and local option. As a result of 
the meetings of this day a committee of citizens, consisting of J. F. Kiggens, 
E. J. Vawter, J. H. Clark, D. J. Twichell, J. S. Knesel, M. H. Kimball, W. I. 
Hull, Dr. N. H. Hamilton, C. I. D. Moore, J. O. Jennings, Dr. C. T. Wilson, 
T. H. James, H. P. Wilber, D. G. Holt, Dr. Glen McWilliams and 
J. F. Dunham, with F. H. Rindge, as chairman, was appointed to confer with 
the Board of Trustees and secure the passage of an ordinance submitting the 
question of saloons or no saloons to the people at the coming election. As a 
consequence of the action of these gentlemen, the requisite ordinance was 

A vigorous, well organized, educational anti-saloon crusade followed. A 
series of public meetings was held on both the North and the South sides at 
which such speakers as Bishop Montgomery, Dr. Chapman, Dr. Hugh Walker, 
J. S. Slauson, F. H. Rindge, the pastors of the city churches, particularly Dr. 
Glen McWilliams of the Christian church and Dr. Wilson of the Methodist 
church ; and such business men as Roy Jones, W. S. and E. J. Vawter, D. G. 


Holt, and others took part. The churches of all sects ; the anti-saloon forces of 
the county; the Womens Christian Temperance Union, the Good Templars, and 
a large number of the property owners and business men of the town, worked 
together heartily to secure the passage of the " no-saloon " ordinance. The 
Santa Monica Outlook took a vigorous share in the effort and many who looked 
at the proposition simply from a business standpoint ranged themselves on the 
anti-saloon side. 

Naturally the saloon element, and a good many citizens who honestly be 
lieved that the closing of the saloons would result in a financial loss to the town, 
put up a strong fight. Money was spent freely on both sides and the feeling 
was very strong; F. H. Rindge, in a public meeting promised to indemnify the 
town for the loss sustained by refusing licenses to saloons, and after the elec 
tion, April gth, which resulted in a vote of 305 to 218, a majority of 87 votes 
for " no license," he presented his check for $2,500 to the Board of Trustees. 
The trustees chosen at the election, J. C. Morgan, C. H. Sammis and T. H. 
Dudley had pledged themselves prior to election to carry out the expressed 
wishes of the citizens. It had been agreed that three restaurant licenses, per- 
miting the sale of liquors with bona fide meals, costing 25 cents, exclusive of 
liquors ; and one wholesale liquor license, under certain restrictions, should be 
granted. The ordinance passed by the new board was not exactly what the 
anti-saloon people had expected, as it permitted the sale of liquors at all hours 
and allowed the wholesale house to sell in original packages at its place of busi 
ness, instead of simply delivering orders. 

It was to be expected that there would be violations of the regulations under 
this ordinance, which was certainly a great step in advance, although not all 
that had been hoped for by the movers in the " no license " fight. On August 
6th, E. Gamberi, of the Pacific Gardens was arrested for selling liquors without 
meals and was convicted and fined $175.00, while his license was revoked. 
Rudolph Hopf was also arrested for violation of the ordinance, but prior to 
his trial he became insolvent and was acquitted. This marked the downfall of 
the old firm of Eckert and Hopf, which had been in business in Santa Monica 
since the seventies. 

In 1901 the Board of Trustees modified the restaurant license so that it 
merely required " something to eat," with the liquor. This, of course, led to the 
service of the timeworn cracker and. it is claimed, that the cracker box alone 
was considered sufficient in many cases. In 1902 the wholesale license was 
raised to $1,200 and in 1903 the wholesale license was raised to $3,000. this 
amount having been offered by Alexander Gunn. 

In the spring of 1903 the temperance people were so aroused by the changes 
made, which practically restored saloons to the town, that they made a strong 
campaign before the annual election to secure candidates for trustees who would 
support the law and take steps to earn- out the provisions of the original ordin- 


ance which had been adopted to carry out the wish of the voters. Dr. Chap 
man again took a vigorous, and as many thought, a not very wise, part in the 
campaign, working for the election of men who had pledged themselves to vote 
against issuing new licenses and removals of restrictions. After the city election, 
another special election to again submit the question of prohibition, by adopting 
what was known as the Long Beach ordinance, was called for. A brief cam 
paign was made by Dr. Chapman and the question was submitted on June loth, 
resulting in a vote of 831 ; 287 for, 544 against. This result, so different from 
the previous one when this question was voted upon, was brought about by many 
causes ; chiefly the dissension of the temperance forces and the bitterness and, 
in the eyes of many, the unfairness of the methods adopted by the prohibition 
workers. As a consequence of this result, the Board of Trustees passed an 
ordinance, granting restaurant licenses, with no restriction as to meals ; buffet 
licenses, which were practically saloon licenses ; and the wholesale license. 
While there are no open saloons in Santa Monica, and the business is much 
restricted as compared with the old days when there were twelve or fourteen 
saloons running " wide open," there is ample opportunity for those who wish 
it to procure liquor and the town derives a considerable income from its various 
liquor licenses. 

Another important question which came up for discussion and action this 
year was that of the separation of the portion of the town lying south of Rail 
road street from the "North side," or, as the Outlook puts it, the "legal separa 
tion of Miss South Side from Mr. North Side, on the ground of failure to pro 
vide." The citizens of the southern end of town felt that they had not received 
due consideration from the town trustees and that they had no representative on 
the board. There had long been a rivalry in growth, street improvements and 
attractions. A committee consisting of Col. A. B. Hotchkiss, a long-time resi 
dent of the South Side, Joseph Bontty and Captain Malim, were active in urging 
this action, stating that the new town would remain a town, governed by the 
Board of Supervisors, and would save the expenses of a city government while 
improving her own streets and providing her own water, and light supply. The 
active discussion of plans for building a city hall had a bearing on the question, 
no doubt, and many other matters were connected with it. A petition with suffi 
cient signatures was presented and the question was submitted to a vote of the 
people at the election of November I3th. A vigorous campaign was made against 
the division by the North Side and many citizens of the South Side also, and 
the election showed a very decided majority, the vote being 400 to 59, against 
the legal partition of the town. 

One of the movers in this attempt at disruption, Captain George D. Malim, 
frankly announced in the Outlook, after stating that others who had promised 
aid had deserted the cause, " I have been at a loss of both time and money, 
fought alone and single-handed against nearly the whole town and got licked, 

r,K<>. H. HUTTOX. 


but have one great satisfaction, that is, that I believe I have stirred people up to 
argue questions, consider propositions, and stand up for their rights, which they 
would not have done had it not been for the work done by myself." It was 
generally agreed that the discussion of the question had brought about a better 
feeling between the two factions and would result in a clearer understanding of 
the common interests of the whole city. 

Another topic which engaged a good deal of attention and gave rise to a 
great variety of opinions, was that of providing a suitable city hall. It was 
generally believed, also, that the town could not prosper without having some 
sort of public auditorium for large meetings. It was proposed to combine a city 
hall and auditorium building. This met with opposition and an effort was made 
to secure an auditorium as a private business venture. Bonds for the city hall 
were proposed ; but at last it became evident that the city affairs could be 
handled more effectively under a new form of government and the subject of 
adopting a city charter and becoming a city of the fifth class was taken up. 
Public meetings to discuss the advisability of this step and the results following 
it were held and a committee consisting of Frederick H. Rindge, George H. 
Hutton, A. W. McPherson, W. S. Vawter and Fred H. Taft was appointed to 
formulate plans for re-organization. It was agreed that the town should be 
divided into five wards, as equally proportioned as to voters as possible, each to 
extend from the ocean back to the east line of the town and the committee also 
stood pledged to a general city convention to nominate officers, irrespective of 
party lines. But when the matter came to the test of the polls, January i6th, 
1901, it was found that the interest was small compared with its importance, 
353 votes being cast, of which 171 were for and 178 against, the re-organization 
plan being lost by seven votes. 

Among the improvements of the year was the putting on of the mail car 
on the electric line which made three trips a day. taking in Colegrove, Sherman, 
Sawtelle and Soldiers' Home, Santa Monica and Ocean Park and which also 
carried express matter. The Hollywood line was opened for service in February 
thus giving Santa Monica three routes to Los Angeles and still further increas 
ing her transportation facilities. The Southern Pacific and Santa Fe roads, in 
a desperate attempt to recover their traffic, issued a ten trip ticket for $1.50, good 
for one month. B"t the electric line met this with a ten ride ticket, good until 
used, and transferable, for $2.00. The railroads gained little but the people 
who traveled between the city and the beach were decided gainers. The United 
Electric, Gas and Power Company was incorporated this year and took over 
the Santa Monica Electric Light and Power plant, the directors being the same, 
F. H. Rindge, Alfred Steadman, H. V. Carter, G. I. Cochran and J. J. Davis. 
This company also secured control of the light and gas company of Redondo, 
Long Beach, San Pedro, and other towns. 

" Sunset " beach, lying north of the North Beach Bath House, was improved 


with walk, gas, electric light and sewer service and divided into lots to be leased 
to tenants for five and ten years. The owners were R. C. Gillis and E. P. Clark 
and after these improvements were carried out a number of commodious and 
attractive cottages was built on the tract. 

The death of " Bob " Eckert, April 27th, 1900, removed one of the best 
known characters of Santa Monica, or indeed, of Southern California. Mr. 
Eckert was born in the Fatherland. He came to Los Angeles in 1872 and soon 
acquired a reputation there as a caterer, a politicion and a teacher of gymnastics 
in the Turn Verein. His connection with the Turners made him known among 
the Germans of Southern California, and his genial, kindly nature won him 
many lasting friendships, not only among his own people, but with all with 
whom he came in contact. He opened a restaurant in Santa Monica in the 
later seventies and his fish dinners soon gained renown. For many years a feed 
at Eckert and Hapf's Pavilion was the best treat one good fellow could offer 
another. He catered to many distinguished guests and for many notable ban 
quets, and was acknowledged as a past master in the art of serving a .dinner. 
With his death and the canceling of saloon licenses, the Eckert and Hopf 
Pavilion which had been known from Alaska to Mexico, was closed. 


The more progressive citizens of Santa Monica were not satisfied to allow 
the matter of re-organizing the city government to drop. They felt that the 
best interests of the city demanded that the town be divided into wards which 
would allow each district to select its own representative in the council. The 
new charter would also permit the organization of a board of education which 
could exercise powers not vested in the trustees of a district. A new petition 
for an election was prepared and presented to the Board of Trustees February 
4th, with a guarantee from the signers that the expenses of the election would 
be met by private subscription. The trustees, after due deliberation and ex 
amination into the legal aspects of the case, refused to grant the petition. The 
movers for a new charter were not discouraged, however. They continued the 
agitation and in April organized a Good Government League, to look to muni 
cipal matters, with F. H. Rindge, president; N. H. Hamilton, ist vice-president; 
W. S. Vawter, 2nd vice-president; Fred H. Taft, 3d vice-president; C. I. D. 
Moore, secretary and J. C. Steele, treasurer. Mr. Rindge, who despite his many 
interests spared neither time nor energy in forwarding any movement for the 
public good, took an active part in this organization, which kept a sharp eye? 
upon the restaurant liquor licenses, that had been granted, as well as carrying 
on an educational campaign among the citizens on the subject of public improve 
ments. A petition asking for a re-submission of the question of saloons or no 
saloons was received by the trustees in March ; but was not acted upon and 
although, there was a good deal of discussion of the subject, the trustees seemed 



to feel that the restaurant license permitting the sale of liquor with meals which 
had rapidly degenerated to empty cracker boxes, was the most satisfactory 
arrangement to be made. 

The matter of voting bonds for a city hall continued to be discussed. There 
was also great need of a new bridge on Ocean Avenue in place of Bridge No. i, 
as it was known. This had become imperative as this street was the main 
thoroughfare between the North and South ends of town. Storm drains were 
also greatly needed, and after one or two mass meetings, in which matters were 
fullv discussed and it was shown that the large tax payers of the city were all 




in favor of these improvements, an election was called for November igth to 
vote on the question of issuing bonds in the sum of $25,000 for Bridge No. I ; 
$10,000 for Bridge No. 2 ; $29,000 for storm drains, and $35,000 for City Hall 
and Jail. At this election the bonds for town hall and bridge No. i were carried, 
the others defeated. 

The Board of Trustees at once called for bids for a site for the public 
building and was flooded with offers. They spent some very strenuous hours 
before finally determining on the lots at the corner of Oregon and Fourth. The 
South Side felt that since it must pay taxes for this improvement, it should at 
least be as near them as possible. The question of town division was still a 
live one. The marvelous growth made during the year 1901 at Ocean Park 
was putting that division of Santa Monica in the front rank in importance and 
the old rivalry between the two sections was enhanced in many minds by the 



growing wealth and many impovements of the " sand hills." The South Side 
had voted almost solidly against all the improvements, because of the desire to 
have its own town organization. 

A strong effort was made to secure the city hall for the corner of Third and 
Utah street, where a site was offered by Roy Jones for $12,000. Tht business 
men of the place generally endorsed this site and offered to guarantee that it 
should cost the city but $7,000. The matter was hotly contested by the citizens 
and the trustees seemed to be hopelessly divided in opinion or interests. In 
February 1902 Roy Jones withdrew his offer of sites and thus removed the cor 
ner at Third and Utah from consideration. Still the board could come to no 
decision and a straw vote was called for to decide what site would best please 
the voters. Condemnation proceedings to secure the property at Third and 
Utah were talked" of and the fight waxed hotter than ever. A majority of 68 
out of 441 votes cast was for Lots V. W. and X., of Block 196, being the south 
east corner of Third and Utah, at the price of $6,500. At the next meeting of 
the Board of Trustees, it was reported that the chosen site could not be secured 
at any price, except by condemnation proceedings, which meant long and expen 
sive litigation, therefore the Board, by a vote of three to two, selected the site 
at Fourth and Oregon, offered by J. C. Crosier for $4,800. Although there was 
much dissatisfaction over the result, it was final and steps were at once taken to 
proceed with the building, the bonds having already been sold to the Oakland 
Bank of Savings at a premium of $3,000. 

Among the more important improvements of the year on the North Side 
was the building of the long looked for Auditorium, in connection with the 
North Beach Bath house. The cost was about $7,000 and it gave a large room 
for public meetings. It was opened by an entertainment given by the newly 
organized Y. M. C. A. and was then taken possession of by a Vaudeville troop 
which made a brilliant failure and soon vanished. The people of Santa Monica 
seem always to have been able to provide their own entertainments and an out 
side attraction must be very unusual indeed to draw any large number of Santa 
Monicans from their own homes and amusements. 

The Academy of the Holy Names, established by the '' Sisters of the Holy 
Names of Jesus and Mary," was completed and dedicated February 22nd. It 
was a handsome two and a half story building, beautifully finished and furnished 
and was dedicated with elaborate ceremonies, including a public parade and 
testimonials from the city officials and citizens generally of Santa Monica. 

At South Santa Monica, or Ocean Park, the Los Angeles Times estimates 
that the improvements for the year amounted to $232,555, including the new 
power house of the electric line, costing $25,000; the Holborow Hotel. $10,000, 
the Casino, $10,000, waterworks and other improvements of Kinney & Dudley, 
$18,500 and 207 other building. 

Among the notable events of this year was the visit of President McKinley 


to the Soldier's Home, at which time the citizens of Santa Monica aided in the 
reception which was there given him. And on September 2Oth, 1901 the people 
of this city held Memorial services in honor of the president whom they had so 
warmly welcomed. All business was suspended and the mourning was general. 
One of the incidents of this occasion was the services of the newly formed 
Spanish Society, which had arranged for an elaborate celebration on September 
1 6th, the Mexican Fourth of July, but changed their program to a Memorial 
service, after which they burned the murderer in effigy. 


The history of 1902 was largely municipal. As has been seen, the difficult 
task of settling on a site for the city hall was carried over into this year. But 
before it was decided the still more important matter of re-organization came 
up. The new election was called for January 28th. In the meantime, the Board 
of Trustees ordered a census of the town to be taken. The call for re-organiza 
tion of the city had been based upon the United States census of 1890, which 
gave Santa Monica a population of 3057. Cities must have a population of 
3,000, at least, in order to be raised to the rank of fifth class. Opponents of the 
change had insisted that the town did not now have the requisite three thousand 
and the census of the Board resulted in but 2,717 names. The promoters of the 
movement, however, asserted that this census did not count, as by law, the 
population would be taken from the United States census. At the same time 
the Good Government League claimed that the census taken by the Board was 
defective and set men to work to re-take the census. After a long and very 
thorough canvas, in which, we are certain every nose was counted, the result 
was reported as 3,260. 

The election resulted in a decided victory for the Good Government League 
and the progressive citizens generally, the vote standing 231 for and 118 against, 
giving a majority of 118 as against the majority of seven the other way at the 
previous election. But votes do not settle the question voted upon in Santa 
Monica. At the next regular meeting of the Board of Trustees when it was 
in order to officially canvas the vote, that long suffering body was served with 
a writ of injunction, sworn to by H. X. Goetz, enjoining them 1 from canvassing 
the votes and declaring the election to have been illegal. When the Board had 
recovered from the shock of this attack, they engaged counsel to defend them in 
this case and in another action, brought by Attorney Fred H. Taft, demanding 
that the city fathers count those votes, or show cause why. The courts decided 
- that the election was all right and on February loth, the last act in this long 
drawn-out drama took place, and the returns of the election were duly declared 
although the new city government could not, by the terms of the law, go into 
effect until the year 1903. 

The voters of Santa Monica certainly had ample opportunity to exercise 


their free and sovereign right during the years of 1901-2. Beside the regular 
state election in November, 1901 and the municipal election the next spring, five 
special elections gave them a chance to express their opinions. In view of the 
important matters under the control of the Board this year, a good deal of 
interest was taken in the annual town election. Mr. W. S. Vawter was nominated 
as the representative of the Ocean Park district by an enthusiastic public meet 
ing. There were numerous other candidates for the trusteeship and for all the 
other city offices. The question of a special tax for the repair of the outfall 
sewer and the wharf at Pier Avenue was also submitted and voted on favorably. 
Messrs. Vawter and J. C. Steele were elected trustees, J. C. Hemingway, clerk ; 
E. W. Boehme, treasurer and M. K. Barretto, marshal. In the re-organization 
of the board, T. H. Dudley was elected president and F. H. Taft was chosen as 
attorney. One of the first acts of the new board was to raise the wholesale 
liquor license to $1,200 per year. 

During the summer of 1902 especial attention was called to the safety of 
Santa Monica Beach as compared with other beaches. It was shown that very 
few accidents, due to undertow, had ever occurred on this beach and that every 
precaution to prevent accidents was taken, a guard being maintained on thc- 
beach at all times, life boats being at hand in case of need. The Los Angeles 
Times stated : " It is safe to say that since this little city was laid out, nearly 
a million people have bathed in the surf there ; and while there have been a 
number of fatalities due to suicide, heart failure, and apoplexy or cramp, there, 
has not been one authenticated instance of any person being overcome by a 
treacherous current or tide, or any person having been lost who was bathing 
from any public bath house." 

Among the conventions entertained this year were the Woman's Auxiliary 
of the Episcopal church and also the Summer Institute of Sunday Schools of 
the Episcopal diocese ; the annual convention of Christian churches of Southern 
California, lasted eleven days and brought a large number of visitors to attend 
its sessions. In October, the grand Lodge of the Good Templars, a state or 
ganization, held its annual session here. 

The " short line " of the Los Angeles-Pacific was opened in August, thus 
giving a new and considerably shorter route to Los Angeles. An important land 
deal of the year was the sale by the Pacific Land Company to the Erkenbrecher 
syndicate, of a tract of 390 acres of land, lying just east of the then town limits 
and including 38 acres within the town limits. A portion of this was divided 
into town lots and the rest was made into five and ten acre tracts. Another 
very decided improvement was* the paving of Oregon and Utah streets which 
had long been discussed but, as usual, with a variety of opinions. The Columbia 
building near the corner of Third and Oregon was built by Bishop Montgomery 
on ground adjoining the Catholic church. This was a three story brick with 



two large storerooms on the ground floor and a pleasant hall for public purposes 
upon the second floor. 

Another matter which the city fathers were called upon to meet this year 
was the question of allowing the Santa Fe road to abandon its line from Ingle- 
wood into Santa Monica. The road had petitioned the State Railroad commis 
sion to be allowed to do so, on the ground that it was operating the line at a 
loss. There was considerable opposition to permitting this action on the part 
of the donors of the right of way, and at the same time a petition from many 
other citizens of Santa Monica prayed that the abandonment be allowed. It 
was generally believed that this would result in a competing electric line coming 
into Santa Monica, and rumors that the Traction Company were looking this 
way were frequent during the summer. In August Abbot Kinney made applica 
tion for a franchise for a steam or electric line through the town to be operated 
by the Redondo and Santa Monica Beach line, of which he was the chief in- 
corporator. After some investigation this franchise was refused. In July it 
was announced that the right of way had been secured for a line direct from the 
city to the Ocean Park district, through La Ballona and Palms. The promoters 
were a company of whom Frederick H. Rindge was the chief. 

In September the Traction Company made an offer of $3,500 for a franchise 
in Santa Monica. The Board of Trustees, being hard up for cash as usual, 
were disposed to look favorably upon this proposition ; but it was recalled that 
Mr. Hook had offered $5,000 for a similar privilege in Long Beach and it was 
also pointed out by interested citizens that, according to law, any franchise must 
be sold to the highest bidder. Lawyers differed as to this point and the dis 
cussion waxed warm. A franchise was drawn up, granting the company all 
that was asked, for a consideration of $2500 and an electric current sufficient 
to supply 12 arc lights of 2000 candle power. While the discussion was going 
on, Captain John Cross, of the Terminal road appeared and offered $5,000 for 
a franchise ; but the Board of Trustees passed the Hook franchise without con - 
sidering this offer and despite strong opposition on the part of many citizens. 

A day or two later John C. Morgan, one of the trustees, and a man who 
was always ready to fight for his convictions, brought suit against the Board of 
Trustees to restrain them from making the proposed " Hook " franchise a law. 
Meanwhile the first payment was made on the franchise and the Traction road 
began making preparations for entering Santa Monica. The Los Angeles- 
Pacific also began to move, removing the poles which had long been a bone of 
contention, on Oregon street ; double tracking and otherwise improving their 
service in anticipation of competition. In February, 1903, Col. A. B. Hotch- 
kiss took steps to test the validity of the Hook franchise, since it was granted 
without competitive bids. When it appeared that the Traction Company had 
secured their right of way through Santa Monica and Ocean Park, the Los 
Angeles-Pacific railway, alarmed for its supremacy, also began suits to contest 


the right of way, and in retaliation, the Los Angeles, Ocean Park and Santa 
Monica Company, which had been incorporated to handle the Santa Monica end 
of the Traction Company, began suit to condemn certain tracts in Ocean Park, 
needed for the Traction right of way. The officers of this company were W. S. 
Hook, Abbot Kinney, T. J. Hook, C. A. Sumner and E. E. Milliken, and it was 
generally known as " Abbot Kinney's Company." 

The Hook franchise was sustained by the attorney-general and the contest 
between the two trolley line companies became a bitter one. The annual election 
of city officials was approaching and the attitude of the trustees toward the 
railroad question became the vital question. The Herald announces : "The 
railroad election battle is on and that it promises to be hotly contested is evi 
denced by the fact that each of the rival companies has established boarding 
camps within the city limits and is registering every available man in their em 
ploy. Three registrars have been working for the last thirty days and on March 
4th the city registration shows an advance of 343 votes over the registration 
of last November. Since March 4th fifty additional names have been added 
and before the registration closes it is conservatively estimated that over 400 
increase will be shown." 

The campaign that followed was one of the most strenuous ever known 
in Santa Monica. George D. Snyder, H. X. Goetz, A. F. Johnstone and J. C. 
Morgan were candidates for the trusteeship, and were pledged " not to put any 
impediments in the way of the Traction Company's building and operating a 
line in Santa Monica, according to the terms of the franchise recently granted 
them." W. S. Yawter, T. H. Dudley and J. C. Steele were candidates for re 
election. The saloon question was again involved and much type was used 
by the press and much talk was poured out on the streets and in public meetings 
over the situation. Messrs. Dudley, Vawter, Goetz, Johnstone and Steele were 
elected, and as at least three of them were pledged to the anti-saloon party, 
there was rejoicing in the temperance ranks. It soon developed that the railroad 
situation had already been taken out of the hands of the city officials, by the 
sale of the Traction road and its interests to Clark and Harriman, who having 
no use for a competing line, were not expected to push the road to Santa Monica. 
Abbot Kinney, however, still retained the franchises granted to the Ocean Park, 
Santa Monica and Los Angeles road and made an attempt, which was promptly 
put a stop to by the city trustees, to occupy them. But in 1904 he sold his rail 
road interests to the Los Angeles Pacific road, thus putting an end to the hope, 
still maintained by Santa Monica, of a competing line. 


The year 1903 was marked by an unprecedented growth. With the new 
city government and the occupation of the beautiful new city building, came 
an expansion in every direction that approached dangerously near to the fated 



word " boom." The new city hall, a substantial structure whose simple lines 
and graceful curves are dignified and beautiful, was complete in its fitness and 
space for the needs of the city .iffairs and was regarded by all those who had 
opposed the bonds, the plans and the location, as well as those who had worked 
hard to settle all difficulties and secure the building with pride. On the evening 
of its dedication, March igth, 1903, the people of Santa Monica and many 
visitors from Los Angeles inspected the building with approval and listened to 
the exercises with pleasure. A program was rendered and Mr. W. I. Hull 

gave a resume of the history of the 
building, in which he humorously re 
called the various agitations which had 
led up to this happy finale. He closed 
by hoping that " those who take pos 
session of it next month will keep it 
clean clean inside and out. Let 
every record made here be as white 
as the paper on which it is written. 
Let those who are elected to office 
fulfill their duty as a public trust and 
not as a private snap. Municipal 
government is the weak spot in our 
American system. Selfish and cor 
porate interests seek to control elec 
tions that they may enrich themselves 
at the expense of the people. If we 
are careful that such conditions do not 
occur in Santa Monica, we shall the 
more quickly realize the grand destiny 
H. x. GOETZ tnat awa 'ts us the Queen Seaside 

City of Southern California." Beside 

the municipal offices, the public library was provided with pleasant quarters, 
which were greatly appreciated by the public. The city hall was built by 
H. X. Goetz, the contractor, and with its site, cost about $38,000. 

The city government under the new form required an election of new city 
officials throughout. The railroad and saloon questions had already become 
important factors in this municipal election. The many affairs of importance 
which the new board of trustees would be required to handle made their selection 
more than ever of the deepest importance to the town. Yet it must be feared 
that a large number of the voters were swayed by self-interest and personal 
feeling, rather than by the " greatest good to the greatest number." The ticket 
chosen was as follows : Trustees, T. H. Dudley, H. X. Goetz, A. F. Johnston, 
J. C. Steele and \V. S. Vawter; school board, W. E. Devore, J. H. Hassinger, 



Dr. J. S. Hunt, J. H. Jackson and S. F. Carpenter; clerk, J. C. Hemingway, 
re-elected ; assessor, C. S. Dales ; treasurer, Frank W. Vogel ; recorder, A. M. 
Guidinger ; marshal, M. K. Barretto, who had served in the same office since 
1898; for city attorney, there was a sharp contest between F. H. Taft, the incum 
bent, and Benjamin S. Hunter, who it was claimed was a non-resident of the 
city. Mr. Taft was elected, but the position was contested in the courts by 
Mr. Hunter, without avail. 

With the organization of the new board of trustees on April 2Oth, the 
history of Santa Monica as a city of the fifth class began. T. 'H. Dudley was 
chosen president of the board ; the salaries to be paid city officials were, after 
some discussion, fixed : City clerk, $1020.00 per annum ; attorney, $600.00 ; 
assessor, $520.00; marshal, $1200.00; treasurer, $400.00: recorder, $300.00; chief 
of fire department, $120.00 per annum. 

The disastrous anti-saloon campaign which followed the inauguration of 
the new government has already been described. In view of the talk of incor 
porating the section south of Santa Monica into a town, a petition was prepared 
by some of the property owners in the strip of territory between Marine avenue, 
the southern line of the city limits, and Rose avenue, asking that this territory 
be annexed to the city. At the same time a largely signed petition from citizens 
of Santa Monica making the same request was presented. Acting upon these 
a special election was called for December I4th, which resulted in a vote of 30 
in the proposed territory 19 against annexation. This result had been antici 
pated as a strong fight had been made by the " incorporationists " against the 


The rapid growth of the town had made the old water system entirely 
inadequate to the demands upon it, particularly in the case of fire, and for a 
year or two there had been more or less talk of municipal ownership of the 
plant. The dissatisfaction with the conditions was so general that February 
5th a mass meeting was called to discuss the situation and the possibilities of 
the city acquiring a water system of its own. At this meeting a communication 
from Mr. Rindge, president of the Artesian Water Company, then supplying the 
city water, was read, in which he stated that his company would guarantee the 
city an adequate supply and would at once enlarge their facilities for supplying 
water. After considerable discussion it was decided to suspend further action 
by the citizens until it was seen whether the water company fulfilled its promises. 
During the next two years the Artesian Company laid a i6-inch main down 
Nevada street and distributed a large amount of new pipe, replacing the old 
system and extending it to new districts. Nevertheless, it was still felt that 
the water supply was not equal to the demands of the rapidly growing city and 
the board of trade appointed a committee, who after a thorough examination 
into the matter, reported favorably upon the proposition to bond the city for a 


sum sufficient to secure its own water system. The city engineer prepared a 
careful estimate of the cost and reported that he thought a complete plant could 
be provided for $240,250. At the request of the requisite number of voters, 
the council ordered an election to vote upon the proposition of bonding the 
city for $250,000. But many citizens felt that this was moving too rapidly, 
as the city was already heavily bonded and was now considering the adoption 
of a new charter, consequently the date of this election, January i6th, 1906, was 
recalled and the matter permitted to drop for the time being. The feeling is 
still strong that Santa Monica must soon have a more adequate supply of water, 
owned by the municipality ; but the building of school houses and the disposition 
of sewage must first be completed. 

After the incorporation of the town of Ocean Park, including the settled 
territory south of the Santa Monica city limits, there was still much talk of 
town division. Many of the people residing in the section which had first been 
known as " Ocean Park ", felt that they had built up that portion of the " sand 
hills " into a prosperous business and residence district with very little aid from 
the " old town " of Santa Monica. The rapid growth of the last two or three 
years had brought in a new element who knew little of the past history of the 
town and did not realize that the question of town division had already been 
thoroughly canvassed and, it was hoped, settled by the decisive vote of Novem 
ber I3th, 1901. Ocean Park had already secured a portion of the Santa Monica 
school district and it was now proposed to divide the city at Front street. It 
was the common belief that this section, if cut off from Santa Monica, would 
join the new Ocean Park municipality, although there were those who talked 
of a third corporation which should go it alone. Some of the older residents 
of the territory, who had already paid taxes for street improvements, schools, 
city hall, and sewers in Santa Monica, did not care to repeat the payments for 
the same purposes in the new town. The new corporation of Ocean Park was 
already voting bonds with a free hand ; there were dissensions among business 
interests the causes were various but the result was death to the division 
proposition. The petition was circulated but was never presented and the election 
did not take place. The Outlook of January 2ist, 1905, pays its tribute to the 
division question thus : 

" Poor little thing dead. The last sad rites performed over fatherless and 
motherless babe. There is crepe on the door of a suite of upstairs rooms on 
Pier avenue. The fight to divide Santa Monica is ended. The ' executive com 
mittee ' for the division of Santa Monica has passed in its checks. The last 
meeting of this august body was held on Wednesday, when it was decided that 
the idea of dividing this city was a forlorn hope and the committee adjourned 
' sine die.' While the meeting was secret, it is learned that the executive com 
mittee positively decided to abandon the project." 

And from this date :\ ivore solid fruth in " greater Sint'i Monica " has 


grown up in both sections of the town and it is only a matter of a few years 
before the memory of " north " and " south " feuds will have faded and Santa 
Monica will present an undivided front to the world. 

This year was marked by the breaking up of large tracts and the opening 
to settlement of many fine pieces of land hitherto unoccupied. In April it was 
announced that the Jones and Baker lands, including the San Vicente rancho, 
Boca y Santa Monica and Santa Monica rancho, over 30,000 acres in all. had 
been transferred to a consolidated company formed of the Artesian Water Com 
pany, the Santa Monica and Sawtelle Water Companies, Frederick II. Rindge, 
Gen. M. H. Sherman, E. P. Clark, G. I. Cochran, R. C. Gillis and others. The 
purpose of the new water company was to supply water to the Ballona country, 
between Western avenue in Los Angeles and the sea coast, and to supply domestic 
water to Santa Monica and the entire coast southward to Playa del Rev. It 
was stated that the lands coming into possession of the new company would be 
subdivided and put upon the market at once and soon afterward a sale of 1000 
acres of the San Vicente rancho was made to R. C. Gillis. This tract extended 
from Fourteenth street to Sawtelle between Oregon avenue and the Southern 
Pacific right of way, and was at once cut up into lots of from two to forty acres 
and offered for sale. The Santa Monica Land and Water Company also sub 
divided 450 acres between the Soldiers' Home lands and Twenty-sixth street. 

A number of other tracts and additions were put on the market this year 
also, among them the Irwin Heights tract east of the city, which was improved 
by Irwin and Towner ; the Artesian tract continued to attract buyers and the 
Oregon avenue tract between Thirteenth and Sixteenth streets was opened, 
streets paved and many lots sold and houses built during the year. Six new 
houses, costing about $15,000, were put up in Washington Place. This portion 
of the town, east of Tenth street and north of Oregon, became, indeed, a new 
city within a very short period. The land east and north of the city limits had 
also become desirable residence property and many homes had been established 
on " villa " lots, or small ranches. The talk of annexation of this district grew 
and was brought to a head finally by the attempt on the part of Ocean Park to 
secure a division of the town of Santa Monica at Front street, and by the neces 
sity of supplying school accommodations for the many new residents. 

It was estimated that during the year from April, 1904, to April. 1905, two 
hundred building permits were issued for the city of Santa Monica, the expendi 
ture reaching $300,000. During the same period, four miles of streets were 
graded and several miles oiled ; 260,000 square feet of cement walk were laid, 
40,000 lineal feet of concrete curbing were put in, 30,000 square feet of cross 
walks, 12,000 feet of sewer pipe laid, 22,000 feet of gutter and 40,000 square 
feet of paving put down. This was done by the city and it is probable that 
the work done by private contract in the various new subdivisions almost equaled 
this record. 



This is the banner year in the existence of the Santa Monica bay cities. 
It was a year of wonderful growth and unprecedented development in every 
direction. The " old " town of Santa Monica passed forever from the ranks 
of '' country " towns and became a city in fact as well as in form during this 
year. The southern part of the town, commonly known as " Ocean Park ", 
which was already an important business center as well as a popular summer 
resort, with the completion of the bath house and the Decatur Hotel, the building 
of the Masonic block and many other business blocks on Pier avenue, Marine 
street and the ocean front began to put on a metropolitan aspect ; while the 
creation of Venice the " Dream City " of Abbot Kinney's fancy, made the new 
town of Ocean Park the center of attraction for the entire state. 

Another remarkable feature was the continued opening up of subdivisions 
which found rapid sale as suburban homes. Much of the San Vicente and 
Ballona ranches which had been barley fields, or, later, bean patches, was now 
platted, graded and improved to be sold as lots or in small tracts. Westgate 
and Westgate Acres, Irwin Heights, Towner Terrace, the Artesian tract, Serra 
Vista, Palisades, Brentwood Park and Green Acres, to the north and east of 
Santa Monica ; Ocean Park Heights, East Ocean Park, Venice Park tract, Vine- 
land, Clarkdale and many other subdivisions between Ocean Park and Los 
Angeles were put on the market. Most of these subdivisions were on or near 
the line of the trolley cars. In the case of Westgate, the promotors, in con 
junction with the Los Angeles and Pacific, built a branch line from Sawtelle 
through the tract and along the edge of Santa Monica canon and Ocean avenue 
to connect with the Montana-avenue branch, thus giving the public the most 
picturesque trolley ride to be found in Los Angeles county. This line was com 
pleted and opened for use August gth, 1906. This company also constructed 
San Vicente boulevard from the Soldiers' Home to the city limits of Santa 
Monica, a distance of several miles, one of the finest stretches of roadway in 
the country. 

All of these tracts along the base of the Santa Monica sierras command 
magnificent views of ocean, mountains and valleys. They are improved with 
graded and oiled streets, cement walks, parks, trees, shrubbery and offer every 
modern conveniences water, electricity, car service, as well as the unequaled 
location, the air, the space, the quiet and seclusion of country life. Building 
restrictions were placed upon all these tracts so that only desirable homes might 
be built and the rapidity with which magnificent country places, as well as 
artistic bungalow and cottage homes have sprung up proves that there was a 
demand for just such a residence section. The amount of money spent in im 
proving these lands and putting them on the market would probably reach a 
half-million dollars and the expenditure in buildings and improvements by 
purchasers would perhaps reach the same figure. 



In the spring of 1905 it was announced that Frederick H. Rindge would 
build a wagon road through the Malibu ranch and there was a general feeling 
of satisfaction that at last communication north along the coast would be opened 
up. But it soon developed that this wagon road was not for the public, and 
rumors that it was to be a railroad or a trolley line were rife before the death 
of Mr. Rindge in August. In October the Outlook rejoices greatly in the fact 
that the " Hueneme, Malibu & Port Los Angeles " electric line will be a great 
acquisition to Santa Monica. Mr. H. W. Lemcke of Santa Monica was ap 
pointed general manager, and for some months the papers were kept busy as 
serting and denying facts about this new road which was and remains an 
enigma to the public. The new passenger depot of the Los Angeles-Pacific 
located in Linda Vista park was a substantial improvement which was greatly 
appreciated. Many improvements in the electric line service were made during 
the year, not the least of which was the completion of the Playa del Rey-Redondo 
line and the establishment of a five-cent fare between Santa Monica and Playa 
del Rev. 

One of the most important real estate transactions of the year was the 
formation of a syndicate by F. E. Bundy which was made up largely of Ocean 
Park capitalists, including E. S. Tomblin, R. W. Armstrong, A. E. Robinson, 
H. L. Miller & Co., Robert F. Jones, A. W. McPherson, E. A. Wilson, Dana 
Burks, J. W. Tomblin, Smith Realty Co., I. E. Warfield & Co., and F. E. TBuncly. 
This later took the name of the " United Land & Water Company " and marked 
a community of interests between the two factions of the Santa Monica bay 
region. This company purchased a tract of land south of the Oregon-avenue 
line between Twenty-sixth street and Sawtelle. They planned to make this a 
model village site and spent a large sum in improvements. The tract was put 
on the market as the " Serra Vista " and many sales were made. It became 
a part of the city when the new territory was taken in and is a valuable addition 
to the city's wealth. The Irwin Heights tract continued to settle up and many 
improvements were made in this vicinity. A large sum was expended by the 
Irwin Heights Company in developing water and an excellent system was pro 
vided for this district. 

Another important real estate move was the opening up of the original 
Palisades tract, lying between Ocean avenue and Seventh street, north of Mon 
tana avenue. This was improved by a company composed of H. D. Lombard. 
R. A. Rowan, W. S. Vawter, T. H. Dudley, W. T. Gillis and H. W. Keller. 
They spent $100,000 in improvements, grading and oiling streets, sewering, 
cement sidewalks and in planting trees, etc. Linda Vista park was also im 
proved in front of this addition. Later the balance of the land lying between 
this tract and the Santa Monica canon and extending north to Seventh street 
was improved at a very large expense, thus placing this, the most desirable 
beach property on Santa Monica bay, on the market. The large amount of 
money expended by private parties in public improvements in the Palisades, 



as well as the high order of buildings and improvements made by purchasers, 
added largely to the aggregate expenditures for the year. The Towner Terrace 
tract lying between Eighth and Fourteenth streets, Front and Colorado, was 
another addition within the new city limits which added to the population and 
wealth of the place. 

The building of the White Star pier, now known as Bristol pier, was com 
pleted in July and its attractions were added to those of the other points of 
interest on the beach. A good band was installed here and a number of " amuse 
ments " provided, but there were now so many rival attractions that it was not 
a paying investment during its first season. A number of new business blocks 

were added to the business center 
during the year. The Odd Fel 
lows hall, a substantial two-story 
brick ; the Guidinger block, on 
Third, north of Oregon ; the 
Bundy block, a three-story brick ; 
the Johnston block on Third, be 
side two or three new business 
buildings on Oregon avenue were 

The organization of the Santa 
Monica Investment Company 
on February 27th was an 
important step in the development which was marking the north side. 
This company was made up of leading business men and capitalists who 
proposed to buy, build, sell, lease and otherwise handle real estate. Its stock 
holders included J. Euclid Miles, who was made manager of the enterprise; 
W. T. Gillis, W. E. Sawtelle, T. Horace Dudley, E. H. Sweetser, George Boehme, 
E. W. Dike, N. R. Folsom, F. Niemann, R. R. Tanner, W. H. Dosing, J. P. 
Jones. Dr. N. H. Hamilton, Dr. J. S. Hunt, Frederick H. Rindge, B. A. Nebeker, 
H. X. Goetz, Roy Jones, Robert F. Jones, R. M. Miller, Sherman & Clark, 
George H. Hutton. The company at once purchased a tract on Fourth street, 
north of California, which they improved and built a block of six cottages upon. 
During the year they built a dozen pretty, modern cottages north of California 
street, thus providing what had long been needed, modern homes at reasonable 
rates for newcomers. During the year much property changed hands at a 
good figure and many handsome residences were erected. The Carnegie library 
was well under way on Oregon and the property on the corner of Third and 
Oregon had been purchased and the handsome three-story brick block for the 
Merchants' National Bank had been planned. This new bank was organized 
in 1 May with T. H. Dudley president ; W. S. Vawter, vice-president ; George F. 
Doty, cashier ; Carl F. Schader, Louis Blenkenhorn. W. C. Durgin. R. R. Tanner 



and William Mead, directors. It opened for business in the newly completed 
Columbia block about August ist. 

The Pacific Land Company placed on sale a tract of 400 acres lying between 
Sawtelle and Twenty-sixth street and the W. T. Gillis Company reported sales 
during the year of over thirty pieces of property, ranging from a single lot to 
twenty-two acres and valued at $45,000. The establishment of a large brick 
and tile manufacturing plant added a solid factor to the resources of Santa 
Monica. A company was formed by R. F. Jones, W. T. Gillis, J. H. Spires, 
C. H. Sweet and R. M. Miller. They secured a tract of twenty-two acres of 
land and began putting up an extensive plant, known as the "' Sunset Tile and 
Brick Company." This later passed into the hands of the Los Angeles Pressed 
Brick Company, one of the most extensive manufacturers of clay products in 
the state. The clays of Santa Monica had long been known to be superior ; 
but it is now fully demonstrated that they are of the finest grade for the best 
class of pressed and vitrified brick and that they are also susceptible of being 
used for a fine grade of pottery, under proper handling. 

The consolidation of the United Electric, Gas and Power Company with 
the Edison Company this year put the lighting and heating of Santa Monica 
upon a more metropolitan basis and marked the end of any local interest in the 
company. An important industry inaugurated this year was the organization of 
a stock company, known as the Plant and Floral Company, to carry on a nursery 
business and deal in plants and cut flowers. Ten acres of land were secured near 
Oregon and Twenty-first streets, which were later increased to twenty acres, so 
successful was the enterprise, now known as the Golden State Plant Co. 

Another new industry, which has brought much wealth into the community 
was the culture of the Lima bean. It had been supposed until this year that 
Ventura county was the banner bean county and need fear no rival. But in 
1902 R. C. Gillis made some experiments with bean culture on lands near the 
Soldiers' Home, which resulted in a net income of $40.00 per acre. As a con 
sequence, Mr. Gillis leased 1500 acres of land to be put into beans in 1903, and 
it was estimated that nearly 8000 acres of beans were planted on lands lying 
between Los Angeles and the Santa Monica bay region. The yield was not so 
large as was expected, on account of the season being unfavorable ; yet the 
profits were large enough to justify a still larger acreage in 1904. The bean 
raising industry is now firmly established in this district and is one of the most 
important sources of revenue. The acreage of 1904 was estimated as 10,000 
acres and the yield was valued at $400,000. As the cultivation and harvesting 
is all done by machinery, the percentage of profit is large and Los Angeles county 
is now closely ranking Ventura in the matter of bean culture. 

Street improvements were the order of the day during this year, over $72,000 
having been spent and contracts let for $40,000 more, according to the estimate 
of the Times, exclusive of the work done by private contract ; 184 building per 
mits were granted, covering an expenditure of $265,000. The Dudley building 

\Y. T. GTUJS. 


was in process of erection. The Santa Monica Bank was improving its building 
at a cost of over $12,000. The Carnegie library building was completed and 
occupied in July. The Hollister-avenue pleasure pier was under way, to extend 
900 feet from shore and to cost about $25,000. 

In the Pier-avenue district, much street work had been done and many 
improvements were made. The Hammel building, a three-story brick, cost 
about $20,000 ; the Hanniman and Yolk blocks each cost about $5000 ; the Powell 
building, the Wisconsin and Metropole, and the Maier & Zobelein buildings 
were all substantial structures. There was talk of a hundred thousand dollar 
hotel between Navy and Marine avenues, which would place part of the building 
in Ocean Park and part in Santa Monica. This proposition was merely talk, 
however, until 1905, when the Hotel Decatur was finally built, thus giving this 
section a hostelry suited to its demands. After several attempts to secure a 
franchise, the Home Telephone Company began work in July under a permit, 
and a franchise was granted later in the year. 

The Municipal League had been revived and during the spring held a num 
ber of meetings in which needed municipal improvements were discussed. 
Largely through the action of the league a bond issue was called for, to secure 
funds to build two fire engine houses, additional fire apparatus and a fire alarm 
system. The cost was estimated at $14,500. Included with this was a proposal 
for bonds to fill in around bridges No. I and 2 and build retaining walls at a 
cost of $14,250; to repair and extend the sewer system, and build septic tanks, 
$21,000; to improve Linda Vista, Seventh street and South Side parks, $20,250, 
and to construct water works and secure its own water plant, $150,000. After 
a short and not very enthusiastic campaign, the entire bond proposition was 
defeated on August i6th. It was. of course, solidly opposed by the district 
which it was proposed to include in Ocean Park, and this election gave a hint 
of the relative strength of the divisionists and the advocates of a " greater Santa 

The question of repairing the outfall sewer was now forced upon Santa 
Monica. There had been much discussion of possible sewage disposition during 
the year. Ocean Park was still using the Santa Monica outfall sewer, although 
the council had demanded that their sewer be cut off the first of August. In 
the meantime the new town was making desperate efforts to solve the problem. 
At one time it was proposed that a main trunk line be constructed along the 
beach to connect with the Los Angeles outfall. Hut this was blocked by the 
Playa del Rev interests and found impracticable, although Los Angeles was 
willing for a consideration. The sewage farm method was also considered, 
but proved impracticable. So Ocean Park continued to depend upon Santa 
Monica for sewage disposal under the old agreement between the city and Kinney 
& Ryan, made December 28th, 1897, which permitted those land owners to con 
nect with the Santa Monica outfall sewer. The singular reversal of conditions 
which has later made Santa Monica dependent upon Ocean Park for sewage 


outfall is one of the many anomalies arising from the peculiar relations of the 
mother town and its offshoot. But Santa Monica maintained that the old agree 
ment was with Messrs. Kinney & Ryan and not with the town of Ocean Park, 
and in November, 1904, demanded a rental of $50.00 per month for the use of 
their outfall. As the rental was not forthcoming the city finally took steps to 
sue to collect the money. But the great storm of March, 1905, which almost 
destroyed the sewer wharf (at Pier avenue) and caused a break near shore in 
the sewer pipe, changed the aspect of matters. The Ocean Park bath house was 
newly completed and the discharge of sewage at Pier avenue proved dangerous 
to its success. The city trustees ordered the city engineer to temporarily repair 
the breaks ; but the complete restoration of the outfall required a sum which 
could only be obtained by a bond election and the bond election for that purpose 
having been defeated the previous August, another election for such bonds could 
not be called within the year. In February, Fraser and Jones had entered into 
a twenty-year contract with the city for the use of the Pier-avenue wharf as 
the foundation for a pleasure wharf, they to keep the same in repair. .But on 
the destruction of the wharf, Messrs. Fraser and Jones declined to keep the 
contract and there was no apparent prospect of the wharf being again rebuilt, 
unless the city was able to do it. 

The newly incorporated town of Ocean Park had already voted bonds for 
a septic tank and sewer system and in order to save the situation at Pier avenue, 
the trustees of the town now offered Santa Monica the use of their new septic 
tank for six months, or until the older city could make some arrangements for 
caring for her sewage. After some discussion the Santa Monica trustees decided, 
June 27th. 1905, to accept this proposition. The new septic tank was not com 
pleted as soon as was expected and rather than have the sewage turned into 
the sea at Pier avenue, it was turned into the Ocean Park mains and discharged 
on their dump thus creating a nuisance which caused complaint from the people 
of South Ocean Park and Playa del Rey. 

In the meantime the matter of voting bonds for the repair and completion 
of the sewer system was again agitated in Santa Monica. The necessity of 
better fire protection was also urgent and October 3ist, 1905, the city voted bonds 
to the amount of $100,000 to be expended $37,500 for sewer system and septic 
tank ; $6500 for repairing bridge No. 4 and for retaining walls for bridge No. i ; 
$17,500 for two fire engine houses, fire alarm system and apparatus; $10,000 
for garbage incinerator. It was supposed that this would settle the sewer ques 
tion and soon result in relief for Ocean Park. But, after a careful consideration 
of the situation, it was found to be impossible to provide a septic tank and outfall 
sewer for the sum provided. As the residents of the Pier-avenue region were 
strongly opposed to the further use of the old outfall sewer, Santa Monica trus 
tees continued to use the Ocean Park septic tank, now completed, and put in a 
pumping plant at Pier avenue to raise the sewage into the Ocean Park mains. 
But the new septic tank failed to deodorize the sewage, as was expected, and 


although a wharf and outfall extending into the sea was built at Center street, 
there was still complaint of odoriferous breezes and other things, which finally 
culminated in a bitter factional fight in the city of Ocean Park, leading to the 
attempt to disincorporate the municipality, and which placed the city of Santa 
Monica in a most unpleasant predicament, as she was ordered by the courts to 
cease using the Ocean Park mains, while she had still no provision for caring 
for her own sewage. 

During 1906 the garbage incinerator was completed for Santa Monica and 
various mains were constructed in preparation for the erection of a septic tank. 
But a suitable location for the septic tank and outfall system could not be found. 
The entire community was canvassed ; innumerable suggestions were made by 
the citizens, the council and by outsiders ; hut no solution of the matter that 
promised to satisfy all was reached until September, 1907, when the board of 
trade presented a plan, which was adopted by the council and which promises 
to be a complete success. This was. in brief, the building of a substantial pier 
at the foot of Colorado street ; the location of a septic tank and pumping plant 
at the shore end of this wharf and the discharge of the outfall at the extremity, 
1700 feet from the shore. This plan met with approval all around and was 
ratified by the voting of $160,000 bonds for carrying it out, September 3Oth, 1907. 
Bids have been called for and the work will be pushed on the completion of 
the system as rapidly as is possible. 

It was natural that when Santa Monica found herself surrounded by a 
thickly settled district which was demanding school facilities, she should begin 
to think of expansion. The demand for school buildings to accommodate the 
children of the Irwin Heights settlement and of the district east of Seventeenth 
street, led to the proposition to annex these districts to the city before attempting 
to vote bonds for school purposes. April I4th, 1905, a mass meeting of citizens 
decided that at least two new school buildings must be provided, and that an 
election should be called to vote $60,000 bonds for that purpose. The board 
of trade immediately afterward proposed that the boundaries be extended from 
Eighth and Marine streets to Twenty-seventh and Montana avenue. A petition 
for annexation was presented by the people of the district and on August 29th, 
1905, an election was held which resulted in an addition which nearly doubled 
the size of the corporation. 

On September I2th the bond election was held and $60,000 was voted for 
schools. But after consideration, it was decided that it would be economy to 
construct the new buildings of brick and that at least three buildings were 
needed. December 9th $15,000 additional was voted to complete the three 
buildings. But expanison in population and territory was not enough. It was 
felt by many citizens and by the board of trade that an expansion in the form 
of city government would give greater advantages to the municipality. It would 
require the division of the city into equitable wards, give the people a chance 
to govern themselves according to their own special needs, instead of under 




state laws and give the municipality powers which it would not have under the 
incorporation as a city of the fifth class. In order to secure such a charter, a city 
must have a population of 3500 and to determine the present population of Santa 
Monica, the trustees ordered a special census. May I5th this census was com 
pleted and a total of 7208 inhabitants reported. The charter must be prepared 
bv a board of fifteen freeholders, each of whom must have resided in the city 
and voted here for five years consecutively. They are to be elected by the 
people at a general or special election. A committee of the board of trade sub 
mitted the following list of freeholders as candidates for election : T. H. Dudley, 
C. A. Stilson, George D. Snyder, R. R. Tanner, George H. Hutton, H. X. Goetz, 
W. I. Hull, A. M. Jamison," W. S- Vawter, Robert F. Jones, D. G. Holt, B. A. 
Nebeker, E. J. Yawter, Roy Jones, A. N. Archer. This was known as a non- 
partisan ticket. A " citizens' " ticket was also put up, but seven of the nominees 
declined to serve and three of those left were on the non-partisan ticket, which 
was elected by a large majority at a special election held October i8th, 1905. 
November 3rd the board organized for duty, C. A. Stilson was made presi 
dent and committees on law, boundaries, offices, public utilities, taxation and 
election, education and libraries, were announced. After several weeks of stren 
uous work on the part of the board of freeholders, the proposed charter was 
subrhitted to the consideration of the people in January, 1906. There was some 
opposition to certain of its terms it was held that it too greatly centralized 
power ; but it was felt that generally its provisions were wise and that it was 
best to adopt it. At the election March 28th, 1906, the instrument was adopted 
by a vote of 376 for to 183 against. At the same time the uninhabited territory 
known as the " Palisades " was annexed to the city and the uniform shade-tree 
act was adopted. 

Santa Monica, with her new charter, with an area of eleven square miles ; 
with an assessment which increased from $3,830,677.00 in 1905 to $6,523,186.00 
in 1906; with her rapidly growing population; with ample school facilities, the 
best streets in the country and as fine public buildings as are to be found in any 
city of the same size, was now fairly on the way to become the ideal city of 

The building of a new brick manufacturing plant by an eastern corporation, 
the Simmons Brick Co., added largely to the clay manufacturing possibilities. 
A large sum was expended in improved machinery and in buildings. To this 
company and to the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company plant were awarded 
the contract for furnishing 18,000,000 brick required for the Los Angeles outfall 
sewer. Another company was also formed this year to utilize the Santa Monica 
clays in making pottery, but this industry is not yet established. It is only a 
question of proper handling, however, as it has been demonstrated that Santa 
Monica clays have no superior for fine work, in the hands of experienced workers. 

Among the incidents of the year may be mentioned the visits of the Knights 



of Columbus, ' a national Catholic organization, the members of whom were 
royally entertained by Santa Monicans and .carried away golden memories of 
this city by the sea. One of the worst fires on record in the city took place 
September gth when Budy's livery stable on Third near Utah, was burned and 
six horses lost their lives, while a large quantity of hay was destroyed. On 
June 4th the city was startled by the news that their postoffice had been robbed 
of more than $3000 worth of cash, stamps and registered mail matter. This was 
one of a series of exceedingly bold postoffice robberies which occurred during 
this summer. 


During this year a determined effort was made to improve the streets of 
Santa Monica by the latest methods of oiling and surfacing. In pursuance of 
this object about 12,000 barrels of oil were used and many streets which had 

hitherto been dusty in summer 
and muddy in winter became 
practically as hard and clean as 
paved streets. The Santa Monica 
system of oil-paved streets be 
came widely known and was 
rated as having an important 
bearing on the problem of road 
construction. This method was 
used in improving San Vicente 
road, the new boulevard from 
the Soldiers' Home to Ocean 
avenue. This street was 130 
feet wide, with the trolley lines in the center, was curbed and lined with trees 
and when completed made one of the finest drives in the county. It was pro 
posed to extend Sunset boulevard and improve it to connect with this new road. 
There was also much talk during the year of a finely improved boulevard from 
Washington street, Los Angeles, to Ocean Park to join the Del Rey speedway. 
A scheme for a boulevard to extend southward along the coast to Redondo and 
thence to San Pedro was also proposed and discussed, but has not yet materialized. 
Much talk of the Gould line which was supposed to be coming down the coast 
via the Malibu road which was in course of construction, and which would give 
Santa Monica a new " transcontinental " line, was indulged in. There was 
also much talk of Huntington purchasing everything in sight and building a 
new trolley line to Los Angeles all of which served to fill the papers. 

One of the most beautiful suburbs of Santa Monica, located just to the 
north and within view of the ocean, is Brentwood Park. This is a tract of sev 
eral hundred acres which has been highly improved. Streets have been graded 
and oiled, curbs and gravel walks laid and many hundreds of trees and shrubs 



planted out. Water is piped to every lot and electric lights have been installed. 
A number of handsome homes have been built here. 

In January the Odd Fellows dedicated their handsome new building on 
Third street and January 3ist the Merchants' National Bank moved into its 
own quarters in the Dudley block, a structure that would do credit to any city. 
The Kensington apartments, an attractive apartment house containing all the 
latest devices for comfort, was built on the ocean front south of the Arcadia, at 
a cost of $15,000. Several new blocks were put up on Pier avenue. The build 
ing permits from January to June reached the sum of $194,277, aside from the 
three new school buildings, which were to cost $75,000, and the $50,000 pavilion 
at Pier avenue. Two new fire engine houses were also constructed and 
the garbage incinerator completed. One of the most notable improvements of 
the year was the Santa Monica hospital building, which was begun, after long 
planning, and was completed in the spring of 1907. This is a handsome two- 
story brick structure, standing on a commanding eminence on South Fourth 
street. It is completely equipped in the most modern style and is fast taking 
rank as one of the leading hospitals of the south coast- The handsome two-story 
brick building which took the place of the old Sixth-street school house was 
completed and occupied in the spring of 1907, as was also the Roosevelt school 
building on the Palisades. 


The most important advance of this year has been the final action in the 
matter of sewage disposal. After long agitation a plan which seemed to the 
majority to be feasible and desirable was suggested and on September 3Oth bonds 
to the amount of $150,000 were voted for the building of a 1700- foot pier at the 
foot of Colorado avenue which will carry the outfall sewer pipe from the septic 
tank at the foot of Colorado avenue. A number of other improvements will 
follow the completion of this wharf. During the year building permits to the 
amount of $250,000 were granted. These included the $10,000 addition to the 
M. E. church ; a new garbage incinerator, the new postoffice building and many 
private residences. The Santa Monica Development Company is engaged in 
the construction of a large reservoir, for impounding additional water for the 
city supply, in Sepulveda canon. It will have a capacity of about two million 
gallons and will cost $75,000. An independent gas company has been organized 
and promises to become a factor in the situation. The demand for real estate, 
while not so active as during previous years, has been steady and property in 
" old Santa Monica " continues steadily to increase in desirability. 

The city of Santa Monica, after passing through many stages of develop 
ment, is now a clean, well ordered, and most attractive place of residence. At 
present it has no hotel, no first-class restaurant and offers few attractions to the 
transient, or the crowd ; but it draws a constantly increasing number of perma- 




nent residents of the better class ; while attractive cottages and apartments are 
filled by the people who wish to pass a restful season at the beach. 


The visit of a fleet of sixteen first-class war vessels of the United States 
navy, in April, 1908, was one of the greatest events in the history of the coast. 
Elaborate preparations for the reception and entertainment of the guests were 
made and Santa Monica and Ocean Park took an active part in the occasion. 
An executive committee consisting of David Evans, chairman ; Abbot Kinney, 
R. A. Phillips, W. T. Wheatley, Mayor T. H. Dudley, R. W. Armstrong and 
H. B. Eakin, was appointed. It was largely through the efforts of this body 
that the arrangement was made to divide the fleet and station it at different 
points. As a result of this plan the third division, consisting of the Maine, 
Ohio, Missouri and Minnesota, anchored off these shores for a week. 

The citizens of the Bay region, under the direction of various committees, 
elaborately decorated streets and buildings ; planned entertainments for men and 
officers and were hosts to thousands of visitors. Balls for the enlisted men were 
given in the pavilions and a most elaborate ball was arranged for the officers, 
at the country club. The W. C. T. U., under Mrs. Hesther T. Griffith, main 
tained headquarters at Venice for the sailors and the ladies of the Bay cities 
welcomed the guests with masses of flowers and many courtesies. Friday, April 
23rd, was observed as a legal holiday and was given up to entertaining the guests. 

On Saturday, April 24th, the entire squadron, in the presence of the largest 
crowd ever assembled on Santa Monica Bay shores, maneuvered and then sailed 
silently away to the north. 


1887 $2,405,048.00 1897 1,869,132.00 

1888 2,351,108.00 1898 1,871,588.00 

1889 . 1,807,228.00 1899 1,896,844.00 

1890 1,771,332.00 1900 1,910,158.00 

1891 1,565,773.00 1901 1,991,310.00 

1892 1,648,846.00 1902 2,220,431.00 

1893 1,654,274.00 1903 2,887,574.00 

1894 . 1,705,467.00 1904 3,472,124.00 

1895 1,830,503.00 1905 3,830,677.00 

1,799,545.00 1906 6,523,086.00 

1907 7,886,310.00 



WHEN the town site of Santa Monica was laid out it was surrounded by 
a very large area of unbroken and unoccupied territory. The great San 
Vicente ranch was mostly devoted to sheep pasturage. A few native 
Californians cultivated small tracts on the Boca de Santa Monica ; but that tract 
was also largely devoted to sheep grazing. On La Ballona, Anderson Rose and 
one or two others had begun to farm and the Machados raised some grain, but 
the greater portion of the tract was uncultivated. 

In 1874 Mrs. Nancy A. Lucas, a wealthy widow, with three sons, purchased 
a tract of 861 acres from the Machados. This joined the San Vicente on the 
north and extended as far south as the present city limits of the city of Santa 
Monica, the line having followed the lines of the Lucas tract. The price paid 
was $14.00 per acre. Mrs. Lucas at once began to improve her property 
and in 1875 she erected a house on the highest point of her ranch the hill 
between what is now Strand and Hill streets and Third and Fourth. The 
house was an ambitious two-story affair, costing some $12,000, and was for 
years the finest residence in the vicinity of Santa Monica and a landmark of 
note until its destruction by fire in December, 1904. 

Her sons farmed on a large scale, raising fine crops of barley on the place. 
Two of them opened a lumber yard in Santa Monica and they were prominently 
connected with affairs in the early days of the community. In 1881, Mrs. Lucas, 
who was rather eccentric and lived on the place much of the time alone except 
for her Chinese cook, died suddenly under circumstances which gave rise to 
suspicion and much comment. She was said to have died from the effects of 
strychnine poisoning, supposedly used for killing rats. The property passed 
into the hands of her heirs and was soon broken up. The house, with three 
acres of land, was sold to Miss Mary Green, in her day known as one of the 
most beautiful women in California. She soon afterward married Dan Mooney, 
a well-known character of early days. He had been a miner in Arizona and 
had acquired considerable fortune. They took up their residence in the Lucas 
house which was thereafter known as the " Mooney Mansion." 

August i7th, 1885, Mr. and Mrs. Mooney started to drive to Los Angeles. 
While on the way, Mr. Mooney's pistol fell from his pocket and inflicted a 
mortal wound in his back. Later Mrs. Mooney married Col. A. B. Hotchkiss, 


a well-known and brilliant attorney, who was for many years a Southern Pacific 
representative. He was also the editor of a magazine, Public Resources, which 
did some effective work in advertising the country. He died April 3rd, 1905. 
Col. and Mrs. Hotchkiss owned and, at times, occupied the Mooney Mansion 
until its destruction. Many romantic tales have been set afloat at one time 
and another about the old house which stood alone in state upon the hill over 
looking the ocean for so many years. Its burning was also mysterious so 
mysterious that the insurance companies refused to pay up without a lawsuit. 

In 1875 Mrs. Lucas sold a fifty-acre tract, adjoining the new town and 
fronting the ocean, to Ivar A. Weid, a well-known Los Angeles capitalist. He 
at once advertised, " South Santa Monica Five minutes' walk from the new 
Wharf. Block No. 4, with Ocean Frontage of 370 feet." Later he changed his 
ad to, " SOUTH SANTA MONICA, Lots 60x150 feet. Villa Sites purchased 
by Judges Bicknell and Glassell, Captain Thorn, and others." In March, 1876, 
the Outlook announces that Captain Thorn had sent down a carload of shrub 
bery to be planted on his place at South Santa Monica. March 22nd, 1876, 
this item appears in the Outlook: 

" Improvements are progressing rapidly over at South Santa Monica. 
Major Mitchell, Captain Thorn and Judges Bicknell and Glassell are all build 
ing and planting trees. We understand that General Stoneman and Major 
Hancock will begin building within a few days. A well has been sunk and a 
windmill and tank erected which is the common property of several lot owners. 
C. H. Edwards & Co., of Los Angeles, are planting the shrubbery and making 
an excellent job of it." This little settlement, which seems to have had rather 
a military flavor, remained for some years the most exclusive and fashionable 
beach resort in the vicinity of Los Angeles. Some of these old cottages still 
remain on the bluff and are surrounded by fine trees. The Thorn place with 
its luxuriant growth of trees and shrubbery is still kept up. 

Another early settlement in South Santa Monica was the Central tract, 
laid out by J. W. Scott in 1876. A number of giant eucalyptus still remain of 
the trees planted by him at this time. 

A portion of the Lucas ranch was divided into twenty-acre blocks by E. 
H. Lucas, one of the sons. A number of these were sold in the early eighties 
to various parties, including several Englishmen. The land was fertile and 
water was easily obtained by putting down wells and some prosperous little 
ranches were established here. Among these early settlers were Walter H. 
Wrenn, Nathan Bundy, Thomas Carlisle, Joseph and John Bontty. In 1884 
the Vawters purchased 100 acres of the Lucas lands, lying south of Hollister 
avenue and east of the electric tracks. They paid $40.00 per acre for it, and 
in 1887 disposed of about half of it for a large sum. In 1886, the Crippens, a 


real estate firm of Los Angeles, bought 350 acres, extending from Eighth street 
east and to the San Vicente ranch line. In December this was put upon the 
market as East Santa Monica, villa lots of two and one-half acres being offered 
for $500.00, although the land had been sold the previous year for $40.00 
an acre. 

The boom struck this portion of Santa Monica with considerable force. 
The Vawters sold the Santa Fe tract of 53 acres to R. R. Tanner and Thomas 
A. Lewis, who put down a well, subdivided into lots, put in sidewalks and 
advertised an auction sale to take place August loth, 1887. The highest price 
paid for one of these lots was $725.00. Houses were built on the tract by T. 
A. Lewis, Messrs. Tanner, W. S. Vawter and others. In March, the Wave 
Crest tract was put on sale with an auction, and the newspapers report sales to 
amount of $52,490.00 for 90 lots. H. L. Jones subdivided a tract to which he 
gave the name of Ocean Spray, 120 lots, which met with ready sale. The 
Arcadia, Ocean View, Commercial Company's tract and others were opened 
up during this period and a large number of improvements were made. George 
Kintz built the Crystal Springs bath house and plunge during the latter part 
of '87, and the Ballona and Santa Monica road was incorporated, to build a 
standard guage road from the Port of Ballona to Santa Monica, a distance of 
seven miles. M. L. Wicks, J. Bernard, Jr., and James Campbell were among 
the incorporators. Work was at this time being pushed on what was fondly 
hoped to be the terminus of the Santa Fe road at Ballona, and Santa Monica 
was strong in the hope of a new " transcontinental " line. 

But after the sudden rise in values in 1887 and 1888, came a depression 
when progress was at a standstill ; many of the town lots lapsed into acreage 
property and there was little sale for acreage even, although the drop in prices 
was not so noticeable here as in many localities. South Santa Monica, although 
included as far east as Eighth street in the city boundaries, as adopted in 1886, 
was still a rural community with scattered residences and dusty roads. The 
street car line had been extended from Santa Monica to the city limits in 1887, 
but the service was infrequent and slow. 

In the spring of 1889 the Ostrich Farm was established at South Santa 
Monica. A tract of seven acres, known as the " Santa Monica Tract," was 
fenced in and thirty-four birds, with the nucleus of what was intended to be a 
menagerie, were brought here from Kenilworth, in the Cahuenga valley, where 
they had been located. In 1882, Dr. Charles S. Sketchley, an Englishman who 
had been engaged in ostrich farming in South Africa, came to California and 
selected a site near Anaheim as the best location he could find in California for 
an ostrich 1 farm. His attempt here was so successful that about 1885 a syndicate 
was formed and Dr. Sketchley was sent again to Africa to pecure new birds. He 


returned with thirty-four fine birds which were placed on the Los Feliz rancho 
in the Cahuenga foothills. A park and menagerie were planned and it was 
hoped to make this one of the leading attractions of Los Angeles. In 1887 the 
Ostrich Farm railway was built to Burbank and Kenilworth as the station at 
the Ostrich Farm was named ; but this location proved too out of the way and 
the venture was not a financial success. Then South Santa Monica was chosen 
as a more accessible spot, offering other attractions as well. 

About thirty birds were brought here under the management of Mr. 
Henry Beauchamp, also English. But the Outlook states that Mr. Beauchamp 
was a " Moody and Sankey convert " and refused to keep his place open on 
Sundays, " which is good religion but poor business." After a couple of 
years the ostriches were removed to a new location near the Southern Pacific 
depot and under the management of Mr. Harold Perry, the place was made 
very attractive. Later Mr. Frank Ellis became manager, and in 1893 sold six 
birds to Sells circus, which were declared by the circus people to be the finest 
ostriches they had ever seen. Many old resident will remember the chase 
which followed the escape of a full grown African bird from the enclosure. 
The frantic creature, after being driven over the hills in the vicinity of the 
Soldiers' Home was finally headed homeward, only to dash past the farm, into 
the ocean to its death. About 1895 the remaining birds were removed to 
Anaheim and this attraction ceased to be counted among the charms of South 
Santa Monica. 

Up to 1890 this section had no school facilities and the children were 
obliged to attend the Sixth street school in Santa Monica a long and difficult 
journey. After a good deal of discussion and several petitions for relief, the 
school trustees finally decided, February, 1890, to establish a school in South 
Santa Monica. 

February 25th, 1888, the board of school trustees voted to purchase two 
lots, 12 and 13 of the Santa Fe tract, at $1,000.00 each. Nothing further in 
reference to providing a school for the south side appears until February loth, 
1890, when the minutes state that a proposition was received from E. Emerson, 
to build a house at South Santa Monica suitable for school purposes and to 
rent the same to the district for six months at a rental of $50.00 per month. 
This proposition was accepted by the board and February 28th they elected 
Miss Ellen L. Huie as teacher, at a salary of $60.00 per month. What happened 
in the interim does not appear but on the records under date of March 4th, all 
the " above action " is rescinded, and Miss Huie was allowed $7.50 to reimburse 
her for her expenses in coming to Santa Monica. At a special meeting of the 
board held August 2ist, 1890, Miss Huie was again employed to teach "the 
south side " school at a salary of $50.00 per month, the " school to be discontinued 
at the pleasure of the board." 


A small school house was built on the school lots, probably during the 
summer of 1890. In August, 1895, a special tax of $1,500.00 was voted to build 
a school house on the " south side " and a one-room building was put up and 
in the fall was occupied, with Miss Alice M. Frazier as teacher. 

Early in the seventies an Englishman, Col. Hutchinson, loaned money to 
the Machados, taking mortgages upon various pieces of land as security. One 
of these was a narrow strip of beach frontage extending from Strand street to 
the southern limits of La Ballona grant. This strip of sand was supposed to 
be worthless for any purpose, unless a wharf for commercial purposes could be 
built from it. Apparently the belief was general that the only thing needed 
to make a commercial city of Santa Monica was a wharf where vessels might 
land. After the abandonment of the " old wharf," in 1878, five acres of land 
were donated by Mrs. Lucas and others and Juan Bernard began the construction 
of a wharf which is was fondly hoped might restore Santa Monica to the ship 
ping lists of the Pacific coast. But the structure was never completed and no 
boat ever landed there. In 1888, Messrs. Lewis and Van Every proposed to 
build a wharf from the foot of Bicknell avenue and in 1891 the proposition 
of the Terminal Wharf Company came up, various grants and concessions being 
made in consequence; but no wharf was built. 

In 1892 the Santa Fe and Santa Monica railroad was incorporated and 
proceeded to secure a right of way from Inglewood to Santa Monica. A 
concession of twelve acres of land was made them by the Terminal Wharf Com 
pany and Kinney and Ryan, on condition that the company expend at least 
$15,000 in improvements, including a wharf and a pavillion. Considerable 
difficulty was met with in obtaining the right of way, condemnation proceedings 
being necessary in some cases ; but a strip 130 feet wide was finally secured from 
the city limits to the Southern Pacific reservation. A depot was located near 
the Ostrich Farm and on June i8th, 1892, the Santa Fe brought in its first 
train, with a widely advertised excursion to the " Coney Island of the Pacific." 
Later a building known as " the pavilion " was erected on Hill street and a 
cement sidewalk laid to the ocean front. 

A group of trees on land near this depot was then known as Vawter Park ; 
with the Ostrich Farm, the new pavilion, and the many beach improvements 
being made by Messrs. Abbot Kinney and F. G. Ryan, who had lately secured 
title to the Hutchinson property on the ocean front, South Santa Monica began 
to count itself as a " resort." 

The Outlook for May 6th, 1893. says: "It is quite lively on the South 
Side. Three new cottages have just been completed on the Santa Monica tract, 
to be given away with the lots distributed on the first of June. A number of 
summer residences are either completed or in course of construction. The land 


company is now putting down a plank walk from the tract across the sand 
hills to the sea, and it is on the programme to begin the construction of a 
bath house at an early date. Altogether we can safely say that the ' Souhh 
Side ' will be in the swim this summer." 

The houses alluded to were built by Messrs. Kinney and Ryan on their 
Santa Monica tract and were given away with lots sold by distribution. Prices 
were $100.00 per lot, on easy terms. 

In the spring of 1893 the Young Men's Christian Association of Southern 
California, after considerable discussion and looking about, decided to accept 
the proposition of Messrs. Kinney and Ryan to donate them a strip of land 
between the Santa Fe tract and ocean, 250 feet on ocean front and extending 
back to the Santa Fe right of way, about five acres included. June 2ist, the 
Young Men's Christian Association Ocean Park Company was duly organized 
with a capital stock of $10,000, and the following incorporators : J. C. Salisbury, 
M. H. Merriman, F. H. Rindge, A. D. Childress, S. H. Wheeler, A. A. Adair, 
of Riverside ; Charles E. Day, president ; R. G. Lunt, vice-president ; George 
W. Parsons, secretary ; F. M. Potter, treasurer ; O. T. Johnson, J. H. Brawley, 
W. F. Bosbyshell, C. C. Reynolds, Lyman Stewart, and other prominent men 
of Southern California In announcing its decision, the incorporators give as 
reasons for their selection : " The land is about three-fourths of a mile south 
of Arcadia Hotel, is close to the railroad station of the great Santa Fe route, 
which reaches nearly every hamlet and village in Southern California. It has 
a fine, clean, sandy beach, of gentle slope, making a safe and delightful place for 
bathing. Near this land is a fine /o by 1000 feet grove, with pavilion erected 
therein, making a pleasant place for a picnic and the only accessible place 
where a grove and the beach are so close together. A fine wharf will be con 
structed close to this land in the near future, when the coast steamers will connect 
with the Santa Fe route for all points on their line. It will be one of the most 
popular lines between Los Angeles and Catalina Island." Which shows that 
the Y. M. C. A. people were no better at prophesying future results than the 
sanguine " wharf boomers " of Santa Monica. 

In consideration of the donation by Messrs. Kinney and Ryan and Messrs. 
Vawter, the " Ocean Park Company ", named from the eucalyptus grove of the 
Vawters, was to build a commodious bath house and an auditorium, which it 
was expected would be the scene of many religious conventions and assemblies. 
The bath house was built during the summer and many new cottages were put 
up. In July an auction sale of lots took place, 80 lots, 25 by 100 feet, being sold 
at about $45.00 apiece. 

During this summer St. David's Mission, Episcopalian, held services in 


the school house and the South Santa Monica Baptist Mission was organized 
by Rev. H. S. Baker, and in 1894 the Baptist chapel was erected. 

In May, 1895, Kinney and Ryan named their settlement " Ocean Park ' r 
and the Santa Fe giving this name to their station, the existence of the district 
of Ocean Park may be said to date from this year. The Y. M. C. A. people 
put up some new buildings this summer and Kinney and Ryan put in a half 
mile of beach sidewalk, the first on the beach and a greatly appreciated improve 
ment. In September, the Santa Fe fulfilled its promise of a wharf by putting 
in a new type in such structures, using iron pipe for piles. It was located about 
300 feet south of Hill street and was only 500 feet in length, and thus the 
connection with the great world, which had been hoped for, was again delayed. 

The Y. M. C. A. and the summer visitors were favored by many pleasant 
entertainments, concerts and lectures during this season and Ocean Park began 
to be regarded as a most desirable location for those who wished a quiet and 
inexpensive summer outing. Many lots were leased or purchased and many 
modest cottages were put up as summer homes. These first beach cottages 
were very simple affairs a long box of upright boards, with a couple of parti 
tions, being the usual pattern. At this time there were few buildings south of 
Hill street and the " hills " were still the favorite place of residence. A cluster of 
small business buildings had grown up about the street car terminus and the 
Santa Fe station. 

Ocean Park, although within the corporate limits of Santa Monica, had 
not been supplied with water by the municipality. Messrs. Kinney and Ryan 
had their own water supply piped to the beach ; but the people on other tracts 
began to discuss the advisability of having a water system and in December, 
1895, the " City Water Company " was formed, with a capital stock of $20,000, 
and with J. H. Claudius, E. J. Vawter, D. M. Clark, G. R. Green and E. J. 
Vawter, Jr., as incorporators. Its object was to supply South Santa Monica 
with water and to secure this wells were put down on the Vawter tract and pipes 
laid through the district. This company was later succeeded by the Ocean Park 
Water Company. 

On June 3Oth, 1896, the first electric car made its initial trip through South 
Santa Monica, after a day of strenuous labor on the part of the employees and 
officials of the Los Angeles and Pacific electric line. Their subsidy of $5,000, 
given by W. S. and E. J. Vawter, for what was known as the " loop line," 
expired at midnight of June 3Oth, and the work had been delayed to the last 
possible moment. At 9:55 p.m., the first car left the corner of Ocean and 
Oregon avenues and, after crossing the bridge, ran down Second street to Hill 
street, thence eastward to Fourth and returned to Ocean avenue. The car and 
its occupants were given an informal but none the less hearty welcome by the 


South Siders, who felt that at last they were to be brought into touch with the 
world (Xorth Beach). The coming of the electric line was, indeed, a great 
advance for this settlement which had been so long hampered by poor trans 
portation facilities. This year Santa Monica began to talk seriously of the 
sewage problem and proposed to locate its outfall at a point south of the city 
limits. From this time on date the sewer troubles of the beach. 

In July an old-time auction sale with all its accompaniments, took place, 
H. L. Jones reviving his " Ocean Spray " tract which had been first exploited 
in 1887 and going one better on the methods of boom days by offering " one lot 
free to the lucky holder of a thirty round-trip ticket." At this time the Santa 
Fe was giving transportation at very reasonable rates to prospective purchasers 
of Ocean Park property. Ben E. Ward, now of lamented memory, was the 
auctioneer and eighty-eight lots were disposed of by his beguiling words 
and the very real attractions of the location. 

May 3rd, 1897, witnessed a serious loss to Ocean Park in the burning of 
the Y. M. C. A. auditorium, a large two-story building, which had cost about 
$3,000 when erected in 1893. This was a misfortune as plans had already been 
made for the most elaborate exercises yet held by the Y. M. C. A. assembly 
during the coming season. The loss was complete as there was no water to 
save the property, after the fire, which was evidently incendiary, was discovered. 
There was no insurance ; but Mr. Day, president of the Ocean Park Company, 
was equal to the occasion. He at once set about securing new quarters and in 
August the University Assembly, with a full program of excellent speakers 
and music, was successfully carried out. Among the speakers were Bishop 
Fallows, of New York, and Professor Syle, of the State University. Miss 
Ida Benfey gave a number of dramatic readings and a series of brilliant 
their summer guests appeared to find the attractions of the surf and the military 
concerts were presented. But, it must be confessed that Santa Monicans and 
encampment, the tennis court and polo races greater than such a feast of reason 
and culture and the assembly was not a financial success. 

In May the new City Water Company turned the water into a mile and a 
half of mains, the water coming from two wells and being stored in a 50,000 
gallon tank. Thus, at last, the South Side hills had an adequate water supply 
and a chance at fire protection. The electric light system was also extended 
to Ocean Park this year and added to the metropolitan claims of the new 
resort. Many new buildings, including several stores, a ten-room house erected 
by Mrs. Bernard, forty or more beach cottages were added this year. 

Ocean Park had now become ambitious. She had grown so rapidly and 
attained such distinction that the citizens felt themselves entitled to every 
advantage enjoyed by the " other side." The South Santa Monica Municipal 


League was organized to " promote all measures that will benefit the city ; to 
encourage all improvements, both public and private, to oppose saloons and 
disreputable places in South Santa Monica," etc. A Ladies' Mutual Benefit 
Association was also organized, its main object being to build a hall for public 
meetings and use, a lot having been donated by Kinney and Ryan for the purpose. 
All of these efforts added to the natural advantages offered and the spirit of 
enterprise which had been shown in developing what had seemed an almost 
worthless territory, brought about a development that became one of the 
phenomena of the times. 


The settlement known as Ocean Park was separated from Santa Monica 
by the arroyo and the wide unimproved tract belonging to the Southern Pacific 
reservation. This was unfortunate, as it made communication between the 
two points difficult. The Santa Fe service was irregular; the horse car line 
and its successor, the electric line, gave infrequent service ; the drive over 
dusty, ungraded roads, and rickety bridges was not tempting, and the walking 
through a mile of sand or dust was certainly not attractive. The settlement 
about the Santa Fe depot and the Y. M. C. A. holdings was largely made up of 
transient visitors from the interior, who rented cottages, or buih upon leased 
lands. They seldom visited Santa Monica and scarcely realized that they were 
within that municipality. It was natural that they should object to the long 
journey to the postoffice and begin to express a desire for a postoffice of their 
own. During 1898 the subject was agitated and promises secured, although the 
office did not open for business until July, 1899. 

This year Kinney and Ryan opened the Ocean Park race track and golf 
links, which were improved by grading and planting a large number of trees. 
One of the first golf tournaments held in California took place on these links 
when they were opened to the public, in July, 1898. The same gentlemen had 
contracted with the city trustees to build a wharf on the piling used to carry the 
outfall sewer. This wharf was located at what was known as Pier avenue and 
was completed in August. It was 1,250 feet in length and afforded a fine 
opportunity to fishermen and pleasure seekers. The proprietors invited the 
public to a free barbecue and clambake on the evening of Monday, August 
29th, which was attended by a big crowd who enjoyed the feast, music, speeches 
and dancing. 

By coincidence, the old Santa Fe wharf was condemned by the city trustees 
on the day the new wharf was opened and a few days later the old wharf was 
practically destroyed by a storm. The completion of the new wharf stimulated 
the building of the long proposed beach walk connecting the Kinney and Ryan 
walk with Santa Monica. The Southern Pacific began by constructing a board 


walk, 16 feet wide, in front of its property from Railroad avenue to the Crystal 
plunge, and the North Beach Company followed with a walk connecting this 
and the bath house. The city and citizens later built walks and thus about 1902 
easy communication was at last established between the " north side " and the 
" south side." 

The " Ocean View," an eighteen-room hotel, was built by G. H. Strong, 
and was opened July loth, with a spread; but only a few days later the new 
hotel was destroyed by fire. Ocean Park suffered much during its early history 
from fires which seemed to be, in many ca-^s, incendiary and which were very 
destructive on account of the lack of fire-fighting appliances and water. A few 
weeks later the store of Chambers & Co. was burned with its stock of groceries. 
There was a long dispute over the insurance in this case and a good deal of 
feeling was aroused by the circumstances. 

The Methodist church began holding services in the Santa Fe depot in 
October, with Rev. Robert S. Fisher as pastor; in August, 1899, the church 
was organized as the South Santa Monica M. E. church ; the old Methodist 
chapel was donated to them by the North Side church and removed to its 
present location on Lake street. 


The untimely death of Francis G. Ryan, of the firm of Kinney & Ryan, 
who had practically created Ocean Park, led to a change and in 1899 T., H. 
Dudley married Mrs. Ryan and became interested with Mr. Kinney in the 
development of the now promising beach resort. Aggressive advances were 
made in the spring of this year. The Outlook of March roth says: " All told, 
there are now 200 cottages on this property, a great many of which were erected 
last year. There are now some ten or twelve in process of erection and contracts 
for new ones are being made every week. These cottages are not mere shacks, 
but will be neat and commodious, costing all the way from $350 to $1000. 
They are being put up by first-class tenants, mostly professional and business 
men from Los Angeles. Water is supplied from the city water works and 
electric lights are being put into the more pretentious structures. Beach lots 
are rented at about $15 per year to those who will put up neat and substantial 
cottages. No land is sold outright, but long leases are given." 

Messrs. Kinney and Dudley purchased the old Y. M. C. A. bath house 
this year, moved it a block south and refitted it. In July, Pier avenue was 
opened, Kinney and Dudley giving a deed to the necessary land to the city. 
The first building put up was a bowling alley, situated near the beach and 
carried on by Mr. J. G. Holborow. July 28th the post office of " Oceanpark " 
was opened for business. This office had been secured after a long and hard 
contest by Mr. Kinney, it being the only instance of two separate post offices 


established within a single municipality. Mr. L. B. Osborne was the first post 
master and the office was located in his grocery store on Second street. 

This year Mr. E. J. Vawter began the development of the carnation beds 
which have become one of Santa Monica's best-known industries. He devoted 
fifteen acres of land on South Fourth street to the culture of flowers, mostly 
carnations and roses. A 5,ooo-gallon tank stored water for irrigation of the 
tract. The soil and conditions proved to be favorable for the production of the 
finest varieties and the venture proved most successful. Large green houses 
and increased acreage are now devoted to the propagation of flowers which are 
marketed in Los Angeles and shipped to distant points. Many street improve 
ments were made during this year and Kinney and Dudley planted out nearly 
twenty acres to trees, using 10,000 eucalyptus trees alone, in the vicinity of 
the race track. 


Early in the season improvements began to multiply in " Oceanpark " as 
the growing settlement was now officially known, although it was in reality a 
part of the city of Santa Monica and more properly " South Santa Monica." 
The Santa Fe company astonished its tenants, who had erected cottages on 
leased lots, by ordering them to vacate at once ; the unfortunate cottage owners 
had to hustle to find new locations for their buildings. The company leveled 
the ground and made some improvements ; but in August it was announced 
that the entire South Santa Monica holdings of the Santa Fe company had been 
purchased by Messrs. Hart and Fraser, of Los Angeles. The new proprietors 
named the tract " Central Beach " and immediately began grading and putting 
streets through it. The first street opened through and paved between the beach 
and the railroad tracks was India, now Hill street. In a short time lots on the 
ocean front were selling for $1,000, and lots on the side streets at from $300 up. 
Building restrictions were put on the property, which included 185 lots, 25 by 
100 feet in size, extending from Hart avenue on the north to Grand on the 
south and between the beach and the railway tracks. 

In February the Oceanpark Fire Company was organized with A. N. 
Archer, president ; J. H. Hassinger, secretary and treasurer ; William Menzies, 
foreman ; C. J. Marvin and J. Rudisill, assistants. A " bucket brigade " was 
organized, later a hose cart and hose was procured. In 1902, Mr. William 
Martin, owner of the Martin block, on the corner of Ash and Second streets, 
gave the use of a part of a lot for a fire house and the board of city trustees 
provided the lumber for a small building, and bought a fire bell. 

Oceanpark now had her own water systems, fire company, school, churches 
and business houses. Many of its residents were newcomers who knew little 
about the past history of the place or about the " north side." It was quite 


natural that they should think that they might better manage their own affairs 
and pay their taxes for improvements in their own section. As a consequence, 
it was not surprising that a movement for the division of the territory south 
of Front street from " old " Santa Monica should arise. Petitions for the 
division were duly drawn up and presented and then the people on both sides 
began to discuss the question in all of its bearings. When the election came 
on November I2th, 1900, to the surprise of the principal movers in the action 
who, by the way, were all old settlers and were actuated perhaps more by 
personal feeling in the matter than by any serious consideration for the good 
of the community at large, the proposition was snowed under. The vote stood 
341 against division and only 59 for it. Even the warmest advocates of division 
were compelled to admit that they had been mistaken in the sentiment of the 
people of South Santa Monica ; and the possibility of creating two towns out of 
Santa Monica was forever settled by this decision. 


The growth of " Ocean Park " as the district extending from Azure street, 
now Hollister avenue, along the beach to the south beyond the city limits of 
Santa Monica, had progressed by leaps and bounds since 1898. But the 
development of 1901 and the two or three succeeding years threw all previous 
records of beach development into the shade. Ocean Park, started as a gathering 
place for the Y. M. C. A. and kindred societies ; a quiet colony of summer 
homes, occupied by people of moderate means, for the most part, suddenly 
became the most popular and fashionable beach resort in Southern California. 
And with equally surprising suddenness it developed into a bustling business 
town, having stores, hotels, banks and newspapers and all the necessary 
commercial facilities for a community of several thousand inhabitants. 

The extension of the electric line south of Hill street and the erection of 
a power house south of the city limits were indications of the southward trend 
of improvements. The pushing forward of this work, of course, was followed 
by rapid settling up of the territory thus opened up. The electric line was 
completed to a point one mile south of Second and Hill streets on April 3Oth. 
In August it became known that the Los Angeles-Pacific had acquired a new 
and more direct right of way between Los Angeles and Ocean Park. They 
had purchased the old right of way abandoned by the Santa Fe Railroad com 
pany, and begun the construction of a double track via Palms. This, with 
the new cut-off by way of Rosedale cemetery, would considerably shorten the 
time between the city and this beach. 

Messrs. Kinney and Dudley had already extended their beach walk some 
distance south of Pier avenue and had provided electric lights, water and sewer 


system for this new district. The beautiful beach, the opportunity to build 
almost within reach of the ocean spray, the convenient trolley service, and the 
fine class of people who had already located here ; as well as the fishing, 
bathing and amusements offered, attracted residents and visitors. While the 
rapid increase in the value of property attracted investors, both little and big. 
Many people who had leased or bought merely for a beach home during the 
summer had found themselves unexpectedly enriched by the changed conditions, 
and immediately re-invested their gains. Many capitalists were also attracted 
by the chance to make quick money. By the first of March more than fifty lots 
in the new Short Line Beach tract had been sold and a number of buildings 
were under way. 

One of the most important improvements of this year was the Club House 
built just north of the golf links, laid out the year before. This building, 50 by 
80 feet, with a ten-foot veranda below and a roof veranda was put up by 
Messrs. Kinney and Dudley. Some $15,000 was spent on the building and the 
improvements in the tennis courts, golf links and race course and the place was 
made an ideal home for a country club. The Ocean Park Country Club was 
organized with Messrs. Kinney, Dudley and H. M. Grindley as directors. They 
at once planned a week's sports for August and in that month a successful tennis 
tournament, and polo races and golf tournament attracted a large number of 
visitors and participants. 

In April. Messrs. Hart and Fraser reported that only three lots of the 
Central Beach tract, put on the market in the fall, were left, and that $85,000 
had been expended in buildings erected on this tract. Among those locating 
here were Mr. G. A. Hart, Mr. A. R. Fraser, Judge R. B. Stevens, W. D. 
Winston, J. R. Newberry, A. Lichtenberger, William Hammel, and other business 
men of Los Angeles, many of whom built permanent homes here. 

The Ocean Wave tract, south of Central Beach, was offered for sale in 
March by Messrs. Kinney and Dudley and was all sold out in less than a month. 
South Second street was paved and sidewalked during the year and several new 
business blocks put up on Second street- this still being the business center of 
Ocean Park. Pier avenue was surveyed and graded from the railroad tracks 
to the ocean front and the lots offered for sale. In October a two-story frame 
building, with two store rooms below, was put up, the second building on this street 
About July ist, it was announced that Abner Ross, a Los Angeles capitalist, 
would build a seventy-room hotel on Pier avenue. This substantial two-story 
building, which was long the principal hotel of Ocean Park, was erected in just 
twenty-four days from the time work began. Early in August it was opened 
to the public under the management of J. G. Holborow and wife, who furnished 
it and gave it the name. This building was later known as the Metropole and 
is now the Hotel Savoy. It was estimated that over 200 cottages were built 


on the sand during the year, the building expenditures reaching $118,691, 
excluding the hotel and the Casino; $18,50x3 was expended in improving the 
water system, and at least $25,000 was paid out for improvements made by the 
L. A. -P. railway. 


But, rapid as was the pace set in 1901, the advance made in 1902 excelled it. 
A change took place at the beginning of the year, which meant much in the 
history of this section. This was the sale announced February I2th, of Mr. 
Dudley's interests in the Kinney and Dudley property to Messrs. A. R. Fraser, 
H. R. Gage and G. M. Jones ; Abbot Kinney retaining his half interest. This 
sale included the beach from Azure street, now Fraser avenue, to a point 700 
feet below the Country Club house, now Horizon avenue, and the club house 
and grounds. 

If such a thing were possible, new energy was given to the developments 
along the ocean front by the new management. It was announced that the 
wharf would be rebuilt, a bath house and pavilion built at Pier avenue, and the 
old plank walk on the ocean front rebuilt. The entire tract was to be sewered 
and the alley between the front and the tracks, now Speedway, would be 
improved. But the most important move was the change of policy with regard 
to leasing lots. It was announced that no more lots would be leased and that 
leasers would be given until May ist, to purchase their lots or vacate. Here 
after lots would only be sold with building restrictions which would put an end 
to the building of cheap " beach cottages." Many of the lease holders purchased 
their lots and removed the old buildings to put up modern cottages which would 
yield an income on the increased valuation of the property. Many of those 
who did this realized handsomely on the investment. To many, however, the 
prices charged for lots and the building restrictions seemed prohibitive and the 
cottages were removed to cheaper property. During 1902-03, it was a common 
sight to find a cottage on wheels moving back from the ocean front to the hills, 
under the escort of William Menzies. 

In March, 1902, the Ocean Park bank was organized with T. H. Dudley, 
Abbot Kinney, Martin Dudley and Plez James as stockholders. It opened for 
business April 8th in a building on Second street ; but work was soon begun on 
a brick and steel building on Pier avenue and before the end of the year the 
new bank was occupying handsomely fitted quarters and had added a savings 

The previous year the old school house had proved inadequate and the 
Baptist church was rented for the higher grades. The rapidly increasing school 
population made a new building for the Ocean Park school imperative, and after 
an enthusiastic public meeting on the South Side, followed by another public 



discussion of the question on the North Side, the school trustees called for a 
bond election to vote $12,000 for a suitable school house for Ocean Park. The 
bonds were carried, practically without opposition ; the two old buildings were 
disposed of and the handsome eight-room structure, now known as the Wash 
ington school house, was built on the old location, the corner of Ash and Fourth 
streets. Two additional lots were purchased for the grounds and the entire 
building and grounds cost over $16,000. 

The election of W. S. Vawter as city trustee to represent the South Side, 
and the fact that T. H. Dudley was president of the board of city trustees, 
assured this section of full representation in civic affairs and still further 
obliterated the old feeling of estrangement between the two sections of the city. 
The building boom continued. June I2th, the Los Angeles Saturday Post 
writes thus of this beach : 

" There are seven hundred cottages at Ocean Park. They are all tasteful 
and many of them are pretentious. Ocean Park is not a place with a stiff, 
ceremonious air. There is a hospitable individuality, a generous atmosphere, 
in their architecture that shows as much as anything else that the good people 
of Ocean Park are not divided into social cliques or factions." 

During this year Pier avenue became the leading business street. Among 
the business blocks of the year were the Rice and Kellogg block, of three 
stores, with housekeeping rooms above ; a two-story building put up by Gillett 
& Co.; the new bank building, occupying four lots and costing $10,000: a two- 
story block erected by Abbot Kinney. The rapid rise in values is well repre 
sented by Pier avenue property. In 1900, lots on this street sold for a few 
dollars; in 1901, $500 would have been considered a high price for a lot; in 
1902, twenty-five-foot lots sold for $40 per front foot; in 1903, a lot which 
had been purchased for $30 per front foot, was sold for $85 per foot. In 1904, 
C. J. Wilson sold a block on Pier avenue with a two-story frame building and 
a lot of 54 feet frontage for $21,000, and it is stated that the property was then 
yielding 10 per cent, on the investment. 

The company spent several thousand dollars this year in improving the 
sewer service. Twelve miles of new sidewalks were laid by the city and private 
parties and many streets were graded. It is estimated that street improvements 
reached about $20,000. On Saturday, November I5th, 1902, appeared the first 
issue of the Ocean Park Reznew, with A. Bert Bynon as editor. 

On August 2nd, the new line of the trolley road by way of Palms, was 
opened, the event being celebrated by an excursion of the Jonathan Club of 
Los Angeles, and distinguished citizens, who were entertained with a fish 
dinner at the country club. The Ocean Park Country Club sent out elaborate 


Invitations, announcing a polo match, tea, dinner, and reception, with speeches 
and dancing, in honor of the occasion. The invitations read : 

" The Los Angeles-Pacific Railway company will open its Short Line cut-off 
from Los Angeles to Ocean Park, tomorrow, Saturday, August 2nd, 1902. And 
in honor of this event the Los Angeles Country Club has arranged for a demon 
stration that will mark the epoch as the most important in the history of Ocean 
Park up to this date. 

" The opening of this line of railway communication is recognized as of such 
importance to the future welfare and prosperity of Ocean Park that the head 
moulders of the present and future greatness of that noted beach resort appreciate 
the necessity of this great proposed demonstration. 

" And these head moulders of the present and future greatness are Messrs. 
Fraser, Jones, Kinney and Gage, the proprietors of the Country Club, and it 
is these gentlemen who extend a cordial invitation to participate in the exercises 
and the reception of the Jonathan Club of Los Angeles and the other guests." 


The new year showed no diminishniMit in building or in general improve 
ment in the " sand district." Work was begun early in the year on the pavilion 
at the foot of Pier avenue, which was to be the most complete pleasure resort 
on the beach. \Yhen it was opened to the public in the spring, it at once 
attracted the Sunday crowds. The question of granting a restaurant liquor 
license for the pavilion greatly harassed many of the older residents of Ocean 
Park, who had greatly prided themselves upon the high moral tone of their 
community. The matter was discussed warmly and was made an issue in the 
spring election which was hotly contested, the liquor question and the traction 
franchises being the mooted points. The result of the election was not satisfac 
tory to the " no-license " element who forced a special election, at which they 
lost heavily in votes. And the liquor license was granted for the pavilion 
the first one ever granted in Ocean Park district. 

The Traction matter was quite as important in its bearing on Ocean Park- 
affairs. This company had been interested in a project to build a line to Santa 
Monica Bay by Abbot Kinney, who was its representative in its negotiations 
here. A right of way had been secured ; after a long fight which developed 
much opposition, the necessary franchises were granted by the city of Santa 
Monica and work was actively begun on a competing electric line which held 
out hopes of a twenty-five cent fare. The new road was well under way when 
the sale by Messrs. Fraser and Jones, of the Ocean Park right of way the old 
Santa Fe right of way to Sherman and Clark of the Los Angeles-Pacific, 


and the later sale to the Harriman interests, put an end to this prospect of 
competition ; as the new road thus lost its terminals. 

Several new tracts were opened up for settlement during the year. The 
Ocean Villa Tract, east of the electric road and opposite the Country Club was 
sold in half acre lots which were quickly subdivided and a new residence dis 
trict grew up. In September, Ocean Park Villa Tract No. 2, 60 acres extend 
ing from Ballona avenue to Eighth street was put on the market and made a 
record as a quick seller. These ventures were so successful that E. J. Vawter 
offered 60 lots for sale on the hill in the vicinity of Hill and Fourth streets, all 
of which were soon disposed of. Pier avenue continued to hold its own as the 
principal business street. A three-story brick block was erected by Maier and 
Zobelin, and a new block designed especially to accommodate the postoffice was 
built. July 23d the postoffice was moved from Second street to its new home 
and several of the business houses on Second street followed it to the new loca 
tion. Lots on the ocean front, near Pier avenue, sold this summer for $2,300 
to $2,600. Marine avenue was opened up, paved and sidewalked this year and 
Hart and Fraser avenues were " parked." The placing of the sidewalk in the 
middle of a street, with gardens bordering it on either side was an innovation 
which has proved very attractive in the beach districts, and has now been 
adopted in many places, although Ocean Park claims it as original with her. 

The beautiful home built for J. M. Davies, a ten-room house, complete in 
every detail of artistic finish, and an equally handsome home for Thomas Fitz 
gerald, now owned by Nat Goodwin, marked a new era in beach residences. The 
selection of Ocean Park as a permanent home by such men as Frank Wiggins, 
W. T. Gibbon, and many other prominent business men of Los Angeles, made 
the place a suburban as well as a resort town. 

The rapid growth of South Santa Monica and of the territory south of the 
city limits naturally gave rise to much discussion as to the future government 
of this prosperous young city. The attempt to divide the city of Santa Monica 
had proved so impracticable that it was now proposed to incorporate a new town 
to the south, with the hope that when the new town was fairly organized, the 
Ocean Park district of Santa Monica might experience a change of sentiment 
and cast its fortunes with the new corporation. The matter was fully discussed 
in all of its bearings and in the fall the necessary steps were taken and the elec 
tion called for February, 1904. On that date, the new town began its existence 
and the name " Ocean Park " became the property of a district which had been 
in existence less than eighteen months, leaving the postoffice of " Ocean Park " 
within the bounds of Santa Monica, and creating endless confusion as to the 
location of and the meaning of the name " Ocean Park.'' 




The dissolution of the Ocean Park Improvement Company, which had been 
the controlling element in Ocean Park affairs, was announced February 3rd, 
1904, and was an event of importance in South Santa Monica. By this arrange 
ment, Mr. Kinney, who had owned a one-half interest in the company, sold to 
his partners all of his interest in the property of the company, both lands and 
buildings, between Navy and Kinney streets in Santa Monica, thus giving Fraser, 
Jones and Gage the entire control of the Santa Monica holdings, including the 
Pier avenue improvements. Mr. Kinney received in exchange all title to the 
holdings of the company south of Navy street. As a result of this move, Mr. 
Kinney planned Venice, while Messrs. Fraser and Jones devoted themselves to 
the development of their Pier avenue interests. Another result was the raising 
of prices for all lots belonging to the Improvement Company from $45 per front 
foot to $60. 

It had already been announced that the Los Angeles-Pacific had purchased 
Mr. Kinney 's interests in the proposed electric line that was to have been built 
through Ocean Park. They had also previously purchased the right of way 
owned by Fraser, Jones and Gage, thus giving them additional lands and right 
of way. The railroad company at once began making improvements which were 
greatly appreciate.! by the residents of this district. The building of the plank 
walk between their tracks was a great boon to people who had been compelled 
to wade through deep sand to reach the cars. The erection of stations and 
improvements of the trolley way gave the town a new street and the company 
also graded and improved a tract east of the line and put it on the market. 

In 1901 Captain Donahue brought a gasoline launch to Santa Monica which 
was operated from the wharf at Pier avenue, carrying fishermen and pleasure 
seekers on trips up and down the coast. This little craft had been the source of 
much pleasure to beach residents and visitors and it was with regret that they 
learned of her total wreck which occurred March 23rd, 1904, off the Short 
Line beach. 

June 3Oth the new Holborow, located in the handsome three-story brick put 
up by Maier and Zobelin, was opened to the public. This was then the finest 
hotel south of the Arcadia and was very popular. 


In February, 1905, occurred one of the heaviest storms ever known on the 
Santa Monica bay coast. This washed out a large section of the Pier avenue 
wharf and later in the month another storm completed the wrecking of the pier. 



As a consequence, the outfall sewer of Santa Monica was badly wrecked and 
the beginning of sewer troubles followed. Another storm in March carried away 
700 feet of the wharf and destroyed a mile of the beach walk. According to the 
'terms of the agreement made between the city and the company who built the 
pier on the piles- intended for carrying the outfall, Messrs. Kinney and Ryan 
were to keep the pier in repair for twenty years. The interest of Messrs. Kinney 
and Ryan had now passed into the hands of the Ocean Park Improvement Com 
pany. A dispute as to who should stand the expense of the repair resulted in 
the sewer matter remaining unsettled. In the meantime a company was formed 
to build a new pier and it was proposed also to build another pier from the foot 
of Marine avenue. A permit for the Marine avenue pier was let to M. R. King, 
and later the idea of the horseshoe pier developed. A seaside theater was opened 
for the first time in the Pavilion at Pier avenue. 

The First National Bank of Ocean Park was organized in April, with J. M. 
Elliott, W. D. Longyear, E. J. Vawter, Jr., J. W. Lincoln, A. Eraser, C. H. 
Mullen and E. J. Vawter, ST., as directors. E. J. Vawter, Sr., was president, 
J. M. Elliott, vice-president; Thomas Meldrum, cashier. June ist, the Com 
mercial State Bank opened for business, with Lon A. Pratt, president ; Warren 
Gillelen, vice-president; J. W. Lawrence, cashier. 

Considerable feeling was aroused by an attempt to remove the postoffice 
from Pier avenue to Marine street and then make it the official office of the new 
town. A postoffice inspector was called in to straighten out postoffice matters ; 
but after a conference with all parties interested, it was finally decided that the 
Ocean Park postoffice be left as it was and the new postoffice be named Venice. 
On the completion of the Masonic Temple, a handsome three-story brick build 
ing, located on Marine avenue, the postoffice was again changed, despite a vig 
orous protest, to a handsomely fitted up room in this building. But this was 
still within the limits of Santa Monica. 


_> ^ 

C 'e.Cft.n liV^ 




AS in every other American community, one of the first interests of the new 
settlement of Santa Monica, in 1875, was to provide school advantages. 
The first shack to house the men working on the wharf was put on the 
ground in April, 1875 ; the first lots in the new town site were sold in July. On 
November 3rd, the citizens of the town held a meeting in the dining-room of 
the Hotel Santa Monica to discuss school matters and take steps to secure the 
formation of a school district. As a result of this effort, the Santa Monica 
School District was formed by the board of supervisors. It included within its 
limits the San Vicente, Santa Monica and Malibu ranches, the tract of land 
belonging to Mrs. Lucas, and a portion of the Ballona grant a somewhat 
extensive domain. 

On December 3rd the first school election was held and John Freeman, L. 
T. Fisher and J. W. Scott were chosen as trustees ; at the same time it was 
reported that there were seventy-two children in the new district. An election 
was called in February, 1876, to vote a tax for school purposes; but owing to 
some irregularity of form it was postponed until March nth, when a special tax 
of $5,000 was voted for a school-house, and Loren Heath was appointed as 
assessor and collector of the same. The first assessment of the district shows a 
valuation of $1,035,580. Jones and Baker had already donated two lots on Sixth 
street as a site and during the summer a neat frame building, containing two 
school-rooms below and a large room above was erected and ready for use in 
the fall. 

In the meantime the children had not lacked for educational opportunities. 
November 8th, 1875, the " Santa Monica Academy," D. G. C. Baker, principal, 
opened for its first term of twelve weeks, prepared to give courses " in all 
branches, including the Fourth Reader and Hebrew," and " with accommoda 
tions for a very few young ladies to board and lodge at reasonable rates." Mrs. 
M. J. D. Baker was instructor in elocution and Miss Ida M. Atkinson taught 
music and drawing. Thus every need of a full school curriculum was supplied. 
The first school exhibition given in Santa Monica was presented by the pupils 
of this school in the Presbyterian chapel, February Qth, 1876. The Outlook 
also announces that the second term of Mrs. Frink's private school would com 
mence on February 7th. March 4th, 1876, the first session of the public school 
opened in the Presbyterian church, located on the corner of Third and Arizona, 
the building still standing in the rear of the present church. Among the pupils 
of this school were a number who have since been well known residents of Santa 


Monica George, Henry and Eugene Boehme, Julia, May and George Suits r 
Mary Collins and Claude Sheckles. H. P. McCusick was the teacher and before 
the end of the second month he had an enrollment of 77 pupils. The next fall 
when school opened in the new school-house, September loth, Mr. McCusick 
was assisted by Miss Lucy Whiten and the two lower rooms were used, while 
the " big " room was useful as an assembly room and a meeting place for pub 
lic occasions. Many happy memories are associated with this room in the minds- 
of older residents of Santa Monica. One memorable occasion was an entertain 
ment and dance held on the evening of December 3ist, 1881, the proceeds to be 
used for the purchase of an organ for the school-house. The Los Angeles papers 
announce that the affair was a great success and that the tableaux would have 
been creditable to a first-class theater. It should certainly have been a well 
rehearsed affair, for in a dispute over one of the rehearsals, the teacher, W. H. 
P. Williams, an impetuous southerner, shot and seriously wounded one McDon 
ald whom he thought to be interfering with his plans. Naturally the young pro 
fessor was requested to resign, but the entertainment was carried out by his 
successor, W. W. Seaman, who later became a well known state official. The 
minutes of the school board for December 3Oth, 1881, state, " A Wilcox and 
White organ was presented to the public school of Santa Monica, the money 
for same having been raised by a series of public entertainments gotten up 
through the instrumentality of Mr. M. R. Gaddy and others." 

In 1877 the district showed an enrollment of 157 children, Mr. A. C. 
Shafer was the principal and was assisted by Miss Yda Addis, whose name and 
brilliant though erratic career are known to all older residents of Southern Cali 
fornia. February I4th, 1878, a special tax for school purposes was voted. The 
school continued with two teachers until 1884, when the upper room was fur 
nished and three teachers employed. In August, 1887, more room for the schools 
had become imperative and $5,000 bonds were voted and four rooms added to 
the school building. Four teachers were now employed, with Elmer P. Rowell 
as principal. Mr. Rowell was connected with the schools of Santa Monica for 
four years and many advances were made under his able leadership. In 1888 
the rapid increase in population made even the new accommodations inadequate 
and a tax of $2,500 was voted to still further enlarge the school building, after 
which six teachers were required. 

In 1889, after a good deal of agitation, steps were taken to provide the 
south side with a school. This was opened in a private house; but in 1888 lots 
had been secured at the corner of Ash and Fourth streets and in 1890 a small 
building erected. In 1891 another small building was put up in Garapatos can 
yon. This section of the district has since been cut off from the Santa Monica 
district. In 1894 a neat building was provided for the pupils resident in Santa 
Monica canvon. 


In May, 1885, the first class graduated from the grammar grade depart 
ment, under the county laws governing grammar grades. The Santa Monica 
schools were counted as of the grammar grade until 1891, when the high school 
was established, under a new state law, and opened its first year of work in 
September, with Prof. Lerov D. Brown as principal. Prof. Brown was an able 
educator and made a strong mark upon the character of the city schools. He 
was later principal of the Los Angeles schools and his untimely death was a 
sorrow to many who had enjoyed his instruction. The high school was opened 
in the Sixth street building and the first class of five members, Roy Arthur Sul- 
liger, Florence Corle Rubicam, George G. Bundy, Hilda H. Hasse and Delia 
Sweetser, graduated in 1894. 

For several years, beginning with 1889, Professor E. P. Rowell, Dr. A. W. 
Plummer, Professor Brown and others conducted a very successful summer 
institute in Santa Monica, for teachers and others desiring special instruction. 
These institutes provided interesting and profitable classes and lectures, con 
certs and instruction in music and many enjoyable social affairs grew out of 
them. For several years they attracted a number of teachers and would-be 
teachers to this place for the summer courses. 

In 1893, two more rooms were added to the Sixth street building, and in 
1895 another school room was added to the south side school. September 5th, 
1897, bonds to the amount of $15,000 were voted for a high school building, 
although in April of the same year a proposition to vote $12,000 for the same 
purpose was lost, chiefly because it was felt that the sum was not enough to 
build a suitable building on the lots already secured at Tenth and Oregon. 
The contract for the building was let to H. X. Goetz and in June, 1898, the 
building was completed and dedicated by holding the graduating exercise for 
the year in it. 

In 1902 $12,000 bonds were voted for a new building on the south side 
and the next year an eight-room building, costing when complete about 
$16,000, was ready for occupancy. The city was now growing so rapidly, both 
by annexation and from within, that the school accommodations were felt to 
be entirely inadequate. In 1905 $60,000 bonds were voted and plans were 
made for three school houses, an eight-room building at Seventh and Michigan, 
now known as the Garfield building ; a four-room school at Irwin avenue and 
Twenty-second the Grant, and a four-room building on Twentieth between 
Oregon and Arizona. It was decided to construct all of these buildings of 
brick and to make them complete in equipment. But the growth of the' school 
population was still beyond the capacity of the accommodations and in 1906 it 
was decided to replace the old Sixth street school, which had been added to 
until little of the original building could be found, with a modern building. 



In consequence the people were again called upon to bond themselves for school 
purposes and the sum of $15,000 to complete the three buildings already under 
way, was voted December 9th, 1905, and of $60,000 for the Sixth street school 
and a four-room building in the new Palisade tract. The Sixth street school 
was first occupied in the spring of 1907 and is the equal of any school building 
in the country. 

The Santa Monica schools are now fully equipped for effective service. 
Fifty teachers are employed and the attendance for 1907-8 will surpass all 


previous years. The number of children of school age in May, 1907, was 
2,499. Departments of music and drawing, with supervising instructors are 
maintained. Full courses in manual training and domestic science are given. 
The school district now has nine buildings : The Lincoln the High School 
located at Oregon and Tenth ; Jefferson, the old Sixth street school ; Washing 
ton, Fourth street and Ashland avenue ; Garfield, Seventh street and Michigan 
avenue; Grant, Irwin avenue and Twenty-second street; McKinley, Twentieth 
street between Idaho and Montana ; Roosevelt, Sixth street between Idaho and 
Montana ; Westgate and Canyon. The entire valuation of school property is 


Beside the public schools, the Academy of the Holy Names, under the care 
of the Sisters, was established in 1899. The beautiful building occupied by this 
school was dedicated February 22nd, 1901. 

In 1906 the California Military Academy was established in Santa Monica, 
in response to the desire of parents who wished to place their sons in a genuine 
military academy. Its sessions were held in tents located in the park until 
December 9th, when the school was transferred to the Arcadia Hotel building 
and the hotel ceased to exist after serving the public for twenty years. The 
school has a boarding and day department and prepares its pupils for college. 
Ceftainly no more delightful and healthful location for such a school could 
be found. 


1876-77 John Freeman, L. T. Fisher, J. W. Scott (clerk). 
1877-78 M. D. Johnson, J. W. Scott, George Boehme (clerk). 
1878-79 Loren Heath, J. W. Scott, George Boehme (clerk). 
1879-80 Loren Heath, George Boehme, W. S. Vawter (clerk). 
1880-81 M. D. Johnson, Loren Heath, W. S. Vawter (clerk). 
1 88 1 -82 George Giroux, W. R. Gadcly, W. S. Vawter (clerk). 
1882-83 Mrs. L. B. Huie, J. W. Scott, M. R. Gaddy (clerk). 
1883-84 Mrs. E. E. McLeoud, Mrs. Geo. B. Dexter, E. K. Chapin (clerk). 
1884-85 Mrs. Geo. B. Dexter, Mrs. E. E. McLeoud, E. K. Chapin (clerk). 
1885-86 Mrs. Geo. B. Dexter, Mrs. E. E. McLeoud, E. K. Chapin (clerk). 
1886-87 F. H. Howard, E. J. Vawter, E. K. Chapin (clerk). 
1887-88 W. O. Baxter. Geo. D. Pendleton, E. J. Vawter (clerk). 
1888-89 W. O. Baxter, Geo. D. Pendleton, W. S. Vawter (clerk). 
1889-90 Geo. D. Pendleton, John C. Morgan, W. S. Vawter (clerk). 
1890-91 John C. Morgan, Dr. H. G. Cates, N. A. Roth (clerk). 
1891-92 John C. Morgan, W. S. Vinyard, Dr. J. J. Place (clerk). 
1892-93 John C. Morgan, R. R. Tanner, Dr. J. J. Place (clerk). 
1893-94 Dr. J. J- Place, R. R. Tanner, Nathan Bundy (clerk). 
1894-95 R. R. Tanner, R. P. Elliott, Nathan Bundy (clerk). 
1895-96 R. P. Elliott, Dr. J. J. Place, Nathan Bundy (clerk). 
1896-97 R. P. Elliott, S. F. Carpenter, Fred H. Taft (clerk). 
1897-98 R. P. Elliott, S. F. Carpenter, F. H. Taft (clerk). 
1898-99 R. P. Elliott S. F. Carpenter, F. H. Taft (clerk). 
1899-00 R. P. Elliott, S. F. Carpenter, D. G. Holt (clerk). 
1900-01 S. F. Carpenter, D. G. Holt (clerk), F. K. Rindge. 
1901-028. F. Carpenter, F. K. Rindge, D. G. Holt (clerk) 
1902-03 S. F. Carpenter, F. K. Rindge, D. G. Holt (clerk). 
1903-04 the change was made from a board of school trustees to ;i city 



board of education, the first board under the re-organization being: S. F. 
Carpenter, J. H. Hassinger, W. E. Devore, Dr. J. S. Hunt, J. H. Jackson. 
This board held until 1906 when the present board, W. E. Devore, A. B. Clapp, 
E. V. Dales, D. G. Holt, and W. S. Vawter was elected. 


1876-77 H. P. McCusick. 
1877 A. C. Shatter. 
1878 A. McPherson. 
1878-79 Chas, H. Hall. 
1879-80 Miss Blanche L. Downs. 
1880-81 Florella King. 
1881 W. H. P. Williams. 
1882-86 W. W. Seaman. 

1886-90 E. P. Rowell. 

1890-92 Leroy D. Brown. 

1893-00 N. F. Smith. 

1900-02 C. I. D. Moore. 

1902-07 D. A. Eckert (superin 
tendent) . 

1907 Horace Rebok (superinten 


The following table shows the increase in school enrollment and attendance 
in the Santa Monica school district since the year 1876: 



1876 103 

1876-1877 145 

1877-1878 149 

1878-1879 122 

1879-1880 98 

1880-1881 103 

1881-1882 108 

1882-1883 136 

1883-1884 179 

1884-1885 176 

1885-1886 198 

1886-1887 264 

1887-1888 332 

1888-1889 354 

1889-1890 344 

1890-1891 355 

Av. Daily 








1891-1892 392 

1892-1893 496 

1893-1894 544 

1894-1895 614 

1895-1896 669 

1896-1897 739 

1897-1898 682 

1898-1899 699 

1899-1900 668 

1900-1901 660 

1901-1902 755 

1902-1903 973 

1903-1904 1331 

1904-1905 1352 

1905-1906 1604 

1906-1907 1641 

Av. Daily 









The people who settled the town of Santa Monica were of the intelligent 
and progressive class. They at once took steps to provide themselves with 
schools and churches, and on March 1st, 1876, the Outlook announces: "A 
Library Association is about to be formed in Santa Monica. All those inter- 
ested in this movement are requested to meet at the home of Mrs. Devere, on 
Sixth street, on Thursday evening, when the plans will be explained." 

The association was formed and met once a week on Saturday evenings, 
when discussions were held and papers read. Books and periodicals were 
contributed for the use of the members. At a meeting of the association held 
April igth, 1878, Dr. J. S. Elliott was chosen president; George Boehme, 

treasurer ; and M. 
C. Olmstead, secre 
tary and librarian. 
The initiation fees 
of the society were 
$l.oo and the mem 
bership $2.00 annu 
ally, the money to 


be devoted to the 
purchase of books. 
There were twenty- 
five members, and 
June 1 9th, 1876, the 
first installment of 
books for the Santa 
Monica Library was 
received, the list including a number of standard works. This was certainly a 
good start toward a library. How long this society existed, or what became of 
the books purchased for it, is not known. 

The next movement for a library and a free reading room was made 
about 1884 by some of the ladies of the town, who felt that the young people 
needed such opportunities. Mrs. Asenath Lorimer, Miss Ella G. Dow, the 
Misses Vawter, Miss Niles, and others were interested. A subscription list 
was started, Col. R. S. Baker being the first contributor. Entertainments were 
given for the fund and a room in the rear of Dr. Fred C. McKinnie's drug 
store was secured for a reading room. The work was carried on for some time 
by the women interested ; but after the organization of the Woman's Chris 
tian Temperance Union, the reading room was turned over to their charge. It 
was then removed to the building still occupied by the organization, being 
located in the down-stairs room. Of their work the Outlook notes: 


" A few unselfish ladies of the W. C. T. U. have been engaged for some 
time in establishing a library and free reading room in Santa Monica. They 
have labored faithfully and already there is gratifying evidence that their work 
has not been in vain. Their free reading room is handsomely fitted up and 
is one of the specially inviting places in Santa Monica. For a time they rented 
a room but they finally concluded to purchase a lot and building and take the 
chances of paying for it. In accordance with this plan they bought a 25-foot 
lot and a two-story building on Third street for $2,500. Mr. John Steere, of 
whom they made the purchase, has given the ladies their own time to pay for 
the property, only exacting the interest. By renting a portion of the building, 
they have reduced the rent to a small amount per month. On their shelves there 
are about 400 volumes of well selected books and the tables of the pleasant 
reading room are supplied with many popular magazines and papers. The 
only charge is two bits a month for books taken from the room, while all are 
allowed free use of everything within the library. The officers are Mrs. Jane 
Austin, president; Mrs. D. B. Hubbell, vice-president, and Miss E. A. Dow, 
secretary. A number of other ladies are taking an active interest in the 
institution which deserves a most liberal support from our own residents, and 
it is to be hoped that some benevolent visitor will come along some day and 
determine to help this worthy undertaking. Outlook, July 18, '88. 

The ladies of Santa Monica did, indeed, labor hard to aid this work. They 
gave dinners and suppers, socials and fairs, and worked harder to earn money 
for this purpose than they would have dreamed of working to earn money for 
themselves. One instance is told of an auction sale on the South Side, where 
the W. C. T. U. ladies furnished the dinner. One of the owners of the tract, 
Mr. Tom Lewis, offered to give a commission of $100 to the ladies if they 
would sell the house and lot on the tract offered. After the dinner, one of the 
ladies, Mrs. D. B. Hubbell, heard of the offer, rounded up a purchaser for the 
property and made a sale. In course of time the $100 was paid over to her and 
she asserts that the day on which she spent a hundred dollars all at once for 
books for the Santa Monica library, was a red letter day in her life. 

In 1888, the ladies of Santa Monica, under the direction of Mrs. Chapin, 
Mrs. W. S. Vawter, and others, and with the aid of Mr. Tyler, prepared a 
floral exhibit for the second Floral Festival held in the old Hazard Pavilion, in 
Los Angeles. A full-rigged ship was seen floating on the ocean, the wharf 
and the bluff were represented all in the most exquisite of flowers. The 
Santa Monica booth was unanimously declared the most beautiful among many 
elaborate exhibits and received the first prise, $200. This after deducting 
expenses the ladies turned over to the reading room fund. 

But the purchase of the building and the maintenance of the reading room 
and library proved too heavy a burden for the women to carry indefinitely. In 


1889, Mr. Steere very generously returned the money which had been paid on 
the building and canceled the sale. But upon his death, in 1892, he left this 
building to the Women's Christian Temperance Union on condition that a free 
reading room be maintained in it. 

In 1890 the ladies who were interested in the library proposed to turn it 
over to the city, provided the city would carry it on. The proposal of the 
ladies who had gathered together a well selected library of 800 volumes was 
as follows : 

" It appearing to the members of this society that said society is unable to 
pay the current expenses of the library belonging to them, and believing it will 
be for its best interest to donate the said library to the town of Santa Monica, 
a municipal organization duly incorporated and existing under the laws of this 
state, to be carried on by the said town in accordance with the laws of this 
state regulating public libraries, it is therefor 

" Resolved, that this society does hereby give, donate and bequeath to said 
town of Santa Monica all its said library, together with all appurtenances 
belonging thereto, for the purpose of maintaining a public library in connection 
with a free reading room. 

" We, the undersigned members of the foregoing society, do hereby consent 
to this disposition of the library. 

" Signed by Laura E. Hubbell, president; J. A. Austin, secretary; Rebecca 
B. Guilberson, I. D. Richmond (per Mrs. Richmond, his wife). Trustees, 
Mamie E. Guilberson, Mrs. I. D. Richmond, Mrs. J. A. Dexter. 

November I4th, 1890." 

The town trustees accepted the gift and appointetd W. W. Webster, E. H. 
Sweetser, H. A. Fisher, Abbot Kinney and L. T. Fisher as library trustees. 
Two rooms were engaged in the bank building and December, 1890, Miss 
Elfie Mosse was appointed librarian. 

The first monthly report of the library after it was turned over to the city, 
December, 1890, reads: "Report of Santa Monica Public Library, commencing 
December 5th. The book list names 808 books ; the records show fifteen books 
taken that have been out for several months. The list of subscribers during 
month is twenty-eight sixteen of them new on the list. Receipts for the 
month, $7-25- Donation of a year's subscription of the following magazines by- 
Mr. Abbot Kinney: Scribner's, Popular Science Monthly, The Forum, Harper's 
Monthly, Puck and Judge. Mr. H. A. Winslow donated American Encyclo 
pedia, 10 volumes ; Mr. T. A. Lewis, ' Memoirs of W. T. Sherman,' 2 volumes, 
Elfie Mosse, librarian." 

A subscription of twenty-five cents a month was still required and still at 
the end of the first year the library was badly in need of funds. If it was to be 




carried on, something must be done and a subscription of $200 was made up 
among citizens to help it out. 

.March 1st, 1893, the library was made free to the public, the occasion 
being celebrated- by an evening gathering, speeches, etc. The library now had 
i, 800 volumes on its shelves. The growth was steadily maintained. In 1898 
it became necessary to secure an additional room. On the completion of the 
new city hall, it was removed March 2ist, 1903, to the room now occupied by 
the council, which gave more commodious quarters. 

But it had already been suggested that Santa Monica might possibly be 
able to secure a Carnegie library, as so many other towns in Southern California 
had done. Early in 1903 Mrs. J. H. Clark wrote to Mr. Carnegie, setting 
forth the needs of Santa Monica and making a plea for consideration for this 
city. After some correspondence she received the following letter: 


2 East 91st St., 

New York. 

13th April, 1903. 
Mrs. J. H. Clark, 

Santa Monica, Cal. 

Madam: Responding to your communication on behalf of Santa Monica. If the 
city agree by resolution of Councils to maintain a Free Public Library at cost of not 
less than Twelve Hundred and Fifty Dollars a year, and provide a suitable site for tne 
building, Mr. Carnegie will be pleased to furnish Twelve Thousand Five Hundred 
Dollars to erect a Free Public Library Building for Santa Monica. 

Respectfully yours, 


P. Secretary. 

1 he city was already raising more than the required amount annually for 
the support of the library. It only remained to secure a site. A subscription 
was started and in a few weeks the sum of $3,982.50 had been raised. The 
site on the corner of Oregon avenue and Fifth street was purchased. 
January 1st, 1904, work on the new library was begun. July 23rd of the same 
year saw the building completed and on the evening of August nth the library 
was opened with a reception to the public. 

The architecture of the building is Romanesque, with a handsome facade 
and entrance. Within an octagonal delivery room is the central feature, all 
the rooms being built around it and opening from it, in such a way that super 
vision can be had over the whole from the central desk. A juvenile room with 
suitable chairs and tables and a ladies' rest room add to the conveniences 
for patrons. 

In the regulations governing the library and in the library work, modern 
methods have been adopted and improvements are constantly in progress. At 
the present date the library contains 8,300 volumes and the home issue for the 
year just ended was 39,738. Three days in the week there is a book exchange 
from Pier avenue, the station being in the drug store of Clapp Brothers. 


In the reading and reference rooms are currently received ninety-five 
periodicals. Special work in the children's rooms, such as posters, stereoscope 
system of views, etc., and also meeting the demand for books in connection 
with the public school work, is made a feature of much interest. 

The success of this library has been greatly due to the faithful and efficient 
librarian, Miss Elfie Mosse, who has had it in charge since 1890. For four 
teen years she was entirely without assistance except during the summer months. 
Alone and unaided she has striven zealously to keep the Santa Monica library 
fn the front rank and to keep pace with the growth of the city. All the latest 
methods and improvements have been adopted through her efforts, and at the 
National Librarians' Convention, which she attended, her work received high 

In August, 1902, Miss Grace Baxter was made assistant librarian and a 
student's class was inaugurated. 

The following table, giving the home use of books since the library came 
under " city government," will be of interest : 

January, 1891 to 1892 534 

January, 1892 to 1893 7,5o8 

January, 1893 to 1894 9,941 

January, 1894 to 1905 1 5,106 

January, 1905 to 1906 19,183 

January, 1896 to 1897 18,805 

January, 1897 to 1898 26,397 

January, 1898 to 1899 25,029 

January, 1899 to 1900 27,281 

January, 1900 to 1901 21,533 

January, 1901 to 1902 1 7,550 

January, 1902 to 1903 21 ,260 

January, 1903 to 1904 22,670 

From January to June, 1004 (6 months) n, I 34 

From June 30, 1904, to June 30, 1905 26,575 

From June 30, 1905, to June 30, 1906 35-4 I 

From June 30, 1906, to June 30, 1907 39-738 


Artesian Company $ 300.00 P.radshaw, Wm. G 25.00 

Abbott & Elliott 5.00 Brand, L. C. (Guarantee 

Aiken, H. C 25.00 Title) 40.00 

Busier, A 25.00 Brooks, Miss 25.00 

Bundy, Frank 25.00 fienson, A. B 5.00 

Bundv, Guv 10.00 Bandina, Don Jaun 100.00 



Charles, Chris 25.00 

Chambers, W. H 25.00 

Crosier, J. C 5.00 

Cook, G. W 5.00 

Clark, J. H 100.00 

Carpenter, S. F 25.00 

Conaway, C. W 10.00 

Dudley, T. H 50.00 

Dudley, Mrs. T. H 100.00 

Dow, Miss Ellen - 25.00 

Dike, Mrs. E. W 25.00 

Dales Bros 25.00 

Daley, F. B ';' 50.00 

Duryea, Mrs. A 10.00 

Dunston, H. G 10.00 

Duncan, E 2.50 

Edison Electric 100.00 

Eaton, Fred 50.00 

Edmond, Geo. W 25.00 

Feather, M. D 5.00 

Freeman, Ed 5.00 

Gillis, W. T 25.00 

Guidinger, A. M 25.00 

Gardner, Mrs. M. W 25.00 

Grimes, R. R 5.00 

Ciilman and Dorner 25.00 

Hunt, Dr. J- S 25.00 

Hamilton, Dr. N. H 50.00 

Hutton, Geo. H 50.00 

Hull, W. I 25.00 

Holt, D. G 25.00 

Huhbell, Mrs. L. E 25.00 

Hemingway, J. C 5.00 

Jones, Roy 500.00 

Tames, T. H 5.00 

Jenkins. Rob 5.00 

Keller. H. W 25.00 

Kennedy, John 25.00 

Knesel, J. S 25.00 

Lindsey, C. M lo.'oo 

Lindsey, Mrs. M. C 25.00 

La Berge, J 5.00 

Leonardt, Carl 20.00 

Miller, R. M 25.00 

Moody, T. A 25.00 

Martin, Miss E 25.00 

Montgomery, A. M 25.00 

Mosse, Miss E 10.00 

Miles, J. Euclid 10.00 

Michel, H 15-00 

Morris, Alf 10.00 

Bassett and Nebeker 100.00 

Nieman & Co 25.00 

Rindge, F. H 5o-O 

Robie, J. B 100.00 

Sherman and Clark .'. '., 300.00 

Sweetser, E. H. ... . . . 25.00 

Sawtelle, W. E 25.00 

Schrader, Carl 25.00 

Saxman, W. H 5-OQ 

Taft, F. H 25.00 

Tanner, R. R 50.00 

Tullis, O. G 25.00 

Tegner, Chas 5- 

Vawter, W. S '. .'.". 25.00 

Vawter, E. J 20.00 

Vawter, Misses 10.00 

Volkman, M. F 10.00 

Walkley, Mrs. Caroline ... 100.00 

Webb and Vogel 25.00 

Wilson, J. S 10.00 

Wilson, E. A lo.oo 

83 Subscribers. 





The first fire company in Santa Monica was the Crawford Hook and Ladder 
Company, organized October 27th, 1875, with ]. C. Morgan, president ; S. B. 
Adams, secretary; W. Beach, treasurer; Harry DuPuy, foreman: John Mott, 
first assistant ; Johnny Doyle, second assistant. Their outfitting was very simple, 
being buckets and axes, but they were enthusiastic and on occasions made a 
brave fight with their buckets. One of the most serious fires with which they 
had to contend occurred on July igth, 1876, when the " Club House " was set on 

fire by an incendiary for the purpose of rob 
bery, the thieves getting away with $850 
from the bar during the excitement. This fire 
company was an important factor in the social 
life during early days, as they had their 
annual balls and benefits of various sorts. 
The organization died out, however, and for 
some years the town was without a regular 
fire department of any sort. Everybody 

^^ grabbed a bucket and ran when an alarm 

Ftlttt I ||. J- was given. 

No other fire company was organized 
here until .March 22nd, 1889. when Santa 
Monica Plose, Hook and Ladder Company 
was formed with forty-six members, many of 
whom were leading business men of the city. 
" P>ob " Eckert. who had been a pioneer fire 
man in Los Angeles, was the first foreman 
The first equipment at this time consisted cf 
a four-wheel hose cart and 1,000 feet of hose, 
with ladders, axes, etc. Hydrants had been 

been provided and the old engine house, back of the bank building on Oregon 
avenue, had been built in 1888. The first officers of the company were Robert 
Eckert, foreman ; William Jackson, first assistant foreman ; George P>. Dexter, 
second assistant foreman ; Fred C. McKinney, secretary, and A. G. Smith, 
treasurer. In 1890, George B. Dexter was made foreman, a position which he 
held continuously until 1903 when the department was organized under the new 
city administration. 

In 1890 a two-wheel cart and a hook and ladder wagon were added to the 
equipment. The two carts with 2,000 feet of hose made it a very heavy task 
for the firemen to pull the apparatus to a fire, especially when they had to plough 
through a mile or two of sand or dust to reach South Santa Monica. Yet for 



ten years the firemen were obliged to meet these conditions, added to which was 
often, perhaps usually, an inadequate supply of water, or a pressure too weak 
to be effectual. This company was volunteer and received no compensation for 
their services, except such funds as were raised in various ways through the 
efforts of the firemen or by contribution. 

During that time the fire department had to cope with many exciting blazes. 
One of the most serious was the Santa Monica Hotel which was burned in 1889. 
Another, which many will remember, was the burning of the large livery stable 
belonging to William Flores when several horses and a large amount of hay 
was lost. The destruction of the old Neptune Gardens, in 1893, was a pictur 
esque fire ; in 1895 the burning of the St. James Hotel caused a heavy loss and 
some narrow escapes ; the fire department by good work saved the adjoining 
buildings, although they were too late to save even the furnishings of the hotel. 
In 1899, the Casino building on Third street was destroyed by fire. 

In 1900 the board of trustees after careful consideration purchased a new 
combination hose wagon and chemical engine and also a team of horses. Mr. 
A. J. Myers was installed as driver. The engine house was rebuilt, a new 
fire bell had been put in place and an electrical fire alarm system had been 
installed in 1896. Mr. W. I. Hull served as president of the company for 
fifteen years 1892 to 1907. The present officers are: C. J. Marvin, chief; E. 
P. Xittinger, assistant chief. The board of fire commissioners is made up of 
Mayor Dudley, president ; A. N. Archer and H. G. Dunston. 

In 1906 steps were taken to provide the fire department with suitable 
quarters, the old fire house having become entirely unsuited to its needs. At 
a bond election held in 1906, bonds were voted for building two fire houses, one 
on city property rear of the city hall, one on Surf and Lake streets. These 
handsome buildings, fitted with all modern conveniences, were turned over to 
the city in the spring of 1907. 

A volunteer fire department was organized in Ocean Park February 3rd, 
1900, with an enrollment of eighteen members, its officers being A. N. Archer, 
president; Wm. H. Menzies, foreman; C. J. Marvin, assistant foreman; J. H. 
Hassinger, secretary and treasurer ; E. Rudisill, second assistant foreman. The 
city trustees turned over to this company the old four-wheeled cart and 600 
feet of hose, and furnished lumber to put up a small building which was erected 
on private property by voluntary labor and subscription. This company was 
increased to thirty members and did efficient service many times, although much 
hampered by lack of water pressure. The present fire house is fully equipped. 


The newspaper history of Santa Monica is practically the history of the 
Santa Monica Outlook. The first number of this paper was issued October 

D. G. HOLT. 


I3th, 1875, with L. T. Fisher as editor. Outside of the Los Angeles Express, 
started in 1871, and the Herald, first published in 1873, it is the oldest newspaper 
in the county and one of the oldest papers in Southern California. 

The editor had published a paper at San Pedro before locating in the then 
embryo city of Santa Monica. His first number was a four-page, seven-column 
sheet, well filled with news and advertisements. The office of the Outlook at 
this time was on Third street, between Arizona and .Nevada, the property now 
known as the General Sargeant place. The editor rejoices, in his early numbers, 
in the fact that he for the first time in his life owns his own home, and in 
the rapid growth of his trees and shrubbery. The magnificent trees on this 
place still bear mute testimony to Mr. Fisher's energy. 

The Outlook boosted Santa Monica manfully during those early years of 
existence. The editor was convinced that the progress of Santa Monica, the 
completion of the Los Angeles and Independence road and the supremacy of 
Santa Monica as a commercial port, were the most important subjects to 
himself and his readers and he wrote editorials on these which were masterpieces 
in their way. April 5th. 1876, he published the first "special edition" of the 
Outlook, reviewing the advance made during the six months' existence of the 

When the shadow of coming disaster began to loom up, Mr. Fisher fought 
the " Southern Pacific monopoly " bravely, until the sale of the Independence 
road to the Southern Pacific company was finally confirmed. Then he yielded 
as bravely as he had fought and announced : " We should accept the situation 
as we find it and make the best of it. If we can't stem the current, the next 
best thing is to float as gracefully as possible with it." During 1877, H. A. 
Downer bought an interest in the paper, but soon retired and Mr. Fisher con 
tinued the paper until after the abandonment of the wharf by the S. P. 
December igth, 1878, he announces that the next issue will be omitted, as the 
week is a holiday. The next issue did not appear until January 5th, 1887. 

During 1886, after the wave of activity and prosperity had again struck 
Santa Monica, E. A. Fay started a weekly paper known as The Wave. When 
L. T. Fisher returned and began the publication of the Outlook again, the Wave 
soon vanished from the field and the Outlook remained the newspaper of the 
town. In all the rapid advancement of that boom period, the Outlook led the 
procession. Mr. Fisher put up a strong fight for the new wharf, which he 
believed would make Santa Monica a shipping port; for sewers and municipal 
improvements ; for the location of the harbor at Santa Monica, and for small 
farms, good roads and tree planting. His paper was always strictly non- 
partisan, except for one number in September, 1888, when it was proposed to 
start a new paper in Santa Monica, the Review, to be Republican in pol 
icy. Then the Outlook announces that it will support the Democratic 


ticket Cleveland and Thurman. But the new paper failed to materialize and" 
the Outlook continued to follow its old policy which is outlined as: "The 
Outlook is doing its best and is doing it in its own way. Our chief desire- 
is to advance Santa Monica in the line which will exemplify the good old 
democratic doctrine, 'The greatest good to the greatest number.' ' 

In March, 1891, Mr. Fisher sold the Outlook to W. S. Rogers and Eugene 
Day ; but in September of the same year Mr. Day retired and Mr. Fisher again 
assumed editorial control of the paper. Mr. Fisher retained his interest in the 
paper until October, 1894, when he sold out to E. B. Woodworth. But before 
his final retirement he saw his long desired dream of a commercial wharf 
realized and during 1893 he published very full and exultant accounts of the 
building and business of the long wharf and Port Los Angeles, making predic 
tions of future commercial importance for Santa Monica, which time has not 
yet verified. 

Mr. Woodworth remained sole proprietor of the paper until October, 1895, 
when Robert C. Gillis purchased half interest in the paper. In February, 1896, 
Mr. Gillis became sole proprietor of the Outlook; in April, D. G. Holt joined" 
Mr. Gillis in the publication of the Outlook. Since that date Mr. Holt has 
contiued as editor and publisher of the paper. 

On Monday, June 8th, 1896, appeared the first number of the Santa Monica 
Evening Outlook, a four-page, five-column daily. It continued in this forrrr 
until November, 1891, when it was enlarged to six columns. June i4th, 1902, 
the paper was doubled in size, becoming eight pages. 

The Santa Monica Outlook has always been a clean, clear-cut exponent 
of the interest of its home city. This is the object of its existence although 
the interests of the county and the state' are not neglected. In 1896 Messrs. 
Woodworth and Barrackman began the publication of the Southern Signal, 
which later became the Signal, a weekly and daily paper. In 1897, Eugene 
Day was editor and proprietor. The paper continued to exist until May, 1898, 
when it passed out of existence finally. 


The first postoffice in Santa Monica was located in a building still standing 
on the east side of Second street, near Colorado. The first postmaster was W. 
H. Williams, who held the office until his death in January, 1877. He was 
succeeded by J. M. Rogers. During September, 1877, the office was made a 
money-order office. In 1880, M. B. Boyce was appointed postmaster and held 
the office until 1886, when he was succeeded by Miss Maggie Finn. The build 
ing between the Giroux and Rapp buildings on Second street was then used 
as the office. In February, 1890, W. S. Vawter received the appointment, and 
assumed the office April ist. 1890. He removed it to the new bank building 


on Third street and established it in handsomely fitted up quarters, with J. S. 
Summerfield as acting deputy. In 1893 Mr. Yawter resigned to be succeeded 
by I. C. Steele. During his administration the office was located in the Gates 
block. In May. 1898, George B. Dexter was appointed, to be succeeded in April, 
1902, by the present incumbent, K. B. Summerfield. 

In July, 1888. the office was raised to the third class. In 1899 the Ocean 
Park postoffice was established, with L. B. Osborne as postmaster, this office 
being in Santa Monica also. February lyth, 1900, the electric postal service 
was inaugurated, which gave much better service than had before been enjoyed. 
The steady growth of the postal business in both postoffices has long since en 
titled the city to postal delivery ; but the fact of there being two separate offices 
has stood in the way of the completion of arrangements, although free delivery 
lias been promised for some time. The increased business of the Santa Monica 
office led to a demand for increased room and facilities and in 1907 a building 
was erected especially to accommodate the postoffice and has been equipped with 
every convenience for the postoffice force and for the public. 


December 6th, 1888, the citizens of Santa Monica, after some preliminary 
discussion, organized a Board of Trade, selecting Mr. M. R. Gaddy as president 
and J. J. Carrillo as secretary. After a general discussion as to the needs of 
the community and what could be done to aid in building up the place, a com 
mittee of six was appointed to take up the matter of securing a wharf that 
being regarded as the most important improvement that could be made at this 
time. During the year the Board met rather irregularly and discussed many 
plans for the wharf, for a boulevard to Los Angeles and for various possible 
advance moves. In 1889, E. J. Vawter was elected president, J. J. Carrillo 
retaining the secretaryship. In 1890, M. R. Gaddy was again president. In 
February, 1890, the Board of Trade passed a resolution declaring that Santa 
Monica was the most advantageous location for a harbor and requesting Repre 
sentative Vandever to use his influence towards securing an appropriation for 
that purpose. This Board of Trade continued to exist and to hold semi- 
occasional meetings until March, 1895, when it became a Chamber of Commerce, 
duly incorporated for the sum of $10,000. The incorporators were : R. F. Jones, 
F. L. Simons, T. H. Wells, M. H. Kimball, Walter G. Schee, J. J. Carrillo, 
Roy Jones, E. B. Woodworth, N. A. Roth, W. T. Gillis. H. W. Keller. 

The old members of the Board of Trade were eligible to membership and a 
campaign for new membership was made. The meeting at which the re-organi 
zation was effected passed resolutions thanking Hon. J. J. Carillo for " faithful 
and efficient official service during the seven years last past, all of which time 
he has been Secretary of the Board." The president of the new Chamber of 
Commerce was Robert F. Jones : first vice-president. F. L. Simons ; second-vice- 


president, H. W. Keller; treasurer, M. H. Kimball. The new organization laid 
out a broad scheme of work ; twelve different committees were appointed 
to deal with municipal improvements and affairs. One of the first matters 
taken up was the planning of a float for La Fiesta. Another topic which 
absorbed much attention and was exhaustively handled by a committee con 
sisting of Roy Jones and H. W. Keller, was that of securing a sewer system. 

They engaged an engineer and had careful estimates and plans made, 
which were later adopted by the city council. When the Chamber of Com 
merce asked the Board of Trustees to call an election to vote on sewer bonds, 
the Board declined, fearing that the issue would not carry. The Chamber of 
Commerce then held a " straw election." which was carried out with all the 
completeness of a genuine election and the bonds were carried by a handsome 
majority. As a result a bond election was called by the city and $40,000 bonds 
were voted for sewers. 

A road to Calabasas was another subject which received attention 
and which was successfully carried out, largely owing to the work of Mr. J. 
J. Carillo. Of course the Chamber of Commerce took every opportunity to 
advance Santa Monica's interests in the harbor fight, then on, and some very 
interesting meetings were held in connection with this matter. The Chamber 
of Commerce raised a fund to send Mr. John W. Mitchell to Washington as 
their representative. 

The enthusiasm of the Chamber of Commerce seems to have worn itself 
out in 1898. At any rate in December of that year it was proposed to organize 
an " Improvement Club " which it was believed would eventually make the town 
doubly a paradise. Frank A. Miller, then mine host of the Arcadia, was one 
of the moving spirits in this organization and it started out with energetic 
talk. J. J. Davis was president ; F. B. McComas, vice-president ; F. H. Taft, 
secretary ; Dr. P. S. Lindsey, treasurer. The executive committee included 
F. A. Miller, W r . S. Vawter, N. A. Roth, Roy Jones, Abbot Kinney, A. Mooser, 
A. W. McPherson, E. P. Clark, T. H. Dudley, F. H. Rindge, L. B. Osborne. 
The Club made a vigorous, although unsuccessful, campaign to secure lower 
fares to Los Angeles. It also took up the matter of liquor licenses, recom 
mending that only six saloon licenses be issued and that the license be raised to 
$600. The Improvement Club did some efficient work in arousing public opinion 
of the saloon situation, and for three or four months the Outlook contains long 
reports of its meetings then apparently the Improvement Club went the way 
of the Board of Trade and Chamber of Commerce. 

The Outlook of September 6th, 1901, announces: "Santa Monica is well 
on the road looking to an efficient organization of business men and other repre 
sentative citizens. The ball was started rolling last evening when a largely 
attended meeting was held in the town hall for the purpose of organizing a 


Board of Trade." The organization was completed on September 24th when A. 
Mooser was elected president ; W. I. Hull, vice-president ; Fred H. Taft, 
secretary; W. Lee Chambers, treasurer; O. G. Tullis, J. H. Jackson, B. Sues, 
George D. Snyder and A. Montgomery, were the executive committee. The 
question of bonds for civic improvement; of a sanitarium, and various subjects 
of public interest were brought before the public by the efforts of the Board of 
Trade ; but it seems soon to have lost its grip. 

July gth, 1903, the ever hopeful scribe of the Outlook writes : " It would 
seem that the business men of Santa Monica have at last awakened to the 
necessity of doing something in the way of raising the standard of the amuse 
ments, improvements, etc., of this town, and that they mean to stay awake." 
A large and " enthusiastic " meeting of the business men was held to discuss 
the situation and it was agreed by all that something must be done at once, or 
Santa Monica would lose her prestige as a summer resort entirely. As many 
of those present had been members of the old Chamber of Commerce, it was 
decided to revive that organization. The officers of this renewed Chamber of 
Commerce were : Robert F. Jones, president ; W. I. Hull, first vice-president ; 
R. Fogel, second vice-president ; Frank W. Vogel, treasurer. A committee to 
secure amusements and music for the summer season was appointed and secured 
funds for band concerts during the season. It also arranged for dances and 
various attractions on the beach, but this seems to have been the extent of their 
efforts and nothing more is heard of the organization. 

The next organizations to " improve " the city of Santa Monica was the 
Municipal League. This was formed May i8th, 1904, with Robert F. Jones 
as presiding officer; Dr. Rathbone, vice-president; D. G. Holt, secretary; A. 
Mooser, treasurer. It proposed among other things, to prepare a pamphlet 
setting forth the advantages of Santa Monica, for distribution ; also to prepare 
an exhibit for the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, but the only real 
accomplishment seems to have been a Fourth of July celebration, and the 
securing of a band to play during the summer season. 

June ist, 1905, the Santa Monica Municipal League changed its name to 
become the Santa Monica Board of Trade, with W. I. Hull, president ; R. 
Fogel, vice-president ; J. Addison Smith, secretary, and A. Mooser, treasurer. 
This organization has proved vital and has been an important factor in the 
rapid progress of the past two years. Among some of the achievements of 
the first year's real work were the issuing of 20,000 copies of a neat booklet 
advertising Santa Monica; the publishing of an advertisement of Santa Monica 
in the Pacific Monthly for six months ; efficient aid in the securing of annexation 
of territory to the city, and in securing better lighting and other improvements 
for the municipality. At the second annual meeting, August loth, 1906, W. I. 


Hull was again elected president, and J. Addison Smith, secretary ; C. D. Middle- 
kauff was treasurer, and R. Fogle, vice-president. 

Much valuable work for the good of Santa Monica was accomplished 
during the new year of 1906-07. One of the most important moves was the 
effort made to secure free mail delivery and the promise finally secured that 
such delivery would be provided for as soon as arrangements could be com 
pleted. Attention of the department was also drawn to the inadequate accom 
modations furnished the Santa Monica postoffice and the result has been the 
securing of new and ample quarters. Another important step was the action 
of the board, in recommending that Santa Monica merchants withdraw their 
business from the L. A. P. road until that company granted a five-cent fare 
within the city limits. Largely through the action of this body, the fine system 
of lighting Ocean avenue was adopted. But the most important work of the 
organization was in connection with the sewer problem. It secured and pre 
sented the plan of disposal which has finally been adopted and which it is 
confidently believed will settle for all time this troublesome subject which has 
disturbed the peace of mind of the community .for many years. At the third 
annual meeting held in October, 1907, Mr. Hull declined to be re-elected, 
and J. J. Seymour was chosen as president, R. Fogel was elected vice-president, 
and W. K. Cowan, treasurer. 


1886. Board of trustees, J. W. Scott, W. S. Vawter, A. E. Ladd, John 
Steere, Dr. E. C. Folsom ; clerk, Fred C. McKinnie ; John Steere, president : 
treasurer, Col. E. K. Chapin ; marshal, Hamilton Bagg, succeeded by Michael 

1888. Board of trustees, T. A. Lewis, J. J. Carrillo, Thomas Rhodes, were 
elected, Dr. E. C. Folsom and W. S. Vawter held over, Dr. Folsom was presi 
dent of the board. Rhodes soon resigned and E. J. Vawter took his place. 
Fred McKinnie, clerk; Col. E. K. Chapin, treasurer; attorney, J. C. Morgan. 

1890. J. L. Allen, John Steere, J. J. Carrillo, T. A. Lewis and E. J. 
Vawter were trustees, with J. J. Carrillo president of the board ; Emmet Pollard. 
Clerk ; Col. Chapin, treasurer ; M. K. Barretto, marshal ; attorney, J. C. Morgan. 

1892. J. J. Carrillo, E. J. Vawter. R. R. Harris. T. A. Lewis. H. C. 
Beville, J. J. Carrillo being president of the board ; clerk, C. S. Dales ; treasurer. 
George Boehme ; marshal, M. K. Baretto ; city attorney, R. R. Tanner. 

1894. Robert F. Jones, X. A. Roth. J. J. Carrillo, T. L. Lewis and E. 
J. Vawter were trustees, J. J. Carrillo being president of the board ; clerk, C. S. 
Dales : treasurer, George Boehme : marshal, M. K. Barretto ; attorney, R. 
R. Tanner; library trustees, H. A. \Yinslow, O. G. Tullis, H. S. DeVan, D. L. 
Bancroft, H. C. Wevse. 


1896. Board of trustees, Robert F. Jones, J. J. Carrillo, R. C. Gillis, Moses 
Hostetter, N. A. Roth, Jones being president; clerk, C. S. Dales; treasurer, E. 
W. Boehme ; marshal, George B. Dexter ; attorney, R. R. Tanner ; library 
trustees, Dr. P. S. Lindsey, Fred H. Taft, J. Walter Gray, T. H. Wells, William 

1898. Board of trustees, Robert F. Jones, N. A. Roth, J. J. Carrillo, Moses 
Hostetter, R. C. Gillis, R. F. Jones was president; clerk, J. C. Steele; treasurer, 
E. W. Boehme; marshal, M. K. Barretto; library trustees, S. D. Belt, J. Walter 
Gray, P. S. Lindsey, Fred H. Taft, T. H. Wells 

1900. Board of trustees, Robert F. Jones, C. H. Sammis, J. C. Morgan, 
T. H. Dudley, N. R. Folsom ; clerk, John B. Proctor ; treasurer, E. W. Boehme ; 
marshal, M. K. Barretto; library trustees, J. C. Hemingway, P. S. Lindsey, C. 
I. D. Moore. Fred H. Taft, T. H, Wells. 

1902. Board of trustees, T. H. Dudley, W. S. Vawter, J. C. Steele, C. H. 
.Sammis, J. C. Morgan, T. H. Dudley serving as president ; clerk, J. C. Heming 
way ; treasurer, E. W. Boehme ; marshal, M. K. Barretto ; attorney, Fred H. Taft. 

1903. First election under charter. Council, T. H. Dudley, H. X. Goetz, 
A. F. Johnston, J. C. Steele, W. S. Vawter ; clerk, J. C. Hemingway ; treasurer, 
Frank W. Vogel ; assessor, C. S. Dales; recorder, A. M. Guidinger; marshal, 
M. K. Baretto; school board, W. E. Devore, J. H. Hassinger, Dr. J. S. Hunt, 
J. S. H. Jackson, S. F Carpenter, 

1906. Mayor, T H. Dudley. Members of city council First ward, G. D. 
Snyder; Second ward, W. A. Armstrong; Third ward, Abe S. Reel; Fourth 
ward, Alf Morris; Fifth ward, H. L. Coff man ; Sixth ward, J. Euclid Miles; 
Seventh ward, Roscoe H. Dow. President of council, Alf Morris; city clerk, 
J. C. Hemingway ; treasurer and tax collector, Ralph Bane ; assessor, C. S. 
Dales ; attorney, S. W. Odell ; engineer, Thomas H. James ; street superin 
tendent, H. L. Johnson; building superintendent, H. L. Mitchell; police judge, 
J. J. Carrillo; chief of police, M. K. Barretto; chief of fire department, C. J. 
Marvin : health officer, Dr. W. H. Parker ; superintendent of schools, Horace 
M. Rebok. Board of education, W. E. Devore, president ; A. B. Clapp, E. V. 
Dales, D. G. Holt, W. S Vawter ; board of library trustees, G. A. Lonsberry, 
president; Lewis E. Bradt, A. M. Jamison, C. M. Lindsey, John Morton. 


United States census 1880 417 

United States census 1890 1.580 

L T nited States census 1900 3.57 

Census taken by city 1905 7,028 




THE oldest record of the Methodist church of Santa Monica reads : 
" Minutes of the First Quarterly Conference for Santa Monica, held Oc 
tober 26th, 1875, at the residence of D. G. C. Baker. The presiding elder, 
A. M. Hough, in the chair. The session was opened with prayer by the presiding 
elder. On motion Rev. J. D. Crum was appointed secretary. Organization : 

The following named persons, members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
being present, proceeded to organize a society : J. D. D. Crum, pastor ; O. A. 
Snow, local preacher ; D. G. C. Baker, A. Dutton, M. J. D. Baker, Eliza Corey, 
Ida May Atkinson, Margaret Atkinson, Minnie Atkinson and Mary A. Crum. 
Abner Dutton was appointed class leader. Stewards: D. G. C. Baker, O. A. 
Snow and Margaret Atkinson. D. G. C. Baker, recording secretary. Trustees: 
O. A. Snow, R. M. Widney, Samuel Atkinson. D. G. C. Baker and J. D. Crum. 


It was resolved that the trustees be instructed to incorporate and secure lots 
from the Santa Monica Land Company and erect a church building thereon. 
Margaret Atkinson and Mrs. M. J. D. Baker were appointed a committee to 
secure subscriptions to aid in the erection of a church." 

The Reverend Crum preached for the first time in Santa Monica, October 
I5th, 1875, m an upper room of the buildng, then occupied as a hardware 
store, on the corner of Oregon and Fifth street. On October 29th Rev. Hough 
preached. The society continued to use this room until January i3th, 1876, 
when the pastor gave notice that there would be no service on the next Sabbath, 
but that he hoped they would worship in a building of their own on the second 
Sunday. And this was done. The Santa Monica Land -Company donated two 
lots for the use of the church on the corner of Sixth street and Arizona avenue ; 
the people of the little town, still largely a tent city, donated money and labor. 
Rev. A. M. Hough and R. M. Widney of Los Angeles subscribed liberally, and 
the pastor, being of the long line of Methodist elders who were able to work 
with hands as well as with brain and heart, himself labored with carpenter's 
tools. The church when completed, represented a value, including lots of 
$1,361.66. This building, after being removed to the corner of Fourth and 
Arizona, enlarged several times, was finally removed to South Santa Monica 
to house the new M. E. church there. 

This building was dedicated, free from debt, on February 3rd, 1776. Rev. 
Crum was pastor of the church most of the time until 1878-79. He came of 
a family of ministers, his grandfather having been one of the founders of the 
United Brethren church and having had nine grandsons who entered the Method 
ist ministry. He had spent fifteen years in the Southern Illinois conference 
before coming to this state, where his first charge was the Santa Monica church, 
which he so ably led under many discouragements. It is of record that for his 
first year of labor here he received $230, and his salary in the subsequent years 
was pitifully inadequate. 

Rev. Crum was succeeded by Rev. S. S. Russell, who only remained a 
year, and then for three years the church was pastorless and practically dis 
organized. A pastor was sent here in 1883-4, Rev. J. B. Howard, who found 
but three resident members of the church. He nevertheless succeeded in 
gathering a number of new members and strengthened the church by changing 
the location. The lots on Sixth street were sold and the present location on 
Fourth street and Arizona avenue was purchased and the building removed. 

The church continued to gain slowly under various pastors until 1890, 
when a serious disagreement occurred between the pastor, the official board 
and the membership, and as a result thirty-one out of the fifty-three members 
withdrew and formed the Prohibition Congregational church. The blow was a 
severe one and the church did not recover its strength for two or three years. 



In 1892 Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Rindge became members of the church and rendered 
much assistance to it. Rev. Wm. Stevenson was pastor, and under his minis 
trations the church was doubled in membership and began an advance move 
which has since continued. The Epworth League was formed this year. Dr. 
Stevenson remained as pastor of the church until 1897 and was then given 
a farewell reception which expressed somewhat the honor and love which he 
had inspired, not only in the church, but among the citizens of the town 

In June, 1895, it was announced that Frederick H. Rindge proposed to 
build a new- church building, free of all cost to the church, provided it would 
agree to meet the pastor's salary and all incidental expenses. In consequence 
on August i3th, 1895, ground was broken for this building and on the first 
Sabbath in 1896, the most beautiful Methodist church building in Southern 
California was dedicated. 

In 1897-98 Rev. R. C. Wuestenberg was pastor and the membership was 
increased to 150, while the Sunday school numbered from 250-270. In July, 
1898, it was voted to remove the old church to South Santa Monica, where a 
mission was holding service in the old Santa Fe depot. But after some agitation 
the action was not taken. In August, 1899, a church was organized, then 
known as South Santa Monica M. E. church, with Rev. F. G. H. Stevens as 
pastor, the mission having been served by Rev. Robert Fisher. In December, 
the old church was donated to the new organization and was moved to Ocean 
Park. A new parsonage was erected on the site of the old parsonage. 

Rev. C. T. Wilson and Rev. T. H. Woodward served as pastors and Rev. 
J. C. Healy served during 1901 to 1903. During his term the parsonage was 
completed, a neat cottage which was a decided addition to the advantages of 
the church. In 1903 came Rev. F. G. H. Stevens, who still remains one of 
the ablest and best beloved of the many good men who have served this church. 

Now, in 1907, the church has a membership of 240, while the Sunday 
school reaches 350. So rapid has been the growth of the church and congre 
gations that the church of ten years ago is inadequate and an addition which 
will more than double the seating capacity of the structure is in course of 


The history of the Presbyterian church of Santa Monica dates back to 
September I2th, 1875, when a Sunday school was organized at the house of 
W. D. Vawter, on Fourth street, the present home of the Misses Vawter. Later 
this school met in a hall on the corner of Fifth and Oregon, generously offered 
to them by Mr. J. O. Brady. 

On Septetmber 24th, a petition signed by twelve persons, was sent to the 


Rev. Dr. White, chairman of the committee of the Presbytery, asking him to 
come to Santa Monica and organize a Presbyterian church. ( )n Tuesday, 
September 28th, Dr. White met with the petitioners and organized them in 
accordance with their request into the " First Presbyterian Church of Santa 
Monica." The names of the petitioners were as follows: Mr. R. S. P>assett, 
Mrs. E. Bassett, Miss Rose Bassett, Mr. T. H. Clark, Mrs. E. Mountain, Misses 
Mattie A. Mountain, Mr. L. M. Perkins, Mrs. S. P. Perkins, Mrs. C. A. 
Vawter, Miss May Yawter, Miss Jennie Yawter, Miss Emma Yawter. The 
trustees of the new organization were : Y. S. Grinshaw, E. J. Yawter, G. W. 
Brady, W. S. Yawter. 

The new society proceeded at once to provide themselves with a permanent 
place of worship. Messrs. Jones and Baker presented the church with two 
lots at the corner of Third and Arizona, and on these was erected the chapel 
which for eleven years was used, and was then moved to the rear of the lots, 
enlarged, and used for infant classes, mid-week meetings and socials. The 
Presbyterian Board of Church Erection assisted in building this first church, 
work on which was commenced January ijth, 1876, and which was dedicated 
March I2th. 

On Sunday, July loth, 1887, a move was made for building a more com 
modious place of worship. On that day Col. Elliott F. Shepherd, proprietor 
of the New York Mail and Express, and an elder of the Fifth Avenue Presby 
terian church of New York City, happened to be present and, hearing that the 
church intended to build, started the list with a subscription of $230. Encour 
aged by this beginning, a committee consisting of Mrs. Mary E. Treadwell and 
Miss Jennie Vawter was appointed to canvas the congregation and community. 
By their energetic efforts sufficient funds were soon subscribed to erect and 
enclose the new church building. But before the completion of the work came 
the collapse of the boom and many of the subscriptions were not paid in. The 
ladies of the church met this condition and it is largely due to their efforts that 
the church was finally completed and dedicated, Sunday, September 4th, 1892. 
The ladies held a memorable series of entertainments during the four years of 
church building. The success of the Santa Monica ladies in taking the first prize 
at the Floral Festival in Los Angeles, suggested the idea of a Floral Festival at 
home. In 1889 a "Feast of Flowers" was held in the new church building, then 
unfinished, which was arranged by the ladies of the town under the auspices of 
(he Presbyterian ladies and which was acknowledged as one of the most beautiful 
floral exhibits ever made in Southern California. The succeeding year a 
Kalendar Kirmess was given, lasting three days, the booths representing the 
months and the whole conception most artistically designed and carried out. 
In 1891 another " Spring Festival " was held which was an equally rich display 
of Santa Monica's floral wealth. These affairs were participated in by the 


people of Santa Monica generally and attracted many visitors from Los Angeles 
and other places. Much of their success was due to the energy and executive 
ability of the committee of which Miss Jennie Vawter was chairman. 

The new church is of the Queen Anne style, ceiled and wainscoted within 
with cedar, lighted with stained glass windows and electrical chandeliers, and 
with a seating capacity of 250. The total cost was about $7,000, of which over 
$1,000 was contributed by Mr. W. D. Vawter, to whose encouragement at the 
outset and liberal contributions, the success of the undertaking was largely 
due. It was built under the supervision of a committee consisting of Messrs. 
W. S. Vawter, Patrick Robertson and E. H. Sweetser. 

In the summer of 1907 a fine pipe organ was placed in the church as a 
memorial gift from Mr. Joseph H. Clark to the memory of his son, Edward 
H. Clerk. It was built by the Estey Company and was installed at a cost 
of $2,600. 

The following ministers have served the church since 1875 as pastors, or 
as stated supplies: I. M. Condit, H. V. Noyes, John W. Ellis, H. Mackay, 
Thos. F. Fotheringham, Williel O. Thompson, J. W. Healy, Richmond Logan, 
James White, Samuel H. Weller, Enos P. Baker, J. B. Stewart, William R. 
Henderson, O. F. Wisner, Amos A. Randall, Henry P. Wilber. The following 
have served as ruling elders : G. H. Clark, J. C. Olmstead, Geo. A. Armtsrong, 
William E. Case, H. H. Dow, George D. Rowan, Andrew J. Viele, John M. 
Coyner, James E. Ward, C. S. Dales, Clarkson N. Guyer, T. H. Wells, H. J. 
White, T. E. Cramer. 


July 28th, 1877, the Outlook states, saw the celebration of mass, for the 
first time in the new town of Santa Monica. The service was held in the house 
of Judge Morgan, Reverend Father Verdaguer, the beloved " Father Peter " of 
the Plaza church, Los Angeles, presiding. Services were probably held at 
irregular intervals thereafter until May 4th, 1884, when the Catholic church was 
opened for use, although it was not completed until the following year. On 
August i8th, 1885, the bell of the church was blessed and the church was 

In May, 1886, came Father Patrick Hawe as pastor of the church, and since 
that date Father Hawe has been the mainspring of the parish and the church 
work in this vicinity. Under his supervision was built the parochial house 
adjoining the church and the addition to the orginal church building which 
was dedicated August iQth, 1888, by Bishop Mora. In 1887 the statue of 
Saint Monica was presented to the church by Mrs. Victor Ponet, of Los 
Angeles. Also this year was built the Catholic church at Ballona, now Palms, 


St. Augustine's named for the son of Saint Monica very fittingly, since this 
mission was an offshoot of Saint Monica's church. 

In 1899, July i6th, a small band of Sisters of the Holy Name, came to 
Santa Monica to establish an academy. They rented a private house on Fourth 
street, and September 4th, opened their school with nineteen pupils. The 
year closed with fifty-two childrn under the charge of the Sisters. 

September 26th, 1890, the ground was broken for the building of the 
Academy of Holy Names on the corner of Third and Arizona streets. February 
22nd, 1901, witnessed the dedication of the new building. This was an im 
pressive ceremony and the occasion is one that will long live in the memory of 
the participants and witnesses. The civic services were the finest ever held in 
Santa Monica. Under the management of the grand marshal, J. J. Carrillo 
and his fifty aides, richly caprisoned as Spanish cabelleros, the parade was 
viewed in front of the academy. It consisted of a number of old soldiers from 
the Soldiers' Home ; a float representing all the states and territories ; two 
brass bands ; nine societies from Los Angeles ; Santa Monica Board of Trustees 
and fire department, and the children from the academy, the Ballona, Santa 
Monica and Canyon Sunday schools. As General La Grange, and the city 
officials, escorting the clergy, left their carriages the home band played 
" patriotic songs and the cannon of the Soldiers' Home boomed, while the flag 
unfurled and spilled the fragrant roses hidden within its folds." The mayor 
of Los Angeles welcomed the guests ; Right Reverend Bishop Montgomery 
delivered the oration. Thus was the school inaugurated in its beautiful home. 

On May 5th, 1903, the academy was honored by a visit from Rev. Arch 
bishop Diomede Falconi, representative in this country of the Pope, Leo XIII. 
The occasion was made a festal day and the distinguished guest was paid every 
honor, not only by the clergy and laity of the Catholic church, but by the city 
officials and citizens generally. July loth, 1903, was a day long remembered 
in the annals of Santa Monica. It was given up to the entertainment of the 
Knights of Columbia, who had that year held their annual session in Los 
Angeles. The streets and buildings were brilliantly decorated and the popula 
tion turned out to welcome the guests who, in turn, gazed with admiration upon 
the chaums of fair Santa Monica. The day was still further marked by the 
inauguration of a council of the Knights of Columbus in this city, a council 
which has flourished and is now a powerful ally of the church. 

In 1904, under the auspices of Bishop Conaty, now head of this diocese, 
the Catholic Teachers' Institute was held in this city, and since that date these 
institutes have been an annual feature of the life of the Sisters who are engaged 
in teaching. As guests of the Academy of the Holy Name they spend two 



weeks each summer in listening to the instructions and lectures of distinguished 

But perhaps the most glorious of all gala days in the annals of Saint 
Monica's was the celebration of May 8th, 1904. This was a triple festival, for 
it marked the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the Church of Saint 
Monica's, the eighteenth year of Father Hawe's service to this parish and the 
dedication of the church of St. Clement, of Ocean Park. This church had been 
started by Father Hawe ten years before as a mission. The corner-stone for 
the handsome building was laid on August 24th, 1903, and the church was 
finally dedicated August 2Oth, 1905. The Reverend Michael Hennessy is the 
rector of this church. 

The chapel at the Soldiers' Home is also included in Father Hawe's parish, 
he having held the first services on the grounds of the Home, soon after it was 
instituted in 1889. A beautiful building has been erected by the government, 
containing two chapels one for the use of the Protestant churches and one for 
Catholic services. The churches now included in the parish of Saint Monica 
are four, beside the academy. The entire number of communicants is large. 

January I5th, 1903, Reverend James A. O'Callaghan came to Santa Monica 
to relieve the head of the parish and assist him in his labors. Father O'Callag 
han is a man of fine education and of superior qualities and has been of the 
greatest value to the parish. In 1906 Father Hawe visited the home of his 
birth and also visited the venerable Father Adam, of beloved memory through 
out California. During his stay in Europe Father Hawe also visited Rome 
and received the blessing of the Pope. He is again welcomed to his own field 
where he guides the many affairs co-incident with so large and important a 

Plans are already made for greatly enlarging the work of the Catholic 
church in Santa Monica. It is hoped soon to begin work upon a cathedral 
which shall be a magnificent expression of worship, to be located on the corner 
of California avenue and Fourth street. The Christian Brothers, a Catholic 
organization, has recently secured a site of eleven acres between California 
and Nevada avenues, Ninth and Eleventh streets. Here a large college for 
boys will be established. 


The first Episcopalian service held in this city was an Easter service in 
Roger's Hall, April isth, 1876. The hall was suitably decorated for the occa 
sion and the Rev. J. B. Gray officiated. After this there was talk of forming 
an Episcopal society here and a number expressed themselves willing to con 
tribute to a building fund for such a church ; but it was not until about Novem 
ber, 1885, that services were regularly held and a Sunday school organized. At 



that time the Rev. Henry Scott Jefferys, of Los Angeles, was appointed by 
Bishop Kip as missionary in charge of the work and at once proceeded to secure 
land and money for the erection of an Episcopal church. Senator Jones and 
Mrs. Baker donated two lots on Fourth street and an active building committee, 
consisting of Rev. Jefferys, Messrs. Baxter and Tomkinson, set to work to get 
the needed subscriptions. At the end of the first year of Mr. Jeffery's labors, 
sixteen adults and twenty-two children were connected with the mission. 

The corner-stone for a chapel to cost 
$3,000 was laid with much ceremony on 
June loth, 1887. Bishop Wingfield acted 
for the Bishop of California and there 
were present beside the Bishop, the Rev. 
Elias Birdsell, rector of St. Paul's church, 
Los Angeles ; the Rev. A. G. C. Trew, of 
San Gabriel; the Rev. J. D. H. Browne, 
rector of All Saints' church, Pasadena ; 
the Rev. J. B. Britton, a retired mission 
ary and the missionary in charge. In 
1888, through the successful labors of 
Mr. Jefferys and the people the new 
church was opened for divine worship 
and a large congregation assembled, the 
preacher being the rector of Pasadena. 

Mr. Jefferys resigned in the early 
part of 1889 and the Rev. Orrin Judd, 
of North Carolina, succeeded him. Mr. 
Judd had come to California broken down 
in health ; but he was a most eloquent 
preacher, which gift led to his resignation 
of this charge a year later to accept the 
new church of St. John on West Adams 
street, Los Angeles, which had been built 
in order to find a place for him in the city. 
During Mr. Judd's incumbency the work 
prospered and considerable additions were 
made to the membership of the church. 
The Rev. P. S. Ruth, of Pomona, officiated temporarily until September, 
1891, when the Rev. I. M. M. Jones became rector. Mr. Jones remained in 
charge for nearly six years and during that period the Parish Hall was built 
and in many ways the church made progress. On the resignation of Mr. Jones, 



the Rev. Edward Meany officiated temporarily and, at a critical time in the 
history of the congregation, maintained the regular services of the church and 
did much to arouse the people. When, in Alay, 1900, Mr. Meany's school duties 
in Los Angeles compelled him to resign, he was succeeded by the present rector, 
the Rev. John D. H. Browne, who had been for sixteen years in Southern Cali 
fornia and who had just resigned St. John's church, San Bernardino. 

During the nearly eight years that have intervened since Mr. Browne 
assumed the work, there has been steady growth. The church building has 
been enlarged at a cost of $3,000, and has also been beautified by many costly 
memorials. The parish hall has been enlarged and finished within, and a $600 
piano provided, with many other improvements made. The roll of communi 
cants has increased from 27 to 201. The contributions for the parish and for 
the missionary funds of the diocese and the foreign field have multiplied many- 
fold. The baptisms have been over 100 and the confirmations 75. The Sunday 
school has grown very much and under the care of Mr. Percy J. Dudley, as 
superintendent, is accomplishing a good work, especially among the boys. The 
Parish Guild, the Woman's Auxiliary, the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, the 
Daughters of the King, the Junior Auxiliary are all in active life and meeting 
the needs of old and young. 

The Parish of St. Augustine-by-the-Sea has come to occupy the sevenlh 
place among the parishes of the diocese and bids fair to continue to grow in 
importance and increase in influence for good in the life of the city. The 
present officers of the parish and members of the vestry are: Rev. John D. H. 
Browne, rector; Hon. T. H. Dudley, senior warden; Mr. C. S. Raynor, junior 
warden ; Mr. J. B. Proctor, vestry clerk ; Mr. Percy J. Dudley, treasurer ; Mr. 
J. F. Ordway, Mr. E. L. Young, Mr. H. J. Blake and Mr. C. C. Melville. 


In April, 1889, Mrs. Drane living on South Third street, near Sand street, 
gathered together a number of the children in that neighborhood and started 
a union Sunday school in her home. Sunday, January I2th, 1890, a call having 
been made by G. B. Studd and J. O. Mathewson for a Sunday school in South 
Santa Monica, about forty-two persons gathered at the house of Mr. Mathewson, 
at the corner of Bay and South Sixth streets. A school was organized and 
Mr. Andrew Mills was chosen as superintendent, a position which he filled for 
six years. For a time the school was held in the old school house and then in 
the house of Captain Clark, Fourth and Strand. This rough cottage was 
adapted for Sunday services as far as possible and neighboring pastors were 
frequently invited to preach here. 

From February 1st, 1890. until November 3rd, 1892, Rev. A. P. Brown, 


pastor of the Baptist church at Palms, preached on alternate Sunday afternoons 
at Ocean Park. Three pupils were baptized from the Ocean I'ark school into- 
the membership of the Palms church. In 1891, Rev. W. \Y. Tinker became 
district secretary of the American Baptist Home Missionary society. He pro 
posed to erect a chapel in commemoration of J. O. Mathewson, who had passed 
away the previous year. September 5th, 1892, this was dedicated as the 
" Baptist Mission," a branch of the Palms church. It cost $700, was furnished 
with loo chairs, a pulpit and a baby organ. Dr. Daniel Read, of Los Angeles, 
preached the dedicatory sermon. During 1893-4 Rev. H. S. Baker, pastor of 
Palms church, preached regularly in the chapel, assisted by Mr. Charles Baird 
as singer. 

In 1895, Rev. Mr. Thomason, pastor at Palms, preached regularly. In 
June the church was encouraged by a visit from Rev. E. G. Wheeler and the 
chapel car " Emanuel." The same month the annual convention of Southern 
California Baptists was held in the Y. M. C. A. Pavilion at Ocean Park. In 
1896 the church at Palms ceased to exist and the interest fell off very materially 
at Ocean Park. July 26th, Rev. Mr. French, who had located in Ocean Park 
for his health, began to hold services in the chapel and organized a new Sunday 
school. He also organized a Baptist church of sixteen members. In Septem 
ber, 1896, Rev. T. F. Tooker took charge of the little church and conducted the 
services and Sunday school for some time. In 1898, Rev. Chas. Pedley, a 
graduate of Charles Spurgeon's college, in London, located in Santa Alonica, 
and acted as pastor of the church until the spring of 1899. After his departure 
the work languished and the Sunday school died out. The Methodists were 
granted the use of the building for their services until 1900 when they secured 
their own church. 

In January, 1902, Prof. C. S. Taylor, vice-principal of the Santa Monica 
High School, and Mr. F. C. Marvin came to Santa Monica to reside. They 
interested themselves in looking up the Baptists of the community and in 
December, 1902, Rev. George Taylor, of Sawtelle, preached in the 
Baptist chapel, and again organized a Santa Monica Baptist church, 
fourteen members. This church was brought into connection with the Southern 
California Baptist Convention and the American Baptist Home Mission society. 
It was served by various preachers until February I5th, 1903, when Rev. L. 
A. Gould was called as pastor and took up his residence here. September 7th, 
1903, the church was admitted into full membership with the Baptist Convention 
and recognition services were held, many guests being present and the charge 
being delivered by Rev. Robert Burdette. Rev. Gould remained as pastor until 
he was succeeded bv Rev. M. M. Mason. 



This church, whose articles of faith are identical with those of the Weselyan 
Methodist society, was organized in 1906 as a result of neighborhood meetings 
held in the home of J. E. Pearsall, corner of Michigan avenue and Twentieth 
street. The new church was incorporated the same year with Rev. Thos. 
Fisher, pastor of the church, Chas. Allsman and J. E. Pearsall, as trustees. 
Messrs. Towner and Irwin donated a lot on the corner of Michigan avenue and 
Nineteenth street and a neat building, costing about $2,000, was erected. The 
membership is now twenty-six and the Sunday school has sixty members. 


In the summer of [885 a few earnest women, among whom was Mrs. Jane 
Austin, Miss Niles, Miss E. A. Dow, Mrs. I. D. Richmond, and others, organized 
a W. C. T. U. in Santa Monica. These women felt that there was much need 
of their labors here as at that time there were a dozen saloons in the place. They 
took over the reading room which had been previously started in the hope of 
interesting the boys and the young people, and at once set about an earnest 
effort to support the reading room and library and to improve the moral tone 
of their beautiful town. They rented the lower room in the two-story frame 
building now owned by them on Third street. By means of soliciting subscrip 
tions, giving suppers a:id dinners, socials and teas, and in many other ways 
which demanded the strength and time of the faithful workers, they managed 
to keep the reading room open and to add many books to those already collected. 
The early efforts that were made to keep the library and reading room up have 
been told in the history of the Santa Monica Public Library, of which this 
library was the foundation. 

In 1887 the ladies determined to purchase the building which they were 
occupying and the owner, Mr. John Steere, made them a very reasonable rate, 
for boom times, putting the price at $2,500 and giving them their own time to 
pay in, provided the interest was kept up. The women, Mrs. Austin, then 
president, Mrs. D. B. Hubbell, vice-president and in charge of the library, and 
Mrs. Richmond, secretary, worked very hard to maintain the undertaking; but 
when dull times came in 1889, they found the burden too much and Mr. Steere 
took back the building and returned the money, $350, which they had paid on it. 
They continued to occupy the same room as their reading room, however, and 
on Mr. Steere's death, in 1892, he willed this building to the W. C. T. U. of 
Santa Monica, on condition that they maintain a perpetual free reading room. 

This the organization has done. The large upper room is pleasantly fitted 
up and a supply of reading matter and books are kept on hand for circulation 
and for use in the room. A large amount of literature has been distributed by 
this society, also, to ships, camps of laboring men, canyons and school districts. 


For eight years Mrs. Elizabeth Hughes, of Sawtelle, was president of the 
organization and much efficient work was clone under her direction. Mrs. T. 
Hughes Lodge has acted as president or vice-president of the union and has 
the supervision of the reading room. The present officers are Mrs. Mattie 
Barrett, president; Mrs. T. Hughes Lodge, vice-president; Mrs. Ada Schutte, 
secretary; Mrs. Clara Odell, corresponding secretary; Miss Sarah Much, 


In September, 1904, a lecture class in history was organized by Miss 
Elizabeth McLaughlin, with Miss M. E. Abbott as lecturer. The first class was 
held at the home of Miss McLaughlin, after which the sessions were held in a 
cottage, on Nevada avenue until the class outgrew this and was removed to 
Columbia Hall. On December 8th, 1904, the members of this class formed an 
organization, with Mrs. D. G. Stephens as president and Miss McLaughlin as 
secretary and treasurer. This was in reality the organization of the Woman's 
Club, although the name" club " was not taken at this time. During the spring 
Miss Abbott resigned her place as lecturer and other ladies were secured, the 
subjects not being confined to history. 

December nth, 1905, the first annual meeting of the organization was 
held at which time the by-laws were amended, a regular corps of officers elected 
and the name changed to Woman's Club. Mrs. Daniel G. Stephens, who is 
only second to Madame Severance, as a club mother in Southern California, was 
made honorary president; Mrs. A. M. Jamison was elected president; Mrs. ]. 
S. Hunt and Mrs. E. H. Hutton, vice-presidents; Miss Elizabeth McLaughlin, 
secretary and Mrs. Jessica Clark, treasurer. In recognition of Miss McLaugh- 
lin's service to the club as secretary and organizer, she was made a life associate 
member, with all the privileges of active membership. The first meetings of 
this year were held in Columbia Hall, Mrs. M. R. King generously paying the 
rent. Lectures and musical programs were given and the club increased in 
interest and membership. During this year a civic committee was appointed of 
which Mrs. J. P. Jones was the first chairman, succeeded by Mrs. Arthur 
Noble. This committee did most effective service, having secured the preserva 
tion of the trees and the improvement of Nevada avenue, presented a petition 
to the school board, pointing out the necessity of a new school building to 
replace the Sixth street school house, which was a patchwork made up of 
additions to the original structure erected in 1876. The town had just voted 
the sum of $56,000 for building three new school houses, and it was thought 
impossible to carry another bond election for school purposes at this time. 
But the ladies circulated a petition and received such encouragement that the 
election was held and the money for the beautiful Jefferson building voted. 


The Woman's Club has also aided in preventing the issuance of new liquor 
licenses. During 1907 they voted a scholarship fund to be used in keeping a 
bright girl who otherwise must have given up school, in the high school of 
Santa Monica. Surely a more practical and beautiful service could not be 
found. As will be seen this club has done most effective work in benefiting 
the community, as well as furnishing its members with much intellectual and 
social pleasure and development. 

The third annual meeting of the club was held December iith, 1906, in 
the Royal Arcanum Hall, the use of which was donated by Mr. Robert F. Jones. 
At this meeting the former officers were re-elected and a new constitution and 
by-laws were adopted. During the year of 1906-7 the club entertained the 
Woman's Parliament of Southern California, of which their Honorary President, 
Mrs. Stephens, was the founder. Many interesting programs and social affairs 
were offered the members and their friends. 

At the annual meeting of 1907, Mrs. A. M. Jamison, who had served most 
efficiently as president for two years, declined a re-election and Miss Charlena 
Welch was chosen as president. 


On April I2th, 1907, Santa Monica Lodge of Elks was organized as Santa 
Monica Lodge No. 906, B. P. O. E., the Los Angeles Lodge to the number of 
300 coming down to initiate the new lodge. After the ceremonies of initiation 
400 Elks sat down to a banquet in the old Pavilion, which was one of the most 
memorable affairs of the many that took place in the old building. The first 
officers of the lodge were : First Exalted Ruler, Brother W. T. Gillis ; Esteemed 
Leading Knight, Robert F. Jones ; Esteemed Loyal Knight, T. H. Dudley ; 
Esteemed Lecturing Knight, G. F. Doty; treasurer, J. Euclid Miles; secretary, 
J. B. Proctor ; tyler, H. I. Pritchard ; trustees, H. G. Englebrecht, C. M. Lindsey, 
E. S. Tomblin. 

The first lodge rooms of the Elks were located over the Santa Monica bank. 
Later they removed their rooms to the Columbia building where they are at 
present located. Soon after the organization of the lodge it acquired the prop 
erty on the corner of Ocean and Arizona avenues, formerly the home of Mrs. 
Doria Jones, of Los Angeles, one of the most commodious family residences in 
Santa Monica. This was altered and refitted as a club house for the use of the 
members of the Elks Lodge and is one of the pleasantest and cosiest club houses 
in the country. 

At the Elks' reunion, held on the top of Mt. Wilson, May 27th, 28th and 
29th, 1904, the newly formed Santa Monica lodge a "Baby Lodge," as it was 
known won a very handsome grandfather's clock for the best average attend 
ance reported. On June 5th, 1905, this lodge went to San Pedro in a body to 
assist in the initiation of San Pedro Lodge, No. 966, and thus is ceased to be 



the " Baby Lodge." On September 8th, gth and loth, 1905, the Santa Monica 
lodge assisted in entertaining a reunion of the Elks of Southern California in 
Santa Monica canyon. One of the features of this occasion was a genuine old- 
fashioned barbecue. Each Christmas since its organization the lodge has pre 
pared a Christmas tree for the youngsters of the town, at which those wHo 
have little promise of Christmas cheer are especially remembered. 

The Past Exalted Rulers of the lodge since its organization are : W. T. 
Gillis, J. C. Hemingway, P. S. Lindsey, W. G. Miller, who is the present 
occupant of the chair ; J. B. Proctor remained secretary since the formation of 
the lodge. The present membership is about 215. and the lodge is in a most 
flourishing condition. 


Fort Fisher Post, G. A. R., No. 137, Department of California and Nevada, 
was organized in 1885. J. J. Mohen, H. M. Russell, J. W. Keith, G. T. Hoi- 
ford. J. L. Allen, R. P. Elliott, C. B. Fuller, Guy C. Manville, F. A. Westover, 
George Young, W. R. Waldron and Henry Gardner were the charter members 
of this post. In June, 1887, Fort Fisher Relief Corps was installed, with Mrs. 
Josephine Baxter, president; Mrs. E. Gaddy and Mrs. Sadie Bennett, vice-pres 
idents ; Miss Mary Elliott, secretary ; Mrs. Alice Mosse, treasurer, and Mrs. 
Rebecca Gulberson, chaplain. 

In February, 1887, John A. Logan Post was organized in Santa Monica, 
with H. M. Russell as president, J. Mohen secretary, and with twelve members. 
This was later merged with John A. Martin Post, Soldiers' Home. 

Fort Fisher Post flourished until about 1901, when the enthusiasm died 
out and the organization was disbanded. The old soldiers and the Relief Corps 
had always taken a prominent part on public occasions and especially on Me 
morial day, and were much missed from the civic organizations. 

On May 2Oth, 1907, a number of old soldiers met and resolved to form a 
new post, to be known as the Stephen Jackson Post, No. 191. The post com 
mander of this organization is Robert Dollard ; senior vice-commander, A. N. 
Archer; junior vice-commander, David Johnson; chaplain, T. B. Fisher; quar 
termaster, S. D. Hayes ; officer of the day, J. W. Bowlden ; officer of the guard, 
J. N. Lewis ; adjutant, H. C. Towner. Charter members, George Young, J. 
L. Ferguson, Thomas Gilroy, W. W. R. Mattox, A. G. Ford, S. A. Wheeler, 
C. L. Wells, James P. Rutledge, L. M. Pence, M. D. Gage, C. W. Loving, D. 
W. Collis, J. M. McGlinch, Loyal L. Case, I. J. Lucas, Ed. Forbes, J. Teach, 
J. O. Hodgson. Peter Mardy (deceased), J. A. Greenlaw, G. W. Heimer, R. 
P. Elliott, A. Lockridge, E. R. Kennedy, W. W. Woodruff, A. Felix Gandy, 
George Pulham, James Stone. 

Ladies' Grand Army Circle was organized as Fremont Circle, No. 37, De 
partment of California and Nevada, 1904. Mrs. Mamie Young, president ; Mrs. 
S. A. Wheeler, vice-president ; Mrs. Zoe Phyfer, treasurer. 





FOR many years Santa Monica was the center of out-door sports in South 
ern California. The tennis tournaments held on the Casino courts and 
the polo races of the Santa Monica Polo club were events which annually 
drew the " swell " crowd of Los Angeles and Southern California and sometimes 
attracted visitors from San Francisco and the north. While the surf bathing, 
salt water fishing, swimming and bicycle races, baseball and Spanish sports 
drew everybody who cared for any kind of sport to this city. 

One of the first organizations completed in the village of Santa Monica 
was that of a baseball club known as " The Bonitas," formed in October, 1875, 
with T. Cronan, as president ; J. J. Mason, vice-president ; S. B. Adams, secre 
tary, and T. H. DuPuy, treasurer. There is no record of the games they played, 
but no doubt they won victories, over somebody and were duly beaten in turn. 
One of the earliest and most popular of the long list of amusements which have 
proved " attractions " were the " Ring Tournaments " ridden by gallant knights, 
which were an exciting display of horsemanship. On June I3th, 1876, one of 
these occurred in which B. F. Reid was costumed as the " Knight of Fairfax;'' 
L. L. Hope appeared as " Fleur de Lis ;" H. M. Mitchell was " Old Dominion,'' 
and Miss Carrie Heath was " Queen of Beauty and Love." Other contests 
were between teams made up of Native Californians, led by J. J. Carrillo, and 
Americans led by B. F. Reid. These " ring tournaments " drew such Sunday 
crowds that the facilities of the L. A. & I. were taxed to haul them all. Prize 
pigeon shooting contests were another favorite pastime of early days and some 
very skillful marksmen are recorded as taking part in them. 

In July, 1887, a lawn tennis club was formed in Santa Monica and soon 
afterward a lawn tennis association was incorporated under the name of the 
Santa Monica Improvement Club with Abbot Kinney, Col. Baker, Senator Jones, 
Hon. James Bettner, W. J. Broderick, I. W. Hellman, Judge W. P. Gardiner. 
J. Downey Harvey, J. E. Plater, H. G. Wilshire, A Campbell Johnston, H. B. 
Lockwood, Patrick Robertson, Judge W. S. Van Dyke and Hugh Vail as. 
directors. They at once secured the grounds on North Third -street and soon 
had a fund of $10,000 in hand for the erection of a club house. The Casino 
courts were at once gotten into shape, and August 3ist a tournament of the 
Southern California Association " beginners " was heldi at which representatives 


from Pasadena, San Gabriel, Pomona, Los Angeles, Riverside and Santa Monica 
took part. The play lasted four days and ended with a grand ball in Steere's 
opera house, then just completed. The first annual tournament of the Southern 
California Association was held this year at Riverside, and the Santa Monica 
club took part. In 1888 the Casino had been completed and the courts put in 
fine shape and from that time on the annual tournaments of the Southern 
California Association were held here. On these courts many close games and 
fine plays have been made and Santa Monica is justly proud of the fact that 
two ladies who have won worldwide distinction as players, won their first 
laurels on the Casino courts Miss Marion Jones, who in 1897 won the cham 
pionship of the Pacific coast and in 1900 the national championship at 
Philadelphia ; and Miss May Sutton who has now won the international 

For years the annual tennis tournament and the polo races at Santa Monica 
were the great events of the year. Here gathered the prettiest girls, the 
dressiest dames and the handsomest and most athletic of the college men. The 
tennis teas, the parties and the balls that accompanied them were the gayest 
of social affairs and during the tennis week, Mirimar was alive with guests and 
the Hotel Arcadia was as gay as a Saratoga Springs hostelry " in the season." 
In those days the Hugh Tevises of San Francisco and the Bradburys of Los 
Angeles appeared in their drags and added color to the gatherings. In 1891, 
the tennis season was especially gay. Among the players who won honors in 
these earlier years were the Chase brothers of Riverside, Theodore Coulter, Art 
Bumiller, the Carters, Miss Tufts and Miss Shoemaker. 

In 1900 a new Casino was built to take the place of the old club house 
which had been burned down the year before. The presence of the Sutton 
sisters at the tournament this year made the occasion memorable, especially as 
this season marked the first victories of May Sutton, she winning the Southern 
California championship at this time. In 1904 the same brilliant player won the 
American championship and in 1905 she secured the title of " Champion of 
All England," repeating English triumph again in 1907. An English paper 
thus describes Miss Sutton : 

" Magnificently muscular, she appears to care nothing for the minor 
graces, nor even the little tricks and dodges in which her male compatriots 
indulge. She is all for the rigor of the game. There is no tripping after the 
ball with her, no showing off of her figure at the net. She just stands near the 
base line for the most part and sends the ball over the net in terrific drives. 
Yet, with it all; there is nothing offensively masculine about her. She gives 
one the impression of being just a fine, healthy, athletic, American girl. She 
is, at any rate, a kind of tennis player that will take a deal of beating." Lei 
cester Chronicle (English}. 


Of late years the School Tennis meets have been a feature of the tennis 
courts and here Santa Monica has developed a new set of champions. In 1903 
Miss Elizabeth Ryan, step-daughter of Mayor Dudley, won the championship 
in ladies' singles in the Interscholastic League play and since then Miss Ryan 
and her sister have won many honors both at home and on other courts. Miss 
Elizabeth has this year won a championship in British Columbia. 

A polo club was organized in Santa Monica in 1877, but it did not find 
either members or ponies enough to make up a satisfactory game. In 1878, the 
club played a game with Manuel Marquez and four other Mexicans from the 
canyon and was beaten. Apparently it did not survive the shock. In 1889 
the Southern California Polo Club was formed at Santa Monica, grounds were 
donated to them by Messrs. Jones and Baker, and they began to play in earnest. 
This club was largely made up of Englishmen, of whom there were a number 
then resident in the vicinity. Mr. R. P. Carter, who later was known on the 
stage, playing for a time with Modjeska's company, was one of the enthusiasts. 
Dr. J. A. Edmonds, G. L. Waring, W. H. Young, J. B. Proctor, J. Machell and 
a number of other gentlemen were members of this organization. Many sports 
men in Southern California will remember some of the fast and knowing ponies 
who were trained in these games. One of the first essays of the Polo Club was 
a public exhibition of polo in Los Angeles. This resulted in a disastrous 
financial failure and the club would have "gone broke" had it not been for a 
benefit performance gotten up by Mr. R. P. Carter and given in Santa Monica, 
which saved them. For fifteen years the polo club held race meetings every 
year at Santa Monica. In 1897 a match game was played here with the 
Burlingham team, from the north. In 1902, the annual races were held at 
Ocean Park. The chief supporter of this club has been Mr. G. L. Waring, 
who has labored with never-dying enthusiasm to keep the sport alive amid 
many discouragements. 

In 1892 a Cricket club was organized and for several years cricket was 
played by its votaries and cricket tournaments were added to the attractions of 
Santa Monica. Among the best-known players were A. Balch, J. A. Lester, 
C. L. Waring, who is a typical English sportsman, Edward Cawston, R. H. 
H. Chapman, and others. 

Of course with the coming of golf into favor, golf links were laid out in 
Santa Monica and became a favorite game. In 1898 links were laid out on the 
North Side and also at Ocean Park, and since then the Country Club Golf Links 
of Ocean Park have seen some notable games, and have been the center of 
much social gayety. Tennis courts were also laid out here and the club house 
has been a gathering place for those who enjoy outdoor life. 

During the rage of the cycling fever the annual road race on July Fourth 
was the leading event of the year to bicycle racers. On those days Santa Monica 


was crowded with dusty, sweating, red-faced youths, in the most abbreviated 
of clothes and with the most enthusiastic of yells, greeting each man as he 
pedaled into view. A bicycle path to Los Angeles was constructed, bicycle 
clubs and a club house flourished, and the Southern Pacific spent thousands of 
dollars on a bicycle race track and grand stand which was probably the poorest 
investment that the S. P. railway ever made, for almost before it was completed 
the bicycle craze died out as suddenly and as completely as the various spells of 
roller skating, which sweep over the country and vanish into space. The "Ath 
letic Park," as it was christened, was used for several years for ball games and 
sports of various kinds, but it has now become a thing of the past. 

Swimming contests, water polo, bowling, ping-pong and various other 
amusements have had their day and passed on. In 1905-06 roller skating was 
the thing, and large rinks were put in service at all the beaches, but already 
they are desolate, or turned into dancing floors. 

Perhaps the amusement which never loses interest is dancing. The various 
pavilions at the beaches have always been popular and are so still, and yet the 
crowds of today dance in a desultory, incidental sort of way that was unknown 
in the old days when the weekly dance was looked forward to as an event from 
which every possible drop of joy was to be drawn. 


In January, 1875, the Los Angeles and Independence road was incorporated 
by F. P. F. Temple, the first banker of Los Angeles ; John P. Jones, Robert S. 
Baker, Thomas W. Park, James A. Pritchard, and J. S. Slauson, with a paid- 
up capital stock of $502.500. Work was at once begun on the road between 
Los Angeles and Santa Monica under the supervision of Col. J. L T . Crawford, 
who was superintendent, engineer and general manager. The road, \6 l /> miles 
in length was completetd so that the first train ran over it by December ist, 
1875. Two trains a day were put on between Santa Monica and Los Angeles 
and the fare was fixed at $1.00 per trip, freight at $1.00 per ton. At the same 
time work 011 the wharf was pushed and the steamer, the Orizaba, of the 
Goodall & Perkins line, made her first regular stop at this port on Septetmber 
5th, after which steamer service was continued until September gth, 1878, when 
steamer service to Santa Monica was discontinued. 

It was expected that the Los Angeles and Independence road would be 
continued from Los Angeles to Independence, Inyo county, and thence into 
Nevada and possibly L'tah ; but the failure of the Panamint district to yield as 
rich ore as was anticipated and to become a bonanza mining district, led to the 
abandonment of the original plans, and ultimately to the sale of the " Inde 
pendence " road to the Southern Pacific. This sale was consummated and the 
formal transfer was made on June 4th, 1877, when the railway, wharf, two 


depots, rolling stock and other property was turned over to the S. P. company. 
The Southern Pacific abandoned the Santa Monica wharf in the fall of 1878 
and finally destroyed the greater part of it. A stump of this same wharf, 
however, is still to be seen near the foot of Colorado street. 

The Southern Pacific was the only means of transportation to the outer 
world from this time until January, 1889, when the first passenger train of the 
Los Angeles and Pacific railway came into Santa Monica. This road had 
originally been proposed by local capitalists as the Los Angeles County road, to 
run through the foothills and the Soldiers' Home grounds and to terminate on 
the bluff opposite the Arcadia Hotel. Later it became the Los Angeles and 
Pacific road, with E. E. Hall, president ; R. E. Shaw, superintendent, and W. 
T. Spilman, contractor. S. W. Luitweiler, Cornelius Cole, M. L. Wicks, J. 
M. Hale and Arthur Gaylord were among the directors. The road started near 
the Sisters' Hospital in Los Angeles, and passed through Burbank, the Ostrich 
Farm at Kenilworth, Prospect Park, Colegrove, Hollywood, Cahuenga, Morocco, 
Sunset and the Soldiers' Home, the entire line about twenty-seven miles in 
length. The locomotives for this road were built by the Baker Iron Works of 
Los Angeles, and were the first locomotives ever turned out in that city. The 
regular service on this road began January 29th, 1889, and on September 1st, 
of the same year, the unfortunate enterprise went into the hands of a receiver, 
the contractor who had built the line. The train service was reduced to one 
train each way per day, which ran intermittently. "Jack" Henry of Santa 
Monica was the conductor, and it is said that his cry was, " Show your passes," 
when he got ready to take the tickets. After a few months, service on the road 
was abandoned altogether and though there was much talk of repairing and 
the franchise was sold to the Terminal people, nothing was ever done to revive 
it, and the city of Santa Monica finally revoked the franchise granted it. 

The first franchise for a street car line in Santa Monica was granted 
February 23rd, 1887, to W. D. Vawter. On June iQth, 1887, the first car ran 
over the Ocean avenue line and the same fall the line was completed on Utah 
avenue and Third streets up Arizona to Seventh, and on Seventh to Nevada. 
In July, 1889, the line had been extended from the south limits of the town 
up Nevada to Seventeenth street, making a road four and one-half miles in 
length. The motive power in those days was mules, or horses, and the little 
" bob tail " cars of the past are now only memories. The Santa Monica and 
Soldiers' Home street railway was opened November, 1890. A survey for an 
electric road between Los Angeles and Santa Monica was made in 1893, but it 
was not until April, 1895, that articles of incorporation for the Los Angeles 
and Santa Monica electric road were filed. In June, 1895, an ordinance was 
passed permitting the building of an electric road by the Pasadena and Pacific 
railway company, of which General Sherman was president. On April tst, 


1896, the first electric car reached Santa Monica over the Santa Monica branch 
of the Pasadena and Pacific road. This was a memorable day in the history 
of the town. In May, 1897, the electric service was extended to South Santa 
Monica by the electricizing of the horse car line on the south loop, and the Third 
street line was also electricised. The first route to Santa Monica was by way 
of Bellevue, now Sunset, avenue and Sherman; July ist, 1897, the "short line" 
by way of Sixteenth street, was completed and this line was soon made a 
double track. In 1898 the Los Angeles-Pacific Railway company was organ 
ized, with a capital stock of $1,000,000 to take over all lines between Los Angeles. 
Santa Monica, Hollywood, Soldiers' Home, etc. In 1899, the north loop in 
Santa Monica was electricised and the Hollywood line built, being opened to the 
public in February 2ist, 1900; also the entire system between Los Angeles and 
Santa Monica was doubletracked and many improvements in roadbed, bridges. 
etc., were made. The " cut-off " by way of Palms, was completed in August. 
1902, and gave the most direct route to the city. 

In January, 1904, the Los Angeles-Pacific acquired all the railway interests 
of the Traction line and at once began making many improvements, especially 
improving the Trolleyway, and building the station in Linda Vista Park, Santa 
Monica, which was opened August gth, 1905. On the same date the Westgate 
branch of the road was completed. 

In 1887, the Ballona and Santa Monica Railway company was organized 
to build a line from Ballona to Santa Monica ; the Santa Fe having completed 
a line to "Port Ballona" September isth, 1887. But the Ballona line was 
not built and in 1892 the Santa Fe and Santa Monica company was formed to 
build a line from Ballona Junction to Santa Monica, a distance of twelve miles. 
The Santa Fe railway brought its first passenger train into Santa Monica June 
i8th, 1892, and the new service was hailed as bringing assured prosperity to 
the town. The company built a depot on Hill street and another on Front 
street ; put up a pavilion and the " iron pipe " wharf in South Santa Monica 
and expended a large sum in its various improvements. After the coming of 
the trolley lines, however, it practically ceased to operate and in 1900 sold tin- 
land which had been donated to it, and in 1901 obtained permission to abandon 
its right of way from Inglewood to its Santa Monica terminus. Eventually it 
sold this right of way to the Traction company and it was later purchased by 
the Huntington lines. 

In 1905 it became known that Mr. Rindge was building a road that was 
at first supposed to be merely a driveway through his Malibu territory. Later 
developments made it appear that this was rather a roadbed, whether for an 
electric line or a steam railway line was unrevealed. During 1907 a railroad 
has been constructed upon this roadbed. The purpose for which this road is 
intended to serve still remains unrevealed, although the belief is widespread 


that it is the entering wedge of a transcontinental line what line still remains 
a mystery. It is popularly supposed to be a link in the Gould system which is 
reaching toward the Pacific coast ; but as yet the plans of the railway magnates 
have not been divulged. But to whatever system it may belong, the completion 
of a line down the coast to Santa Monica would mean much for this city and 
section of country. 


The location of an experimental station in Santa Monica Canyon by the 
Slate Board of Forestry was determined upon in July, 1887. Mr. Abbot 
Kinney, who was chairman of the first State Board of Forestry, offered for this 
purpose a tract of land on Santa Monica Heights. This was accepted and an 
appropriation of $5,000 was made to begin the work. Mr. H. Rowland Lee, of 
the State University, was selected to take charge as head forester of the Santa 
Monica station in connection with the Hesperian station in San Bernardino 
county and the San Jacinto station in Riverside county. Up to 1890 $3,000 was 
expended in buildings and a large number of trees and plants were set out. 
The work of this station was largely devoted to the study of the comparative 
value of trees for the interior and along the coast ; the economic use of trees, 
costs and profits ; possible ranges of soil and climate ; fitness for any purposes 
and conditions. An especial study of eucalypti was made. Small collections 
of trees and plants were distributed to a large number of persons who had filed 
on timber claims, or who wished to carry on experiments under the direction 
of the forestry station. 

In 1889 Messrs. Jones and Baker donated twenty acres of land along the 
eastern edge of Rustic canyon to the station. This tract is thus described by 
Inspector of Stations: 

' The greatest and deepest barranca in the Santa Monica plain is that known 
as Santa Monica canyon. It is not really a canyon in the strict interpretation 
of the Spanish word, which refers to mountain ravines, but more nearly con 
forms to the Spanish idea of a barranca a wide cleft across the plains from the 
mountains to the sea. In realty there are two large barrancas, running in a 
direction somewhat parallel for several miles, although they are sometimes 
wide apart. The narrow tongue of land between them extends to within an 
eighth of a mile of the ocean. Here, on the sides and summit of this narrow 
central plateau, between two deep gorges and extending down to the bottom of 
one of them, the Santa Monica Forestry station is situated. It is greatly shel 
tered from storms and yet the view is wonderfully extensive. The twenty acres 
belonging to the station, a little arboretum tract, extends from the bottom of the 
northern canyon, called Rustic canyon, up slopes and across levels to the very 
top of the mesa, on the same plane as the town of Santa Monica, and looks 


down from thence to the bottom of the south canyon. There are thus three 
distinct levels and two half-levels, with their connecting slopes for the most 
part not too abrupt for planting. Such is the charming topography of the 
station lands. 

" Work on the station includes first of all, the care and cultivation of the 
existing plantations. Then observations of these have to be made from time 
to time and records kept of the rate of growth of each tree, of its time of blos 
soming and maturing of seed, behavior under different conditions, etc." 

In 1889, J. M. Sheckles was in charge of the forestry station. In 1893, 
the State Board of Forestry ceased to exist and the work was placed under the 
direction of the Agricultural Department of the State University. Later, in 
1897, the work was enlarged by connection with the Forestry Department of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, experimental stations in thirty or 
more states of the Union working in co-operation. This plan has been of great 
benefit to the Santa Monica station individually and to the general results of 
Forestry and Agricultural experimental work. The Department of Forestry 
has now become one of the most important branches of the governmental service. 
Out of a very small beginning has grown the great system of forest reserves 
and of re-forestration, together with the collection of invaluable data and 
practical aid to many industries. 

In 1897, Mr. J. H. Barber, later foreman of the South Coast Range, was 
appointed to take charge of the Santa Monica station. This year the appropria 
tion for 1897-8 was made $8,000 and much needed buildings and improvements 
were made. In 1899, Mr. C. A. Colmore was in charge. He was succeeded by 
William Shutt who remained in charge for four years. During his incumbency 
considerable additional water was developed and the station made a steady 
advance, although hampered by a lack of funds. In October, 1904, disastrous 
mountain fires swept through Santa Monica canyon and all the buildings of the 
Forestry station were destroyed. Only the windmill and tower were left stand 
ing. Considerable damage was done to the growth, also, a large number of 
seedling stock being killed and shrubbery and trees more or less injured. 

For some time it was a question whether the buildings would be replaced, 
but in the latter part of 1905 an appropriation became available and the neces 
sary buildings were put up. Mr. J. P. Barber was appointed to take charge 
of the station. Since that time, the damage clone by the fire has been largely 
overcome and the station continues to do valuable work in connection with the 
state and United States Agricultural Experimental schools. 


An early comer, who is still a resident of Santa Monica, furnishes some 
very entertaining glimpses of the early days of the town and its life. Those 


who drove from Los Angeles to the Santa Monica ranch to attend the first 
sale of lots in July, 1875, were greeted with a magnificent view, as they crossed 
the " divide." Before them lay the ocean, forming a blue crescent between the 
jutting points of Point Dume and Point Vincent. From Point Dume swept 
the Santa Monica range, merging into the San Gabriel range and the San Ber 
nardino morntains. Following the circle, hills and mountains led the eye around 
to Point Vincent on the south, forming a vast amphitheater. As we drove over 
the ranch we saw a lone live oak, standing on the bluff above the canon, about 
half way between ocean front and Seventh street. Here the one road leading 
to the canon went down the grade. Near it was an old adobe, which was one 
of the landmarks of the time. A clump of trees stood near the springs which 
later supplied the town with water, and a group of great sycamores rose near 
the present site of Sawtelle. One of these, an immense tree, shading a large 
expanse, is supposed to have sheltered Father Serra on one of his journeys 
through the country. A line of sycamores marked the barranca which led out 
toward the Soldiers' Home way. Here and there were to be seen a few small 
ranch houses, surrounded by fig and other fruit trees. Many bands of sheep 
were passed, and an occasional ruin of some old adobe building. 

One landmark that can never be forgotten was the " Half-way House ", a 
store and saloon, located about half way between the end of Washington street, 
Los Angeles, and Santa Monica. Here a watering trough was provided, and 
every traveler over the long, dusty road, stopped to water man and beast. 

In the early days the canons, Santa Monica, Rustic and Manville, were 
the delight of the townspeople and the hotel guests. Every day saw driving 
and riding parties, camping and picnic parties visiting some one or other of 
these beautiful retreats. Arch Rock, four miles up the coast, was always an 
object of interest. Camping out just beyond the salt works (near the present 
site of Redondo) and at Portuguese Bend, was also a favorite diversion. Gun 
ning in the mountains, duck shooting on Ballona laguna and boating on the 
laguna were popular pastimes. The boats on the laguna were known as the 
' Pollywog " and the "Mud Hen." Spanish games took place in the spring, 
when a channel was cut from the laguna to allow the overflow water to escape 
into the ocean, at the point now known as Playa del Rey. Ring tournaments 
and other Spanish games were also played for some months on Ocean avenue ; 
but were discontinued on the protest of a number of families who feared the 
influence on the best life of the then growing town. 

During the days of the first wharf, one of the great events of town life 
was the coming and going of the coast steamers. When a Panama steamship 
came in and tied up at the wharf, everybody in town visited it, for the strange 
fruits, birds and plants which it brought were always interesting. The fishing 
on the wharf was always good and furnished a constant sport for men, women 
and children. 

The first residents of Santa Monica were a cosmopolitan lot. Some were 


the drifting class always attracted by any new opening or excitement, and soon 
passed on. Others were drawn here by the incomparable climate, which was 
ideal for a home, especially in old age. Many then believed in a great business 
future for the new port. There were a number of young men, fresh from college, 
who had drifted to California for a start. Most of these were down on their 
luck and glad to take anything that offered, as for instance, the young Harvard 
graduate, who whitewashed the plaza fence because his brains were not needed 
here. A Bostonian, also a college man, ran the engine on the first railroad be- 
.tween Santa Monica and Los Angeles, while the first conductor on this road 
was a young Virginian. One of the first clergymen of the place was a north 
of Ireland man, educated in Dublin and Edinburg, who preached sermons which 
would have' honored any pulpit. One of the first physicians had also been edu 
cated in London and Edinburg and had traveled around the world. On his 
journey he happened to stop in Santa Monica and was so delighted with the 
location and climate that he stayed here for about a year. Another physician 
located here about the same time ; but he, too, moved on. The place was too 
healthy to be a promising field for a young doctor, and for several years there 
was no resident practicing physician at all and little need for one. 

The lives of the residents of the neighboring canons were closely linked 
with the town, for here they came for their mail and supplies and they fur 
nished the butter, eggs and vegetables for the town dwellers. There were many 
bee ranches hidden away among the canons. The living of the apiarists de 
pended, of course, upon the honey yield, which often failed because of dry or 
unfavorable seasons. Sometimes careless picnickers or hunters would be the 
cause of a mountain fire which, sweeping over hills and through canons, mowed 
down the brush and growing plants, and sometimes destroyed bees and homes. 
During a terrible fire raging in Manville canon, one old man only escaped from 
the flames by lowering himself into a well until the flames, traveling by leaps 
and jumps, had passed on. Another man, further up the canon, was compelled 
to lie down in a small stream, where he found himself in company with snakes 
and other small creatures which had taken refuge in the water. Many of these 
early settlers had located on what they supposed was government land, only to 
find, after years perhaps of hard work in improving their homes, that they could 
not secure title. They were compelled to leave with only the memory of their 
labor to cam- with them. Many odd characters were among these pioneers 
and many of them were brave hearted, true men, who were rich in everything 
but worldly goods. 

The social life of the new town was, for the most part, simple and de 
lightfully free from formal constraint. The few more congenial families were 
drawn into close relations. Almost every evening found them gathered for a 
time in some one home or another, for those were the days of truly hospitable 
home life. The first real party, of any pretensions, was given by Mrs. M. S. 
Baker in her new home the first two-story rustic house in Santa Monica. It 


is safe to say that the company there gathered were as cultured as would grace 
any city party. During the early days of the town a literary and social club, 
called the " Baker's Dozen ", was formed among the young unmarried people. 
After a year it was enlarged to take in the married people as well and was 
known simply as " The Club." Among the members were doctors, lawyers, 
scientists, clergymen and teachers, as well as others who had no titles. After 
a program, usually of original papers furnished by the members, social diver 
sions followed and were as much enjoyed by the men of letters as the rest. This 
club lasted about five years. 

There were occasional concerts or lectures which were of the highest merit. 
It must lie remembered that many cultured people visited us at various times, 
in search of health or rest, and often our struggling little churches were given 
benefits which any city audience might have gladly heard. It frequently hap 
pened that some city clergyman visiting this coast because of ill health of himself 
or some member of his family, filled our pulpits and gave us of their best. A 
touching incident occurred about 1876. A teamster lost his only son, a boy of 
fourteen, and wished to give him a fitting funeral at the church. There was 
no resident pastor in the place at that time, so one of the members of the Pres 
byterian church agreed to read a burial service. The fact was mentioned at 
the Santa Monica Hotel and came to the ears of a New York City minister 
who was touring the west with his wife. He at once offered to conduct the 
service and did so to the consolation of the father. Then he offered to preach 
on the Sabbath, if it would be of any assistance, and for several weeks we 
listened to able sermons, for which the gentleman would accept no pay. 

One person who was closely associated with the early history of the town 
was L. T. Fisher, editor of the Santa Monica Outlook. He wrought early and 
well for the good of the town and gave it a bright, clean paper. But the glow 
ing future he so well painted, did not make him any richer than he was when 
he came, so he moved on. 

After the destruction of the wharf, there was very little business here, 
barely enough to supply very modest demands of living. Everything seemed to 
come to a standstill and everyone who could get away did so, except the few 
who were satisfied to live on climate. Yet life for those who remained was not 
altogether stale. With so many diversions provided by nature, a daily dip in 
the ocean, an afternoon drive on beach, plain or in mountain canons, and with 
happy home evenings, the days passed away swiftly and we were content. 




THE history of the town of Ocean Park, with Venice of America, both now 
less than three years old, is a modern business romance a romance of 
fair dreams and marvelous fulfillments; of great ambitions and of sad 
dening failures; of wonderful growth in wealth and population and of bitter 
contests of strong men with strong men. Many of the events in this brief history 
partake of the comedy nature; there are elements of tragedy in the story, too of 
fortunes made and lost, of high hopes disappointed. There are signs of promise 
also, a city built upon sand and yet planted upon a solid foundation of pros 
perity and steady growth. 

It scarcely seems credible, even to those who have seen the transformation 
going on before their eyes, that the ground now occupied by beautiful homes 
and handsome business blocks was, less than six years ago, a barren waste, 
looked upon as practically useless for building or for any other purpose. The 
energy, the large conceptions and the large investments which have brought 
about the change have rarely been equalled even in this land of commercial 
wonders. A rise in values within five years from a few dollars an acre to 
$15,000 for a twenty-foot lot is not often recorded even in California. 

Much of the earlier history of this section has already been given. A part 
of the present city of Ocean Park was included in the original Kinney and Ryan 
holdings. All of the land was originally a part of La Ballona grant and had 
been owned by the Machados, or their successors. The " Short Line Beach " 
tract had been opened up for settlement in 1902. In 1903 the Ocean Park Villa 
tracts were put on the market and an addition made to the Short Line Beach, 
giving it an ocean frontage of 4150 feet. The rapid settlement of this new 
territory soon created a district which must be provided with government, either 
by incorporation or annexation to Santa Monica. Early in the spring the talk 
of incorporating a new town began to take form and definite plans were made. 
Steps were taken during the summer to arrange for a primary school in the dis 
trict, a lot being donated for the purpose. The rapidity with which the Short 
Line Beach lots were sold and occupied by dwellings ; the opening up of Marine 
street by Messrs. Vawter and Steele ; the occupation of the hills east of the elec 
tric line, added to the desirability of the new corporation. It was generally 
agreed that the lines of the new town should extend from the Santa Monica city 


limits south to the south line of the Short Line Beach and along Lake street as 
the east boundary. At a public meeting held October 8th, the question of incor 
poration, or of joining Santa Monica, was thoroughly discussed. At this meet 
ing the old firm of land owners offered to lend the new municipality money to 
conduct its business until its own funds became available. It was estimated that 
the cost of carrying on the new city for one year would be $4,100, that the 
assessment value of the district was $80,800 which, at a tax rate of 75 cents 
would yield an income of $6,100, giving a surplus at the end of the year of 
$2,000. It was also stated that insurance rates would be reduced one-third. 

A vote of the sense of the meeting stood 52 for incorporation and i against. 
The objector, Mr. J. M. Roberts, then changed his vote and it was made unan 
imous. A committee of five, Messrs. Henry Lavayea, W. T. Gibbon, A. Ed. 
Robinson, Dana Burks and A. R. Fraser, were appointed a committee to circu 
late petitions for signatures. The active spirits in this movement proposed to 
show to the world a model city. Dana Burks in an interview with 'the Los 
Angeles Times, September gth, 1903, said : " We propose to make Ocean Park 
the best lighted city in the United States. When the lighting system is installed, 
steamers passing miles out at sea will have ocular proof of the exact location of 
Ocean Park. Pure food regulations will be enforced strictly. Every milkman 
will have to '' show us " and obtain permit before he can deliver milk in Ocean 
Park. A chemist will be regularly employed and regularly paid to make con 
tinued inspection of food products offered for sale in the city. City officials will 
serve without pay, and character, ability and proved public-spiritedness will be 
the three requisites for election. Politics will be barred absolutely from the 
municipal conduct ; and with the elimination of spoils, purity of government will 
be easier to launch and to maintain. Attempted dishonesty will mean dismissal 
and dismissal will entail social ostracism." 

Mr. Plez James was appointed registration clerk and a systematic census 
of the proposed incorporated district was taken. It was found that there were 
300 houses and 750 inhabitants. Sixty-seven voters were registered. The peti 
tions received the requisite number of signatures and on November gth were 
presented to the board of supervisors. In the meantime a petition had been 
presented to the board of trustees of Santa Monica from property owners resid 
ing between Marine and Rose avenues asking for annexation to the city, and 
also a petition favoring such annexation from citizens of Santa Monica. The 
city limits of Santa Monica, following the old lines of the Lucas tract, cut north 
easterly through the block between Marine and Navy streets, thus leaving a por 
tion of each lot in the city and a portion in the county. In accordance with 
these petitions, the city of Santa Monica called an election to vote on the ques 
tion of annexation on December I4th. The battle over the disputed territory 


was a warm one. When the matter came up before the board of supervisors, 
petitions for annexation and for incorporation were presented and action was 
delayed until November 23rd. On November I2th a protest, signed by 27 resi 
dents of the disputed territory was presented to the board of trustees, requesting 
that the election for annexation be not held. The city attorney decided, how 
ever, that neither petition nor protest legally affected the matter so long as 20 
per cent of the voters of the city called for the election, which was therefore 
held, and resulted in a vote of 19 against annexation in the district in question 
and 1 1 for, thus settling the question. Other petitions and protests against 
being included in the proposed incorporation, made by the residents of the Short 
Line tract and by the L. A. -P. railway, were placed before the board of super 
visors and another adjournment was necessary in order to give all parties a 
hearing. On December 28th the decision was finally reached and the petition 
for incorporation granted, the election being set for February I2th, 1904. 

A change which meant much to the proposed new city took place in Janu 
ary, 1904. This was the dissolution of the Ocean Park Improvement Company 
by the division of their property. The company had been composed of Messrs. 
Kinney, Fraser, Gage and Jones; Mr. Kinney owning a half interest, Mr. Fraser 
a two-fifths interest of the other half, with Messrs. Jones and Gage holding the 
balance. By the terms of division Mr. Kinney received complete control of all 
unplatted lands of the company south of Navy street, including about 100 lots 
between Short Line Beach and Zephyr avenue ; also 90 acres of land lying to 
the east and south of the clubhouse. This action, together with the sale of the 
right of way owned by the Improvement Company through South Santa Monica 
and of Mr. Kinney 's railway interests to the L. A. -P. Railway Co., consider 
ably changed the aspect of affairs for the future city. It put an end to the hope 
for a competing line ; but as a partial compensation the electric company began 
building the plank walk and stations, and otherwise improving Trolleyway, 
thus giving the district a new street. 

As was expected but a single ticket was put in the field for the election. 
This named for trustees, A. Ed. Robinson, Dana Burks, Force Parker, G. M. 
Jones, W. T. Gibbon; treasurer, H. Blagge; clerk, T. G. Smith; marshal, W. H. 
Slack. Dana Burks was slated for mayor ; 56 votes were cast, 52 for incorpora 
tion and 2 against, 2 voting for officers but not for incorporation. 

Thus, at last came into existence the city of Ocean Park, which did not 
include the territory that had been known as " Ocean Park " since 1894, but was 
made up of lands settled within the past eighteen months. It was certainly a 
misfortune that the name which distinctly belonged to the old section in South 
Santa Monica should have been applied to the new city. The new town, how 
ever, continued to grow rapidly. The undoubted health fulness of the sands as 




I I 


a place of residence ; the easy and rapid transit to Los Angeles brought many 
business men and women to the place ; the rapid advance in prices brought many- 
investors, both small and large ; above all the development of Venice, which 
became a reality during the year, brought many newcomers. But there were 
factors which, naturally enough, brought about dissension and misunderstand 
ing. The fact that so large a portion of the territory was owned by a single 
man ; that Venice soon became a city within a city ; that the business interests of 
the new town were either centered on Pier avenue in Santa Monica, or on 
Windward avenue in Venice; that the postoffice, "Ocean Park" was located in 
South Santa Monica, while the postoffice of the town of Ocean Park was event 
ually located in Venice and given the name of Venice all of these, and other 
complications, led to confusion and conflicting interests. 

At a meeting held on February 23rd, in the Country Club House, the use 
of which was donated by Mr. Kinney, the new board organized with Dana Burks 
as chairman and elected W. H. Anderson city attorney and W. T. Robinson, 
recorder. At this meeting, the Ocean Park Improvement Company presented 
the new city with the ocean frontage from Navy street to Horizon avenue, a 
distance of 4,600 feet, a gift estimated to be worth $220,000. Messrs. Jones, 
Fraser and Gage also presented the new corporation with their interest in the 
fire system already established within the district. The new city was furnished 
quarters for its officers and public business free of rent, and was financed with 
out interest, by Mr. Kinney. On April nth, the city election was held and the 
same officers were re-elected, with the exception of the marshal, H. E. Lavayea 
taking the place of W. H. Slack. 

One of the first topics which engaged the attention of the town trustees was 
the matter of sewage disposal. The part of the town already sewered was con 
nected with the Santa Monica outfall, by the old contract with Kinney and Ryan. 
But it was understood that the city of Santa Monica would demand some other 
arrangement, and in fact, notice was received by the Ocean Park trustees that 
their sewer connection would be cut off August ist. Many plans were discussed 
and investigated. A sewer farm was proposed, but after stud}' of conditions 
was found impracticable ; then it was suggested that the sewage of the entire 
beach might be carried south to a connection with the Los Angeles outfall ; 
eventually the septic plant was decided upon and, January 3Oth, 1905, a special 
election was called to vote $20,000 bonds for a sewer system and $5,000 for fire 
apparatus. April 4th, another special election was held to vote $15,000 addi 
tional for sewer system. Still another election was called October ijth, 1906, 
to vote $20,000 for the completion of the sewer system. At the same time bonds 
were voted $10,000 for engine house and fire-fighting apparatus ; $5,000 for 
city hall and jail and $5,000 for sites for these buildings, and $10,000 for a gar 
bage incinerator, all of which were carried. 



The necessary mains and the septic tank, with an outfall at Center street 
was constructed, and later the outfall was carried out on piling into the ocean. 
The destruction of the Santa Monica outfall by the storms of April and May, 
1905, resulted in a change in the situation. The Ocean Park sewage was turned 
into its own system and the trustees invited Santa Moncia to use their new sep 
tic tank, rather than have the sewage discharged into the ocean at Pier avenue, 
to the detriment of that locality. Santa Monica, in spite of complaints and court 
orders, continues to use the Ocean Park mains, pending the completion of her 
own septic tank. The situation thus created, because of the large amount of 
sewage handled and the defective action of the septic tank has been productive 
of much trouble and ill feeling. 

The question of liquor licenses also has been a critical one in the brief annals 
of Ocean Park. On June 21 st, 1904, a high license ordinance was passed and 
for some time the only license granted was for a wholesale house. Later 
licenses were granted for various restaurants and bars. The opening of the 
various concessions at Venice and especially on " the Midway " in 1906, gave 
rise to much discussion and uncertainty as to the business licenses and this too 
has proved a difficult subject for the city to handle. 

In August, 1904, the city of Ocean Park voted $10,000 for school purposes. 
A school district had already been formed, and the county superintendent 
appointed as a temporary board, Mrs. M. de Luna, Mrs. Frank A. Werner and 
A. R. French. The school census of the spring showed 207 children. The first 
school was opened in the fall in two tent-houses on the Country Club grounds. 
Considerable difficulty was found by the first regular school board in securing 
a suitable location for the school-house. Values were now so high in Ocean 
Park that any desirable site was beyond the means of the board. Land was 
finally obtained from Mr. Kinney and in September, a contract was let for a 
two-story, seven-room building. It was sufficiently completed to be dedicated 
with elaborate ceremonies in January, 1905 ; but another bond issue of $10,000 
was necessary to complete the building. It is a handsome, modern structure 
completely equipped for grade work. In the spring of 1907 a tract of five acres 
of land, adjoining the school grounds, was donated for the use of the school 
and the children were encouraged to engage in gardening. A skilled gardener 
was engaged by Mr. Kinney to instruct them and the school gardens thus estab 
lished promise to become an important part of the school curriculum. Prizes 
are given the children for the best results and much interest has been aroused 
in the subject of gardening among the children and their parents as well. 

One of the most important improvements of 1904 was the building of the 
Ocean Park Bath House. A stock company was formed by T. H. Dudley, G. 
M. Jones, J. F. Mullen, A. Ed. Robinson and Force Parker, with a stock of 



$150,000. A site between Marine and Navy was first selected, but later the loca 
tion was moved south to the block between Navy and Ozone, thus bringing the 
building entirely within Ocean Park. The structure was of concrete and was, 
when completed in 1905, the finest bath house on the Pacific coast. 

In May, Messrs. Fraser and Jones purchased from the Recreation Gun 
Club a tract of land with 4,200 feet of ocean frontage and extending back 1,200 
feet from the shore. Through it ran an extension of the Playa del Rey lagoon. 
The price paid for the property was $135,000. This tide land, when purchased 
by the Gun Club, was considered utterly worthless and had con- 


tinned to be considered a bad investment until the time of the sale. 
In June, 1905, the Guaranty Realty Company purchased this tract, paying for 
it somewhere in the neighborhood of $300,000, it was reported. The tract was 
platted and in a single day, Monday, June igth, $308,000 worth of property 
was sold, making a record-breaking pace in this summer of wonder develop 
ments. As an example of the phenomenal rise in values caused by the creation 
of Venice, the Venice Gateway tract may be cited. In 1893 John Metcalf pur 
chased 55 acres of marsh, lying to the east of the tract on which Venice was 
located, for $3,000. During the summer of 1905 this land was platted and put 
. on the market as the Venice Gateway tract. In a few weeks 175 lots were sold 
for $200,000. while the value of the entire tract was estimated at half a million. 


Among the improvements of the year, aside from the city of Venice, were 
the Horseshoe pier at Marine and Pier avenues, the new seaside theatre and the 
Masonic Temple on Marine avenue. In July it was estimated that the assessed 
valuation of property in the new town would reach one million. The Times 
says: "There are altogether, at this writing, 1,200 homes in Ocean Park and 
many others are being built. The original buildings are being constantly 
replaced by fine modern houses of the most approved type, and many of them 
are occupied the year round by business men of Los Angeles, as Ocean Park i.>- 
one of the nearest beaches to the city, lying less than fifteen miles from town 
and reached in forty minutes by electric car." 

By the annexation of various subdivisions during the year of 1905 Ocean 
Park nearly doubled its area and its assessment roll, in January, 1906, was fig 
ured at $4,000,000. Up to this time $85,000 in bonds had been voted for school 
and sewers. A bond issue voted October 171)1 included funds for city, hall, jail 
and fire house also. The Speedway had been paved with asphaltum for more 
than a mile, at a cost of about $30,000, and many other street improvements hac\ 
been made. The lagoon had been completed from Venice to Playa del Rev. 
thus giving a waterway between the two resorts. 

The year of 1906 was not marked by such precipitate and unprecedented 
advances ; but it showed a solid growth and a strengthening of the lines all along 
the beach. One of the first matters given attention was the protection of the 
shore along the Short Line Beach. An election was called to vote bonds for 
bulkheads, but the bonds did not carry and eventually Mr. Kinney advanced 
money to build a temporary protection for the property menaced. About $10,000 
was expended in building a bulkhead south of Venice, and then to protect this 
a system of jetties was put in. A sand pump was also used to fill in back of 
the bulkhead and still further protect the beach. About 3,000 feet of bulkhead 
was built altogether. 

In January the Ocean Park postoffice was removed to the new Masonic 
building on Marine avenue, after a strong protest had been made by citizens 
of South Santa Monica. It was still in the municipality of Santa Monica, how 
ever, and the necessity of some other arrangement for Ocean Park led to the 
establishment of a postoffice on Windward avenue, with the name of Venice. 
Robert M. Granger was the first postmaster. During the year the agitation for 
free delivery was continued. The postoffice inspector at one time recommended 
that the Ocean Park office be made the main office with sub-stations at Venice 
and Santa Monica, and free delivery for the entire bay district. This plan met 
with strong opposition both in Santa Monica and Venice and was not carried 
out. In December it was announced that C. R. Lovelace, editor of the Ocean 


Park Journal, had been appointed as postmaster for Ocean Park in place of 
Meigs, the incumbent. 

The sewage question continued to disturb the peace of mind of both Santa 
Monica and Ocean Park citizens, while the failure of the septic tank to deodor 
ize the sewage disturbed the nostrils and the minds of many Ocean Park 
citizens. Suits were begun by the Ocean Park trustees against the Santa Mon 
ica trustees to compel them to disconnect their mains ; suit was begun by citizens 
of Ocean Park against their own trustees for permitting such a nuisance. The 
result was, of course, bad feeling and hard words. 

The location of the city hall and public buildings was another topic which 
led to discord. After the bonds had been voted for this purpose, Abbot Kinney 
offered a site on Windward avenue. Another site, containing several lots, was 
offered free of cost on the Venice Gateway tract, at a considerable distance from 
the business section of the town. . The latter site was finally accepted and the 
trustees put the entire bond issue into the construction of a public building here, 
although many citizens objected strenuously on account of the inconvenience 
of the location. Other differences of opinion arose between the city trustees 
and the Venice interests owned by the Abbot Kinney Company and finally the 
breach was so widened that it was proposed to disincorporate the town of Ocean 
Park and make a fresh start. After a hotly waged contest, in which every 
resource of each side was taxed to its utmost, a disincorporation election was 
finally called for September 3Oth, 1907. At that election the vote stood 202 for 
disincorporation to 176 against, lacking 60 votes of the requisite two-thirds 
majority. As a result of this election and the fight preceding it, many damage 
suits for libel were filed and promises of future disincorporation were freely 
made. It was suggested that Venice might ultimately become an annex of Los 
Angeles. There was talk, too, of a greater Santa Monica which should be made 
up of Santa Monica, Ocean Park and Venice united as a happy family in one 
corporation. But such an iridescent dream was received with smiles by most 
residents of the beach. 



ABBOT KINNEY was born in Brookside, N. J., November 16, 1850, 
his parents being Franklin Sherwood and Mary Cogswell Kinney, both 
descendants of old colonial families. His boyhood was mostly passed 
in Washington where his uncle, James Dixon, represented the state of Con 
necticut in the United States Senate. Here the young man had advantages of 
education and of contact with many of the prominent men of that time and thus 
retains memories of the men who made the history of that period. To complete 
his education, he went to Europe and studied at Heidelberg, Germany, and in 
France and Switzerland, perfecting himself in foreign languages and making a 
special study of political, economic and social problems. 

On returning to Washington, he became interested in the tobacco business 
and after a couple of years practical experience, he decided to go to Turkey and 
make a personal study of their methods of manufacturing cigarettes. In 1877, 
he started on a three years' tour of the world, one year of which was passed in 
Egypt. His keen powers of observation and active intellect were devoted dur 
ing these years to the study of conditions as he found them in various countries, 
and the conclusions thus acquired have since been applied in many ways to the 
problems presented in our own country. 

He reached San Francisco, on his return voyage, in the winter of 1880, and 
finding himself unable to proceed directly east on account of heavy snow block 
ades in the Sierras, he came to Southern California. Here, after a few weeks 
spent at the old Sierra Madre Villa, he felt that he had found the climate for 
which he had sought the world over. He secured a large tract of unimproved 
land in the vicinity of Sierra Madre and at once set about creating a beautiful 
and profit-yielding home out of what had been a waste. He planted out a large 
citrus orchard and turned his mind to the solution of the many difficulties which 
seemed almost unsurmountable to the pioneer horticulturists of this region. As 
a result, " Kinneloa " became a fine example of the possibilities of citrus culture 
and is known as one of the most beautiful country homes in California. 

Broad-minded and public-spirited, he devoted the knowledge gained 
through investigation and costly experiments to the public use and became one 
of the projectors of the Southern California Pomological Society and served as 
its president. 


In 1883, he was appointed a commissioner to serve with Helen Hunt Jack 
son in an investigation into the condition of the Mission Indians of Southern 
California. After several months of travel and personal examination of the 
various reservations and their people, Mr. Kinney prepared a report to the gov 
ernment, advising the breaking up of the reservation system and the use of 
common-sense methods in the treatment of these miserable and helpless rem 
nants of the first occupants of our country. It was during this period that Mrs. 
Jackson gathered much of the material used in the construction of Ramona and 
in her articles on the Missions and the Mission Indians. 

In 1884, Mr. Kinney was married to Miss Margaret, the daughter of Judge 
James D. Thornton, justice of the Supreme Court of California. 

In 1885 he was appointed chairman of the newly created board of forestry. 
Since that time Mr. Kinney has devoted much research and practical experi 
menting to the subject of forestry, particularly in its relation to the welfare of 
Southern California. In 1887 a tract of twenty acres, located on Santa Monica 
Heights, was donated to the state as a site for a Forestry Experimental Station 
in this section of the state. The board at once set apart a fund to be devoted 
to this purpose. Mr. Kinney took a keen interest in the experiments and prac 
tical working of this station and made an especially exhaustive study of Euca 
lypti, the results of which he later published. He was also instrumental in 
securing the initiation of National Forestry on a practical basis and in procur 
ing the legislation which set aside the forest reserves in California and in estab 
lishing the School of Forestry in connection with the University of Southern 
California. This school gave especial attention to the subjects of forestry in 
relation to water-sheds and preservation of forests, with lectures by such men 
as Abbot Kinney, A. H. Koebig, Henry Hawgood, J. B. Lippincott, T. S. Van 
Dyke and T. P. Lukens. 

Mr. Kinney is an unusual combination the practical man of affairs, look 
ing personally to his large interests and at the same time the student and 
thinker. He has been an investigator along many lines of thought and has pub 
lished several books as the result of his stud}-. In 1893, he issued " The Con 
quest of Death," dealing with a sociological subject, and " Tasks by Twilight," 
which sets forth some original theories as to the training of the young. As the 
author is the parent of five sons, he had practical data to deal with. He devoted 
much study to the workings of the Australian ballot system and published a 
pamphlet on this subject and earnestly advocated its adoption in this country. 
He has also published a strong argument on the tariff question ; made a study 
of climatology, particularly with reference to Santa Monica, and written many 
valuable lectures and monographs upon various topics. In all of his writing his 
use of English is direct and forcible and his course of reasoning clear and logical. 


He has served as president of the Southern California Academy of Science 
and of the Southern California Forest and Water Association ; and as vice- 
president of the American Forestry Association of California. In 1897 he was 
appointed by Governor Buck! as one of the Yosemite Park Commission, which 
made sweeping reforms in the conditions which had nearly destroyed the pleas 
ure of a visit to this wonder of the world. In all of his public work, Mr. Kin- 
ney has shown a broad public spirit and devotion to the 'general good. 

After a few years residence at " Kinneloa," Mr. Kinney found that the sea 
side air was better suited to his health than the foothills, and, in the early 
eighties, he purchased a home on Ocean avenue, Santa Monica. Since that time 
he has been closely associated with the development of the Santa Monica bay 
cities. In 1886 he formed a syndicate to purchase a large parcel of land on the 
north side of Santa Monica Canyon. Here, he proposed to make an ideal resi 
dence tract, with unsurpassed views of ocean, mountains and valley. Trees 
were planted, streets were laid out and a railroad planned. Later this tract was 
transferred to the Southern Pacific Company and furnished the site for the 
" long wharf." 

In 1888, Mr. Kinney was one of the organizers of the Santa Monica Im 
provement Company which built the Casino on North Third street and laid out 
the grounds and tennis courts about it. This was the forerunner of " Country 
Clubs " and was for years the center of tennis interests in Southern California. 
About this time he was appointed road commissioner in the district of Santa 
Monica and devoted much time and energy to the opening up and improvement 
of the roads of the vicinity. The boulevard to the Soldiers' Home was laid out 
under his supervision and during his administration he set out some nine miles 
of trees along the public roads and started them to growing a Herculean task 
in this country of sheep, squirrels, and other hungry varmints to say nothing 
of the lack of water. 

Mr. Kinney was a member of the first library board of Santa Monica and 
was also instrumental in establishing the public library at Pasadena and in pro 
viding a free library at the Soldiers' Home. 

About 1891 Mr. Kinney acquired an interest in a strip of ocean frontage, 
extending from the south boundary of the Lucas tract to the southern boundary 
of Ballona grant. This strip of sand was then considered worthless for any 
purpose whatever. But Mr. Kinney has imagination and foresight. In the face 
of many discouragements, he and his partner, F. G. Ryan, began putting up 
cottages and leasing lots in what was then known as South Santa Monica, 
because such lots on the sand could not be sold until their advantages were dem 
onstrated. Through their effort the Y. M. C. A. was induced to locate its sum 
mer home on this beach and the " Ocean Park " Association was formed. 



Messrs. Kinney and Ryan planted out trees, planned parks and pavilions, wharfs 
and sidewalks, and, slowly, they developed what became, for a time at least, the 
most popular resort on the beach the old Ocean Park district. 

But there was still a stretch of sand to the south of the settled area whicli 
was apparently hopeless, as it was little more than a salt marsh. Drainage sug 
gested canals to Mr. Kinney, and he had a vision of a city that should equal in 
beauty and picturesqueness the Venice of his youthful enthusiasm. With the 
unfettered confidence of the progressive American in the power of mind and 


money over material obstacles, he began the creation of an ideal city upon his 
salt marsh. The courage and the persistence with which he has met the many 
unforeseen obstacles, the misunderstanding, and the opposition of a small but 
bitter faction, makes the history of Venice of America the crowning achieve 
ment of Mr. Kinney 's long and active career in California. While the plans 
and the hopes of her projector have not all been fulfilled, Venice is already the 
most beautiful and the most unique pleasure resort on the Pacific coast. 


In January, 1904, the Ocean Park Improvement Company was dissolved and 
Mr. Kinney took over the unimproved and apparently worthless tract of land 
lying to the south of the Club House Tract and the Short Line Beach. When 
he began to talk of his plans for a city which should have canals for streets and 


which should recall the most picturesque and romantic city of Europe in its 
features, the public was distinctly skeptical. " Kinney's dream " was a phrase 
heard on all sides, while the plans were taking form and the scheme was still 
in the paper stage. Still, as the plans were outlined, rumors of the new rival Lo 
" Alantic City " excited interest, although the doubters were in the ascendency. 
The first decided move was made when the Board of Supervisors were petitioned 
for the vacation and abandonment of that portion of the Ballona-Santa Monica 
road passing through the proposed city of Venice. On May loth, 1904, Mr. 
Kinney presented to the board of city trustees of Ocean Park a plat of Venice 
View tract, lying to the east and north of the Club House and containing 67 

Soon afterward Mr. F. V. Dunham was sent east to visit resorts, study 
plans and obtain ideas which might be of value in making the new city beautiful 
and attractive. June 21 st the first contract was let, that for the excavation of 
the grand canal which was to be 70 feet wide, 4 feet deep and half a mile long. 
Other canals were to extend from this canal and form a net woik. These canals 
were to be lined with concrete. The first spadeful of earth on the canal system 
was turned August I5th and thereafter an army of men and teams were em 
ployed in removing the tons of sand and earth necessary to make these water 
ways. The system was completed by the extension of a canal through from 
the Venice tract to the lagoon at Playa del Rey, the work being done by the 
property owners. 

June 27th the contract for the ship-hotel was let. This idea of a ship-hotel 
was regarded as chimerical, at first, by the public. But as the piers were set 
and the outlines became evident, interest was aroused and real estate men began 
to drop in to see what was going on. In July the contract for the electric light 
ing and power plant was let and soon afterward work began in preparation for 
building the pier. This was planned to be 1700 feet in length and thirty feet 
wide. The first timber was set September 5th and thereafter work was pushed 
as rapidly as men and material could be procured. 

December 5th ground was broken for the first building on Windward avenue 
St. Mark's Hotel. Already contracts for $300,000 worth of building had been 
let. By this time the newspapers and the public were fully alive to the fact 
that something was doing in Venice of America, and the interest increased as 
the greatness of the plans and the lavish expenditure of the projector became 
evident. It was reported that the sales in fourteen days during November 
amounted to $386,000 and lots were now rapidly changing hands. 

With 19x15 developments moved even more rapidly. Plans for an Audi 
torium on the pier, which was to be the finest building of the kind on the coast, 
began to take shape. It was announced that a Summer Assembly would be held 
here which should represent the best of modern thought and art. Speakers and 
artists and teachers, the best afforded by our country, were to be heard and the 


summer was to be one long intellectual feast. Work on pier and buildings was 
rushed at even greater speed, for there was none too much time to complete the 
preparations. And then, during February and March, came the heaviest seas 
known on the Pacific coast for a generation. The Venice pier was wrecked, the 
pavilion and other buildings were badly damaged. At a low estimate the losses 
reached $50,000 and the public declared that the buildings over the water, as 
planned, would never be safe. 

But Mr. Kinney was not daunted. He immediately secured permission from 
the government to erect a breakwater at his own expense to protect his property. 
This the only private breakwater in the United States was constructed as soon 
as it was possible to do the work. It was made of rock, 500 feet in length, 
circular in form and extending 60 feet from the shore at a cost of about $100,000. 
It forms a safe refuge for small craft and for swimming. The rebuilding of the 
pier and the wrecked buildings was carried on at top speed. The present Audi 
torium, a beautiful building, perfect in its adaptation for public uses, with all the 
fittings of a modern theatre and a seating capacity of 3600. was ready for use 
on the date announced for the opening of the Assembly, July 2nd. It had been 
constructed in 28 days. Xo better example of the conquest of apparently un- 
surmountable difficulties has been shown in our business world. 

On June 3oth, the water was turned into the canals and as the waterways 
and lagoon were filled, for the first time, the magnificence of the design dawned 
upon the onlookers. On the evening of July 2nd the electric lights for illumina 
tion were turned on, 17,000 lamps being used. The effect was magical. During 
the day the great pipe organ in the Auditorium was dedicated by Clarence Eddy. 
On July 3rd, the day was given over to the workmen who had aided in creating 
Venice and July Fourth witnessed the greatest celebration of the day ever known 
in this part of the state. It was estimated that 40,000 people visited Venice 
during the day. There was music and speeches in the Assembly hall : music, 
swimming contests and fire works on the lagoon. 

The Venice Assembly under the direction of B. Fay Mills, held regular 
sessions during July and August. It was attended by large numbers of people 
and furnished a fine program of speakers, such as Joaquin Miller, Dr. Josiah 
Strong, N. O. Nelson and many others, beside furnishing instruction in many 
branches. To accommodate the people who attended it, the tent city was built 
along the canals and proved one of the most popular features of Venice fife. 
It was Mr. Kinney's hope to make this a center of education and culture and in 
pursuance of that purpose, for the winter season of 1905-6 Ellery's Band was 
engaged to furnish daily music : a large part of the foreign exhibits at the 
Portland fair were brought to Venice, and every effort was made to furnish 
high class entertainments. Sports of every kind were also provided for yacht 
races, tennis tournaments, swimming; bath horses and boat houses were built. 
To further attract the public arrangements were made to open the 



Midway Plaisance and in November the contract was let for eleven buildings 
to accommodate this feature. It was opened to the public in January, 1906 and 
attracted a good deal of attention; but was not a finanical success. In May, 1906 
Sarah Bernhardt, who would not submit to the demands of the American Theater 
Trust, played for three days in the Venice Auditorium and declared herself de 
lighted, with all the fervor of her ardent nature, with this playhouse over the 

Venice was provided with the best of fire protection, a system of salt water 
under high pressure which is always on. It is only necessary to open the fire- 
hydrants in order to obtain an unlimited amount of water which can be put any- 


where desired. The town is also well supplied with fresh water for domestic 
use. During 1906 the bath house on the lagoon and the dance Pavilion on the 
pier were built ; both of them beautiful buildings, complete in every detail. 
Twelve concrete bridges were built across the canals and lagoons and many 
street improvements were made. The streets and alley ways of Venice were 
dedicated to the city by its owner ; but this city within a city has its own fire 
protection and water system, its own sewer system and to a large extent its 
own police protection and street cleaning service. Much thought has been given 
to the beautifying of the streets and gardens of Venice. Suitable trees and 
plants have been placed along the borders of the canals and ornamental parks 
are a part of the scheme in its full treatment. A harbor for commerce and for 
a military base is also a part of the plan. 


A special feature of Venice attractions is the social life of the community. 
The Country Club has always been a favorite resort for those who cared for 
sports. The tennis courts have been the scene of some brilliant social affairs. 
The afternoon teas of the ladies of the club are pleasant affairs. 

The Five Hundred Club is an organization of ladies which meets Monday 
afternoons at the Cabrillo for a social card game. The Sunshine Club, of which 
Mrs. J. M. White is president, meets once in two weeks to work for charitable 
purposes. The members of this unique little club are doing a good work and 
hold most enjoyable meetings. 

The society dances on Tuesday evenings at the pavilion have become a 
popular feature of Venice society and are attended by many outsiders. The 
children's dances, the swimming parties at the bath houses, the boating, are all 
features that add to the enjoyment of life. 

In January, 1907 the Venice Chamber of Commerce was organized with 
Dr. John Stanwood as president ; J. G. French first vice-president ; David Evans, 
second vice-president ; Lewis Bradt, secretary and R. A. Dullugge, treasurer. 
The directors were Abbot Kinney, J. D. Simpson, Dr. J. B. Sands, H. C. Mayes, 
F. E. Reid, R. A. Phillips, Henry Wildey. This organization has since its for 
mation taken an active part in everything pertaining to the welfare of Venice. 
It has been especially concerned in furthering Mr. Kinney 's plans for a deep-sea 
harbor. The Venice harbor will be the nearest to Los Angeles, the least costly 
to build, the easiest to enter and to leave, and the safest from storm of any on 
the Pacific Coast. The plans have been approved by the government and it is 
expected that they will be carried out in the near future. The Chamber of 
Commerce took a leading part in the effort for disincorporation ; in securing the 
location of a shoe factory, giving employment to thirty or more men, at Venice ; 
in the proposed boulevard from Los Angeles by way of Palms, in securing the 
Polytechnic High School, and in many other ways it has worked for the advance 
ment of the community. At its second annual meeting, the officers chosen were. 
Dr. J. A. Stanwood, president; J. G. French, first vice-president; H. P. Eakins. 
second vice-president; W. A. Rennie, secretary; R. A. Dullugge, treasurer. The 
executive committee consists of Abbot Kinney. H. WicHzer. H. C. Mayes, Dr. 
J. M. White, T. R. Taylor. C. A. Stavenow. 


The ocean frontage of La Ballona Rancho was known in early days as 
Ballona Slough. It consisted of marshy fields, broken by sand dunes, ponds and 
lagoons of salt water, which were considered to be utterly worthless except as a 
home for ducks and other game birds. About 1870, Will Tell, a German of 
convivial propensities built a shack, almost on the spot now occupied by the Del 
Rev hotel, which he called " Tell's Lookout." For several years he kept up this 
establishment, advertising himself as agent for " Don Keller's native wines and 
brandies," and furnishing boats, guns and fishing tackle for his patrons. His 


place was a favorite resort for Los Angeles sportsmen and many a party of 
distinguished guests partook of his native products and hunted duck in his boats. 
The locality was generally known as " Will Tell's " in those days. 

In 1877 Michael Duffy, another royal host who will be remembered by many 
old timers, opened " Hunter's Cottage " in Tell's old location and was " prepared 
to furnish sportsmen with board and lodging for man and beast ; guns, ammuni 
tions, boats and everything complete for hunter's outfit. Good fishing and bath 
ing in the vicinity. Come and enjoy a few days sport and I will use every 
means to make it pleasant for you." 

The flats of Ballona were looked upon as of value only to sportsmen until 
about 1885. The approach of the Atchinson, Topeka and Santa Fe railway, 
and the first rumblings of the approaching boom, brought many hitherto un 
dreamed of projects to the surface. One of these was the scheme of creating 
a harbor out of the lagoons of La Ballona slough. In the spring of 1886 the 
Ballona Harbor and improvement Company was organized by capitalists of Los 
Angeles, M. L. Wicks being the leading spirit in the enterprise at that time. 
Among the directors were James Campbell, F. Sabichi, H. W. Mills, E. H. 
Boyd, and Dr. Lotspeich. 

The capital stock of the company was $300,000, Hugh Crabbe, an engineer 
of national reputation, was engaged to plan the work. It was proposed to exca 
vate a channel 200 feet long by 300 wide which would let the tide into the lagoon 
at the point where Ballona creek entered the ocean. This, with dredging, would 
create an inner harbor two miles long and from 300 to 600 feet wide, with a depth 
of from six to twenty feet. It was declared that this harbor would float the 
fleets of the world. This harbor was to be the terminus of the Santa Fe, or 
Atlantic and Pacific, as it was then known, and was declared to be the nearest 
point to the Gulf of Mexico possible for an ocean port and 800 miles nearer to 
the Hawaian Islands than San Francisco. A franchise was granted to the Los 
Angeles and Santa Monica Railway, an oflfshoot of the Santa Fe, although or 
ganized by the members of the Ballona Harbor Company, to construct a wharf 
and ship canal at Ballona and work was begun during the year. The Los An 
geles Express comments on the work being done in December, 1886, and says, 
' The hills around the harbor afford splendid sites for residences and will doubt 
less be rapidly covered with houses," a prediction which proved to be rather 

Monday, August 2ist, 1887, the railroad line was completed and the first 
train brought an excursion party of about 300 people to inspect the harbor im 
provements and make speeches on the " great future " of this Port Ballona. A 
large amount of dredging was done and a large amount of money nearly $300,- 
ooo was spent during the three years in which work was carried on more or 
less spasmodically upon the proposed harbor. The directorate of the company 
changed, M. L. Wicks dropping out and Louis Mesmer, Juan Bernard and others 


coming in. By July 4th, 1888, work had come to a standstill and only a watch 
man to guard the dredger and other property of the company was left on the 
ground. The Outlook in December, 1889, states that " The father of the Ballona 
Harbor scheme has been working on his pet project again. He is having the 
place cleaned up and getting ready to begin dredging again." But soon after 
ward a storm carried away the greater portion of the wharf and deposited it 
along the shore at Santa Monica where it was welcomed as firewood. 

The dredger and barges were then taken away and Port Ballona became a 
thing of the past. Many causes operated to make the scheme impracticable, 
the blue clay formation underneath the sand, the currents which brought sand 
back faster than it could be dredged out, and the failure of the Santa Fe system 
to co-operate with the projectors. 

A last echo of the Ballona Harbor Company was heard in 1892, when they 
entered a vigorous protest against the abandonment of the railroad right of way 
to Ballona and the removal of the rails from that branch by the Southern Cali 
fornia Railway Company. But the protest availed nothing the road to Ballona 
was taken up and a new line to Santa Monica took its place. 

For fifteen years after the abandoment of work upon the Port of Ballona, 
the lagoons and sand dunes remained a sportsman's paradise. The Recreation 
Gun Club purchased a large tract of the ocean frontage and the lagoons were 
only disturbed by the dipping of paddles and the echo of shot guns. Then came 
a new era of life for Ballona Slough. 

In June, 1902, it was announced that a company of capitalists had incor 
porated as the " Beach Land Company " and had purchased a thousand acres 
of land, including two and one-half miles of beach frontage from the Mesmer 
estate. This included the old Ballona Harbor. Among the incorporators were 
F. H. Rindge, M. H. Sherman, E. P. Clark, E. T. Earle, R. C. Gillis and a 
number of other prominent Southern California men. Henry P. Barbour was 
president of the company ; M. H. Sherman and Arthur H. Fleming, vice-presi 
dents ; A. I. Smith, secretary ; P. M. Green treasurer. 

The plans of this company were most elaborate. The new resort was to 
be named " Playa del Rev ", The King's Beach, or the King's Playground, as 
it was later translated. The Los Angeles-Pacific Company would at once build 
to the harbor, which was to be improved. A $200.000 hotel was proposed. 
Plans were made and plats completed under the direction of a landscape 

The company advertised their intentions liberally and the first sale of lots, 
July i6th, was a large one, many well known citizens being among the pur 
chasers. Work was at once begun on grading and improvements. October 
igth the electric road had cars running to Playa del Rev and a large number of 
excursionists visited the " King's Beach." Work continued steadily on the 
improvements during the next year. The lagoon, two miles long, of still water 


for bathing and boating proved itself a popular feature even before its com 
pletion. Forty boats and gasoline launches were provided for the accommoda 
tion of patrons. 

During the year the Redondo line was completed thus opening up a 
new district, and providing railway facilities for residents of the beach 
south of the harbor. In December, 1903, it was announced that an auto 
mobile speedway from Los Angeles to Playa del Rey would be constructed 
under the auspices of the Southern California Automobile club. This boulevard 
would be eighteen miles in length, thirty feet wide and would be made the 
finest automobile road in the country. 

With the opening of 1904 the rush of improvements at Playa del Rey in 
creased. Plans were made for the pavilion, which was to be three stories in 
heighth, with restaurant and dining room, bowling alleys and dancing floor and 
ample provisions for picnic and banquets. Work on this structure was rushed 
and it was opened to the public with a grand celebration of the occasion, boat 
races, dancing, etc., on November 25th. The hotel Del Rey, a handsome 
structure containing fifty rooms was built this year by George A. Cook, a 
capitalist of Redlands who had become largely interested in Playa del Rey. 
Boat houses and bandstand were completed. A two story bank building had 
been erected and many handsome cottages had been completed along the lagoon 
and on the bluff. In June 1904 a post office was established at Playa del Rey, 
with Frank Lawton, lessee of the pavilion as postmaster. The electric line to 
Santa Monica was completed, thus giving a much improved car service, as the 
fare to Santa Monica was made five cents. 

It is estimated that the Beach Land Company and the Los Angeles-Pacific 
Company spent at least $200,000 on the foundation work for this resort. Six- 
hundred acres of sand beach, rolling dunes and lofty bluffs were graded and 
prepared for building permanent residences. In leveling lands and excavating 
for the lagoon, more than 700,000 cubic yards of sand were used for filling 
in purposes. Sidewalks were constructed along the beach and the lagoon ; a 
sewer system ; water system and electric lights provided. An unusually high 
class of buildings was put up and the expectation of the projectors were largely 
realized, yet much still remained to make the resort all that was hoped for. 
During 1905, two suspension bridges were thrown across the lagoon and an 
incline railway constructed to the top of Mount Ballona, as the bluff is known. 
In April, through the efforts largely of Joseph Mesmer, Playa del Rey school 
district was organized, with 26 children. 



THE United States has made liberal provision for the support and care of 
her volunteer soldiers. After allowing them pensions and land bounties, 
it became evident as early as 1865 that a large class of disabled and 
elderly veterans required care and attention which could only be given in an insti 
tution especially adapted to the purpose. In consequence of this demand. Con 
gress passed an act establishing a National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, 
in 1865. Later branches of this home were established in various parts of the 
United States. These establishments are governed by a Board of Managers, 
subject to the supervision of the War Department. There are now ten Homes 
in the United States. 

In March, 1887, an act authorizing the establishment of the Pacific Coast 
branch was passed by congress and in November of that year a commission of 
which Gen. William B. Franklin, president of the National Board of Managers : 
Col. William Blanding, of San Francisco; Col. E. P. Brown, Gen. James S. 
Negley and six other members of the National Board, were members, met in 
San Francisco to consider the several propositions which had been made for sites 
for the new branch. A large number of propositions .were submitted from 
every section of the state. 'Many of these were generous in providing free land 
and other inducements to secure the Home ; but only two offers were made of a 
free site and also a cash bonus. 

The commissioners, after a careful consideration of the proposals, visited the 
various localities selected as worthy of serious consideration. A number of 
offers had been made from Southern California localities. One which presented 
many favorable points was near San Diego. Another very generous offer was 
that of the Inglewood-Centinella people. The choice in Southern California, 
however, soon narrowed down to two proposals, that of the Hesperia Land 
and Water Co., of San Bernardino county, offering 500 acres of land, with 
water, and $250,000 cash ; and that of Messrs. Jones, Baker and Wolfskill, offer 
ing 300 acres of land, a supply of water equal to 120,000 gallons per day, and 
$100,000 in cash to be expended in improving the grounds. 

The commission after going carefully over the land, investigating the sources 
of water supply and the conditions generally, were banqueted at the hotel 
Arcadia and left for the north. They left California without announcing a 
decision ; but before reaching Washington, they decided by a vote of eight to 
two, to accept the Santa Monica proposition. In December, 1887, Col. Charles 


Treichel, of Philadelphia, was appointed governor of the new branch and in 
January, 1888, he arrived on the ground and took charge of the preparations for 
the establishment of the institution. 

The branches are all under the management of the National Board of Man 
agers, with a local manager and a corps of officers. The officials are always 
men who have served with honor as officers of the United States Army. Colonel 
Treichel, the first governor of the Pacific Branch, made a brilliant record with 
the Army of the Potomac. He was several time wounded, and the end of the 
war found him Major of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry and Brevet Colonel of 
the U. S. Volunteers. Under his direction work was begun to supply the 
grounds selected as the site of the buildings with a sufficient amount of water 
from temporary wells, while the survey for a pipe line and reservoirs was made 
under the supervision of Col. Mendell, of the U. S. Survey force. By July 4th, 
the first building on the grounds, " Junipero cottage " was nearly ready for use 
by the governor and the flag pole was in place for the raising of the flag which 
marked the occupancy of the grounds by the U. S. government. 

The location of this branch has proved to be almost ideal. Owing to 
the failure of " boom " laid plans, the cash bonus was not paid to the govern 
ment by the Wolfskill ranch owners, but in lieu of this they placed at the 
disposal of the Home a tract of 330 acres, thus giving the government over 
600 acres of land, a large part of which was tillable. The site chosen for 
the buildings was a gently sloping elevation, commanding a fine view, sheltered 
from winds of the north by mountains and open to the ocean breezes. It was 
planned to distribute the buildings in the form of a crescent, facing the south, 
and this general plan has been followed. The early appropriations were not 
large and at first the buildings were very simple in design and structure. 
The first barracks were completed in December, 1888, and were at once filled, 
a number of old soldiers having collected about the Home and been accom 
modated in camps until the buildings were ready. The dining hall and 
hospital were also built this year. 

Up to the present, eleven barracks have been put up. Each is two 
stories, surrounded on three sides by verandas and equipped with all modern 
conveniences. From 150 to 200 men are accommodated in each, under the 
government of one of their own number who is known as " Captain," who is 
responsible for the conduct and order of his building. 

The dining hall and kitchen have been several times enlarged. The 
kitchen is provided with every convenience for facilitating the work of pre 
paring three meals a day for from 1,000 to 1,500 people. The dining hall will 
now seat nearly a thousand men at a time. As the appropriations have come 
in from year to year, new buildings which provide for the comfort and happi 
ness of the old soldiers have been erected. For manv vears the librarv was 


located in the Headquarters building; but in 1906 Markham Hall, a handsome 
structure was erected. On the lower floor is a beautiful and well appointed 
library and reading room. Above is an assembly room for the use of various 
societies and public meetings. In 1900 the chapel was erected. This is a 
pretty building, unique in that under one roof is a Protestant and a Catholic 
church separated by a thick wall. The organ in the Protestant chapel was 
prestend by T. H. Hatch, a member of the home a musician and composer. 
The new hospital, built in 1904, is most complete. Here the old veterans 
receive every attention that can be given in the best equipped of private hos 
pitals. A corps of nurses is employed. Ward Memorial Hall, built in 1898, 
provides a fully equipped stage and a pleasant gathering place for amusements, 
concerts, and so on. 

The buildings are all surrounded by carefully kept grounds, which are 
adorned with trees and flowers. This is one of the most beautifully arranged 
and kept parks in the country, and the climate gives perpetual bloom and 
greenness, making it a perennial garden of beauty. The many trees which 
have been set out on the Home grounds have now attained a fine growth and 
some of the long avenues through the reservation are delightful and enticing 
drives and walks. 

A large amount of hay and grain are raised on the place each year, beside 
all the vegetables and most of the fruit required for the table. Now the citrus 
fruit orchards are coming into bearing and considerable shipments of fruit are 
made beside supplying the Home. Fine stock cattle, horses and hogs, are 
kept and thus the Home is in part self-supporting. In 1903-4 the farm is 
reported as netting $25,069 to the institution. 

The postoffice at the Home was established October ist, 1889, wich Henry 
T. Lenty as postmaster. In 1895 it was made a money order office with all 
the facilities of a city office. A large amount of business is transacted yearly 
through this office, the money order department especially handling an unusual 
volume of business as many of the members send a portion, at least, of their 
pension funds to families. 

The Home is abundantly supplied with water for domestic use and for 
irrigation. The first arrangement was a series of reservoirs in Rustic canyon 
with a pipe line to the grounds. During the dry seasons of 1898-1900 this 
source of water supply proved insufficient and wells were put down. Later 
arrangements were made with the West Los Angeles Water Company to 
supply water and in 1905 the government made an appropriation for a storage 
reservoir to hold a million gallons of water. This is located on the Home 
grounds. An electric light and power plant was erected on the grounds and 


furnished the needed '' juice " for the Home until 1902 when contracts were 
made with the Edison company to supply the service. 

Since the establishment of the Pacific Branch about $800,000 has been 
expended by the government in permanent improvements. The annual expendi 
tures of the institution average about $350,000. Between $200,000 and $360,000 
is paid annually as pensions to the members of the Home. It will be seen 
that this means a large amount of money which is annually expended largely in 
Southern California and much of which is turned into local channels. Beside 
this, the beautiful grounds and the whole institution is a great attraction and 
one in which the people of Southern California and particularly of the Santa 
.Monica Bay Region take great pride. 

The first governor of the Pacific Branch, Col. Treichel, died March 28th, 
1894, having always suffered from the effect of the wounds received during 
the war. He had shown himself an able man and had brought the institution 
safely through the most critical years of its existence and created a beautiful 
and orderly home, well managed and popular among the veterans of the west, 
for whose benefit it was intended. Col. Treichel had contended with many 
difficulties and obstacles in laying the foundations of so large an establish 
ment ; but he had given himself to the work with great devotion. 

Governor Treichel was succeeded by Col. J. G. Rowland, who remained 
in charge of the Pacific Branch until April, 1897, when he was transferred 
to the Leavenworth Branch and Col. A. G. Smith, of the Leavenworth Home, 
was brought here. Governor Smith was a strict disciplinarian and made many 
new rules and regulations which were intended for the general good ; but 
which some of the veterans felt were infringements of their personal liberty. 
The feeling against him was strong among a few of the members, although 
the majority believed that he had only the best good of the institution in view. 
On September 26th, 1898, Albert Bradley, who had previously shown symptoms 
of insanity, shot Governor Smith as he was passing through the grounds. It 
was feared at first that the wound would prove fatal ; but no vital point had 
been touched and Governor Smith recovered although never entirely restored 
to health again. After this unfortunate affair, he resigned and retired 
January 1st, 1899. He was succeeded by the present incumbent, General O. 
H. La Grange. 

October 2Oth, 1899, another tragedy startled and saddened Home circles. 
Major F. K. Upham had served as quartermaster and treasurer of the Pacific 
Branch since April 2Oth, 1895. He was genial, kind and lovable and most 
popular with the officers and the members. On this morning as he was pre 
paring to go to the railroad station for money to pay the employees, he acci 
dentally struck one of his pistols in such a manner as to discharge the contents 



into his body and cause instant death. Great sorrow was felt by members of 
the Home, by officials and the public generally at this untimely loss. Major T. 
J. Cochran was appointed to fill the vacant place and still remains in the 

One of the best-known officers of the Home was Major H. G. Hasse, 
who for eighteen years filled the office of chief surgeon of the Home. In 1905 
he resigned and his place was filled by the appointment of Dr. O. C. McXary, 
formerly of the Leavenworth Home. 

The first member admitted to the Pacific Branch was George Davis, late 
of Company B, I4th N. Y. Cavalry. He was transferred from the Dayton. 


Ohio, Home and came with Col. Treichel as his clerk. In December, 1888, a 
number of veterans who had gathered on the grounds in anticipation of the 
opening of the Home, were received into the barracks. In March, 1889, 
one hundred members of the Yountville, Cal., Home were brought to the new 
Home. The Yountville Home had been established in 1883 by private contri 
butions from the G. A. R. and Mexican Veterans' societies. The next year 
the state adopted it, allowing $150 for each veteran cared for by the institution. 
Later it passed under control of the United States government, and is still 
maintained as a home for members of the G. A. R. 

Applications for quarters in the Pacific Branch are always far in advance 
of the room, for the advantages of climate and favorable location attract many 
of the " old boys " from other parts of the United States. There are at present 
3,619 members, of whom 2,088 are present. The death rate among these old 


men is, of course large, yet it is small in this Home, when the age of the men 
is considered and also the fact that a large proportion of them have been in 
some manner disabled. At first the National Home was intended only for 
those veterans who had been so disabled that they were unable to earn a 
living, and who were dependent. The rules for admission have been gradually 
broadened until now any veteran who can show an honorable discharge can 
be received into the Home. Many avail themselves of the privilege temporarily 
or for only part of the time, thus receiving the benefits of hospital treatment 
and care when ill. 

Everything is done to make the institution as homelike as possible and to 
interfere with the personal liberty of the members as little as possible. Only 
such discipline as is absolutely necessary to obtain order in a large body of 
men is enforced. Members of the Home receive pensions, when entitled to 
them ; and as many as are able or desire it, receive employment about the Home, 
being paid for their services. A number of them have homes at Sawtelle and 
reside with their families, while receiving the benefits of membership in the 

Two Grand Army Posts are maintained, -the John A. Martin Post and 
the Uncle Sam Post. A Masonic society and various other organizations are 
sustained by the members. Frequent entertainments are given for their benefit 
in the theater, assembly hall and churches, and the men entertain themselves 
with tales of their fighting and active days as they sit about the parks and the 
verandas of their barracks. An abundance of reading matter is supplied by 
the library and the members are many of them regular subscribers for maga 
zines and daily papers. 

In 1898, during the Spanish war excitement, a company of 500 was 
organized by the old soldiers and volunteered its services in case of need. Had 
this company of veterans been called into the field, it would have undoubtedly 
acquitted itself with credit beside younger men. 

After " pension day " a large number usually go out on furlough, and 
some of them spend their money foolishly. Every effort is made to protect 
them by the Home management and by the city and county officials, yet " blind 
pigs '' and disreputable places exist and the soldiers find them. The arrest of 
veterans are made much of by the newspapers and the public, yet the proportion 
of disorder is small and crimes are seldom committed by members of the Home. 

The passing of the veterans of the civil war is only a question of a 
comparatively few years now, and it is only just that every effort should be 
made by the government and the citizens of the United States to make these 
remaining years pleasant at least to provide all possible comforts and care, 
when necessary, for these heroes of the past. 




THE lands now included in the thriving town of Sawtelle were originally 
a part of the San Vicente grant. Traces of the old adobe homes of the 
Sepulvedas ; the two springs because of which the name of Santa Monica 
was bestowed, and of the old burial ground of San Vicente rancho are found 
here. When, in 1896, Messrs. Sherman and Clark acquired the old Los Angeles 
and Pacific right of way and proposed to build an electric line to the beach, they 
asked the citizens of Santa Monica and the Jones and Baker interests for a 
cash subsidy to aid them in the work. In response to this request, Messrs. Jones 
and Baker donated to the company a tract of 225 acres, now included in the 
townsite of Sawtelle. Mr. Sherman soon offered to sell the land for cash as 
he said he couldn't build a railroad with land. Messrs. R. F. Jones and R. C. 
Gillis purchased this tract, which lay just south of the Soldier's Home. Up to 
that time there had been no settlers on this land, the only building being a shack 
at the railroad crossing which was known as Castle Garden. Messrs. Jones and 
Gillis considered the possibility of selling this land in small tracts to old soldiers 
and finally secured from the management of the Home permission for members 
to build houses and reside outside of the reservation without losing their mem 
bership in the Home. 

In 1896, Rev. S. H. Taft, who had had past experience in building up a 
town, having been the original proprietor of the beautiful town of Humboldt, 
Iowa and the founder and first president of the College of Humboldt, located 
in that town, was invited to inspect the land of the Pacific Land Company. 
He gave it as his opinion that it would be quite possible to develop a thriving 
community here, provided water could be obtained. The company was already 
putting down wells and was successful in obtaining a fine flow of water from two 
wells. They put up a 50,000 gallon tank and began to lay pipes and grade 
streets. In February. 1897, the company asked Mr. Taft to take charge of the 
new enterprise upon a commission basis. Mr. Taft consented to do so upon 
three conditions, 1st, That the company should fix a maximum and minimum 
price upon all lots and acreage in the plat surveyed ; and leave him at liberty to 
sell within the limits named. 2nd, That he should have absolute control of all 
sales and that no other parties should be given authority to make sales ; in case 
of the company selling lands he to receive his commission on same. 3rd, That 
Tiis control of the enterprise should continue for five years. 

Under this agreement Mr. Taft assumed charge and at once began the 


erection of a cottage and office and the transformation of a barley field into a 
town. The original plat embraced between two and three hundred acres, un 
broken by any road except the electric line. The first work was to make a cross 
ing at Fourth street and a little later to secure the co-operation of Governor 
Smith of the Soldier's Home in opening up Fourth street from the Home build 
ings through the town plat and also the consent of the San Vicente grant owners 
to continue the road to the public road from Santa Monica to Los Angeles, thus 
giving a new and better road than had previously been available to the Home 
grounds. Trees were set out along Fourth street and other streets were graded 
and planted with ornamental trees. 

The office of the company was opened in " Lawn cottage," May ist, 1897 
and almost immediately Mr. Laird completed a building on the block purchased 


by him at the corner of Oregon and Fourth, the first lots sold on the new town 
site. Mr. Laird opened here the first grocery store in the settlement. 

Mr. Taft at once took steps to secure a school district. He found in the 
fall of '97 that there were thirteen children of school age, but the law required 
fifteen before a district could be formed. Matters came to a standstill until 
Mr. Taft accidentally learned of a bee keeper who had a ranch about two miles 
north of the Soldier's Home. He at once drove up to the bee ranch and to his 
delight found that the bee man had four children of the necessary age. The 
next day Mr. Taft went before the supervisors with his petition and early in 
1898 a new school district was set aside and named Barrett district, after Gen. 
A. W. Barrett, for many years local manager of the Home and an old friend 
of Mr. R. C. Gillis. A site was selected for a school house and an acre of 
ground for school purposes was purchased of the company for $150.00. During 
the summer a school house, 10 by 12 feet in size was erected on the east side of 
Fourth street and in September, 1898, the first school was opened, with Miss 
Goldsmith as teacher and with five pupils. Mr. Taft had also begun correspond- 


ence to secure a post office for the new town. The postal authorities expressed 
a willingness to establish the post office but objected to the name " Barrett " on 
account of its similarity to Bassett. Mr. W. E. Sawtelle had lately become 
interested in the town and his name was suggested ; he consented to its use and 
it was sent on to the authorities who accepted it. This led to the change of 
name of the school district and town to Sawtelle. 

May 25th, 1899, tne editor of the Outlook, after a visit to Barrett Villa, 
writes : 

" Barrett is yet an infant in age, it being but twelve months since its lots 
were placed upon the market. But it is a stalwart youth in development and 
strength. It has several miles of neatly graded streets lined with young palms 
and other varieties of beautiful trees. It has a church, a model school house, a 
town hall, a nobby little depot and many beautiful cottages surrounded by well 
kept grounds. 

" Barrett is on the electric car line fifteen miles from Los Angeles and 
about three miles from Santa Monica. A spur of the Southern Pacific system 
extending to the Home, touches its eastern limits. 

" It lies three miles from The Palms and five miles from Ballona. Broad 
and fertile fields lie around it in all directions, and a few miles away is the 
Sierre Madre range of mountains with its towering cliffs, its rugged gulches 
and its beautiful canyons. Invigorating ocean breezes tempered by a sweep 
over the land, give it an irreproachable all the year climate. A broad extent of 
ocean is visible in one direction, and the city of Los Angeles is in view on the 
opposite side. Underlying strata at a depth of about 70 feet furnish an in- 
exhausitable supply of pure soft water. The surface soil is perfectly adapted to 
the growth of the lemon and the deciduous fruits, all ornamental trees that adorn 
Southern California, small fruits, flowering shrubs and plants of every variety, 
lawns, and garden vegetables. 

" Barrett's many advantages are easily set forth. They are : 

'' Its beautiful location ; its accessibility and low rates of fart either from 
city or seashore : it pure water supply ; its adaptability to vegetable growth of 
every character : its school and church privileges. 

" The moderate price asked for building sites and acreage and the liberal 
terms of payment granted ; its peculiar and unequaled climatic advantages: its 
proximity to one of the most interesting National institutions the Veteran's 
Home, with its 2000 members. Several prominent citizens both of Los An 
geles and Santa Monica have already purchased lots here and will at once begin 
improvements upon them. Among these is Mr. Sawtelle of the latter place, 
who has already beautified a block on one of the principal streets." 

The Pacific Land Company had fixed the prices for land at from $80 to 
$100 for inside lots; $150 to $200 for corner lots and acreage from $150 to 
$200. A considerable number of old soldiers availed themselves of these prices 



to obtain lots or acreage, many of them buying on the installment plan and 
paying as their pension money came in. It was noticeable that some men who 
had hitherto squandered their money in dissipation now purchased land and be 
came valuable citizens. Many families of veterans and widows also secured 
little homes here. Mr. Taft wrote a series of articles for the press setting 
forth the opportunities offered in the new settlement for obtaining homes and 
also sent out many circulars which attracted attention. As the town has grown 
and increased in population, values have also increased very rapidly. Many of 
the original settlers have now disappeared, having sold out to advantage, or 
lost their holdings. The town was within the mile and a half limit for saloons 


imposed by the government for the Soldiers' Home, therefore no saloons could 
be legally maintained within it. This was also an inducement to early settlers. 
During 1899 a school house was built on the land purchased for the school 
at a cost of $600. This original building is included in the present building, 
which has been erected at different times as the room was required. July 4th, 
1899, the name of the town was formally changed to Sawtelle. At the same 
time a flag was raised on a sixty foot pole, erected in the park, which was given 
the name of Gillis park. A school bell which had been purchased by the con 
tributions of the Pacific Land Company and many citizens and soldiers, was put 
in place and rung for the first time. 


The electric people had erected a neat depot and the Holiness church had 
secured a building on lots at the corner of Second street and Indiana avenue ; 
a number of cottages had been erected and several stores had been opened ; 
among the first merchants were Mr. Shull of the Shull Hardware store ; F. 
n. McComas; Farley Brothers and Wyant, who built Wyant hall. 

During 1899 Mr. W. E. Sawtelle became interested in the Pacific Land 
Company and in 1900 he superseded Mr. Taft as manager of the company and 
has since been the chief spirit in the various improvements and the steady ad 
vance made by the town of Sawtelle. 

At the beginning of 1901 about one hundred families had located within the 
limits of the new town and ten new houses were then in course of construction. 
Two churches, the Holiness and the Free Methodist had been organized and the 
Holiness people had secured lots and erected a chapel. The town had a full 
complement of business houses and the volume of business was surprisingly 
large. During the year several new blocks were laid out and many sidewalks 
were laid, streets graded and other improvements made. In February, 1901, 
the Pacific Veteran-Enterprise, was founded by Mr. A. A. Bynon, who later 
sold the plant to Mr. Fitzgerald. In April, 1902, Miss Susie Pierson Miller 
became the editor, a position which she still fills. 

The fact that water could be obtained almost anywhere in the vicinity of 
the town by putting down a well and that the soil was fertile and easily worked, 
made it possible for purchasers of acreage, or even of lots, to raise garden stuff, 
potatoes, small fruits, and so on, to advantage ; while every house is surrounded 
by flowers and shrubbery. The raising of beans has proved most profitable. 
Almost every property owner in the vicinity of Sawtelle finds it possible to make 
a living at least, off from a very small tract of land. This has been the chief 
reason for the rapid settlement of this locality. The Lindsey tract of 100 acres, 
the Pacific Farms tract and later the Artesian tract have been added to the 
original town site of Sawtelle, thus largely increasing its acreage. In 1902 the 
population was estimated at 500 and more school room became necessary. 
Bonds to the amount of $4,500 were voted for an addition to the building. 

In 1903 The Pacific Land Company built a two story brick building which 
contained several stores. In March, the Santa Monica Bank opened its Sawtelle 
branch in one of these rooms under the management of Mr. Schuyler Cole. 
The Sawtelle Water Company was incorporated this year with W. E. Sawtelle, 
W. T. Gillis, J. E. Miles, B. A. Nebeker and A. M. Jameson as directors. 

1904 opened with a sensational bank robbery and a destructive fire which, 
on January 27th swept away several buildings on Fourth street. This year C. 
B. Irvine started the Sawtelle Sentinel, an enterprising weekly, which is now 
published by Henry Schultz. The town was now well supplied with religious 
organizations, the Baptist, Methodist, Christian and Seventh Day Adventists 
having formed churches. A Women's Christian Temperance Union, and a 


number of Lodges and Orders had organizations also. The town had now 
acquired such a population and importance that its citizens began to discuss the 
propriety of incorporation. Fire protection was needed and some better method 
of controlling the influx of gamblers and " blind pigs " which had followed 
Santa Monica's house cleaning efforts. The matter was discussed for more 
than a year before any decisive action was taken. The Sawtelle Improvement 
Association was formed during the year and took an active part in the effort 
to secure incorporation. At a mass meeting held January 6th, 1905, W. P>. B. 
Taylor, S. H. Taft, O. W. Jewett, Henry Schulz and others urged the matter. 
The question came to vote on August I5th, 1905 and was lost by a vote of 79 
for to 130 against. A good deal of feeling and excitement arose over the result. 
It was proposed that Sawtelle seek annexation with Santa Monica, since she 
would not establish an adequate government of her own. Petitions to this 
effect were circulated and the idea was discussed by the Improvement Associa 
tion ; but nothing further came of the proposition. 

In 1906 the question of incorporation was again opened. Sawtelle now had 
a population of 1500 and the necessity for a better form of government was 
pressing. After a public meeting where the pros and cons were fully rJiscUssed, 
officers for the new town were nominated and on November i6th, 1906 another 
vote was taken which resulted 241 votes for incorporation and 58 against it. 
The trustees chosen were C. J. Nellis, chairman ; E. E. Muclge, F. C. Langdon, 
J. E. Osburne and A. J. Stoner; clerk, Leroy Fallis ; treasurer, George W. 
Wiseman ; marshal, J. P. Keener ; W. B. B. Taylor was appointed city attorney 
and O. W. Jewett was appointed city recorder. The incorporation included a 
territory a mile square and extending to the town limits of Santa Monica on the 
west. The new government has not been able to entirely satisfy all and there 
has been talk among the dis-satisfied of dis-incorporation ; but this is merely 
talk and the town will continue to advance not retrograde. 

During 1906 Mr. F. E. Bundy erected a handsome two-story brick building 
on Oregon avenue and several other business blocks were added. The Citizens 
State Bank was established in 1906, its officers being R. F. McClellan, president : 
W. E. Sawtelle, vice-president; H. W. Crane, cashier; directors, R. F. McClellan, 
L. D. Loomis, J. L. Brady, D. L. Allen. Many pretty residences were built and 
the town made rapid advance. The opening up of the Westgate section and 
the building of the Westgate branch of the electric line brought rapid develop 
ment in that direction. 

Naturally the location of Sawtelle in close proximity to the Soldiers' Home 
has been an important factor in its substantial growth. As the nearest business 
point a portion of large sums annually distributed as pensions is spent among 
its business houses, and the traffic and trade of the veterans and their friends 
has formed a solid basis for the prosperity of the town, which now numbers 
about 2,000 inhabitants. 




November 5th, 1901 a meeting was held in Wyant's hall for the purpose 
of organizing a Baptist church in Sawtelle. After prayer by Rev. E. K. Cooper, 
a veteran, A. A. Bynon was elected chairman and T. R. Gabel, clerk. Sixteen 
persons then enrolled their names as members. Arrangements were at once 
made for the first service, which was held in Wyant's hall, Sunday morning, 
November loth, Rev. George Taylor of Pasadena, officiating, and preaching to 
an interested congregation. The following Sunday the first converts, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. W. Cox were baptized, this being the first time the ordinance was ad 
ministered. On December ist permanent organization was effected and Rev. 
George Taylor became the pastor in charge. A. H. Wyant and S. S. Sprague 
were the first deacons and A. A. Bynon, J. W. Cox, F. Peaslee, W. E. Haskins, 
J. B. Goff, were the first trustees. The first church clerk, T. R. Gabel, was then 
postmaster and station agent of the Los Angeles-Pacific road. His efficient ser 
vices in the early history of the church were of great value. His promotion to 
the position of general manager of the electric road, removed a valuable member 
from this church. May 8th, 1902, the organization was incorporated and 
immediately purchased lots on the corner of Sixth street and Oregon avenue. 
On July 4th, 1902, Pastor Taylor hauled the first load of brick for the foundation 
from Inglewood in his buggy. Work was at once begun upon the structure 
which was completed and dedicated during the years. 

The church has steadily increased in strength and membership under the 
services of Rev. Taylor who is assisted ably by his wife and son, W. B. B. 
Taylor. The present membership of the church is 144. of whom 26 have been 
received by baptism. 


Palms is located five miles east of Santa Monica on land formerly a part 
of La Ballona grant. In early days this section was used as grazing land for 
sheep and cattle by the Machados. After the building of the Los Angeles 
and Independence railway a section house was located here which was known 
as " Grasshopper station." In the seventies the store of Saenz & Higuera 
was established at what is now First and Washington streets, Palms, and was 
known as the " Half-way house." Here a postoffice known as Machado was 
located for many years. This was the first business and is now the oldest 
business establishment of Palms. Mr. Saenz purchased a considerable tract 
of land in the vicinity and was one of the first ranchers of the neighborhood. 
Other ranchers who located here in the later seventies or early eighties were 
Isaac Beyer, and George Rose, son of Anderson Rose, who was the first 
American settler on La Ballona and was, for many years, an extensive rancher, 
carrying on a large dairy farm and raising blooded stock. Enoch Griffin. 
George Charnock, Mrs. Eliza Hoke, Gilbert Kidson, Professor J. M. Coyner 


and other farmers located in this vicinity in the eighties. With the approach 
of the boom other lands were sold to newcomers and in 1887 Messrs. E. H. 
Swectser and Joseph Curtis bought a tract of 560 acres and at once laid out 
the townsite of " Palms.'' They began making improvements and a local 
paper describes the situation thus: 

" The local of this paper the other day had a look at the ' Palms,' an 
incipient town on the line of the S. P. road, some five miles from Santa 
Monica. It is no longer a misnomer as the proprietors have planted two 
large palms near the depot and some 160 plants on the various driveways. A 
force is grading the streets and we are told that it is the intention to plant all 
the avenues with shade trees of various kinds. The large reservoir which 
holds 150,000 gallons, is completed and a prospect hole has been sunk to test 
the water supply beneath the ground. A large quantity of water has been 
found and a well 6 by 10 feet will be dug, so as to place the pump near the 
water. A large steam pump will make it easy to lift the water up to the 
reservoir, which is placed on an elevation, from which there will be good 
pressure over the entire townsite. Quite a lot of property has been sold, and' 
six houses, including a store room, have been built." 

A very lively real estate campaign followed. The Woman's Ballona 
Company was organized in May, 1888, to buy, improve and sell lands of the 
Palms district, the directors being Mrs. Ella L. Baxter, Miss Florence Dunham, 
Florence A. Barnes, Mrs. Jane Pascoe and Mrs. Isabel Cook, all of Los Angeles. 
They had a capital stock of $14,400, but nothing is said of the amount actually 
paid in. Another woman's organization which was ambitious for those days 
was the " Woman's Palms Syndicate," which proposed to acquire, improve and 
sell certain lands in Palms and which numbered among its directors some 
well-known Los Angeles women of the time. 

Messrs. Sweetzer and Curtis were more successful in their promotion 
than many of the boomers of that day. They struck an abundant supply of 
water and the soil of the lands included in the townsite was responsive to water 
and labor. Mr. Curtis erected a handsome home which was soon surrounded 
by beautiful grounds. A school district was formed and a $10,000 school house 
was put up. A neat hotel, known for years as Palms Villa was built. This 
building is now the residence of Mr. E. M. Kimball. St. Augustin's, a pretty 
Catholic chapel, had been put up in 1887 to accommodate the people of Ballona ; 
a Congregational church was built and the United Brethren erected a neat little 
church. The Southern Pacific added a neat depot for the thriving little settle 
ment. Although the collapse of the boom retarded the growth of Palms, it 
did not cease to exist, like many other communities. 

In 1895 considerable improvement was made in the quiet little town by 


n. \v. HV.YETT. 


the erection of several new residences and an influx of new residents. About 
this time a rural deliver}- route was started out from Palms. One of the first 
agents was Mrs. George Lyons, who worked up a fine route. She was suc 
ceeded by A. F. Bryant who extended the delivery system until it covered a 
route of twenty-five miles with a list of 800 patrons. The extension of Los 
Angeles city boundaries has materially affected the territory of the Palms 
postoffice, however. 

The building of a branch of the Los Angeles- Pacific road through Palms 
in 1902 gave new life to the town. Within a short time twenty new families 
had moved in and since that date progress has been rapid. The Palms Light 
and Water Company was incorporated with W. R. Wheat, C. N. Garey, M. 
R. King. A. J. Forbel, F. B. Clark, Jr., J. B. Valla, E. S. Shanks, as directors, 
and purchased a tract of 379 acres to furnish a water supply for domestic 
purposes and for irrigation. During IQOI, F. E. Schueddig had begun on a 
small scale the manufacture of eucalyptus oil and produced a triple distilled 
article which was unequalled on the market. In 1906 he put up a new building 
for his manufactory, which is now shipping eucalyptus products to all parts 
of the United States. 

The vear 1907 has been marked by a strong advance, a re-awakening, as 
it were, of the quiet village. Early in January a Chamber of Commerce was 
organized with C. X. Gary, president ; S. C. Perrine, secretary ; Arthur J. 
Stinton, treasurer. January 22nd was a memorable day because of the ban 
quet tendered the new organization by C. N. Gary, at the ship hotel, Cabrillo, 
Venice. One hundred and seventy-two men sat down to the feast and listened 
to stirring talk on the future development of Palms. The Palms News, a 
neatly printed and lively sheet, sent out its first number December 22, 1906, 
S. C. Perrine and W. G. Rennie, proprietors. The paper is now printed in 
the establishment of King, Geach & Co., which is doing a large job printing 
business. A neat one-story brick building has been erected for this company 
and is now occupied by them as a printing plant. In August a branch of the 
Citizens State Bank of Sawtelle was opened in Palms, located first in the office 
of I. C. Butler, but on the completion of a handsome two-story brick building 
by the Woodmen of the World, the bank moved into a corner room especially- 
arranged for its use. The building contains a fraternal hall and two store 
rooms beside a number of offices upstairs. Several other business buildings 
and a number of residences have been erected since the beginning of 1906. 



EDWIN W. DIKE, retired, a highly esteemed citizen of Santa Monica, 
is a native of Vermont, born in the town of Chittenden, Rutland County, 
February 10th, 1820. He is the son of Dan Dike, a native of the same 
town and a farmer by occupation, living there the greater portion of his life, sub 
sequently removing to St. Lawrence County, N. Y., where he died at the age 
of about eighty-three years. The father of Dan Dike, Jonathan Alexander Dike, 
was a native of Tolland, Conn., and his father was a Revolutionary soldier. Mr. 
Dike's maternal grandfather was Thomas Mitchell, who lived at Taunton, Mass., 
then a suburb but now a part of the city of Boston. Mr. Dike's maternal great 
grandfather was a Howard by birth, a Scotchman, but by choice and instinct 
an American patriot. He was an active member of the historic "Boston Tea 
Party" that indignantly threw overboard quantities of tea from a merchant 
vessel into the waters of Boston harbor in 1774 because of the arbitrary and un 
just taxation of the English government. 

Edwin W. Dike was reared on the home farm, received an excellent educa 
tion in local public schools and finished at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vt. 
From the farm he went into a general store at Brandon, Vt., where he spent 
four years and acquired a practical knowledge of business methods. Later he 
took up mechanics, became a wood and iron worker and held a responsible posi 
tion in the shops of the Rutland & Burlington Ry. Co. for six years, later became 
assistant master mechanic of the Burlington division of the same road for four 
years. He then purchased an interest in the Cove Machine Company, at Provi 
dence, R. I., and assumed management of the same, making a specialty of the 
manufacture of calico printing and bleaching machinery. By reason of failing 
health he disposed of his interests and in 1857 came west to Faribault, Rice 
County, Minn., where, with the accumulations of past years of enterprise and 
industry, he embarked in the money loaning business. He also acted as pur 
chasing agent for a Baltimore house, extensive exporters of ginseng to China and 
for them did a large business. The country was then new and infested with 
bands of hostile and warlike Sioux Indians. During the historic Indian uprisings 
throughout west and northwest Minnesota, in 1863 in which upwards of seven 
hundred white men, women and children were massacred Mr. Dike took an 
active part in the defense of the settlers and in the final punishment of the murder 
ous savages. After the battle of Wood Lake, about four hundred of these Indians 
were taken as prisoners to Mankato and there tried by court martial. Two 


hundred of them were convicted and condemned to death. After a careful and 
deliberate review of the case by President Lincoln, he decided that forty of them 
should be hung. By reason of extenuating circumstances two of the forty were 
finally reprieved, and Mr. Dike was appointed one of the citizen marshals to 
execute these thirty-eight Sioux warriors at Mankato. This unpleasant duty 
was promptly performed according to law. They were all hanged until dead at 
one and the same time from one gallows. 

Later, for a time, Mr. Dike assumed management of a flour mill, the property 
of a cousin, Major W. H. Dike Major of the First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. 
He was a pioneer mill owner of the great west, and among the first to ship flour 
to the eastern markets from the State of Minnesota. In 1873 Mr. Dike was 
appointed Treasurer of the State of Minnesota by Governor Horace Austin 
to take the place of a defaulting treasurer, and removed to St. Paul, the state 
capital. Upon assuming charge of the state treasury, Mr. Dike evolved and put 
into use an entirely new system of bookkeeping, by which he was enabled to de 
termine the nominal condition of the state finances at the close of each day's 
business and make technically accurate balances of all his accounts at the end 
of every month. These reports were published in the leading newspapers of the 
state. He was the first state treasurer to deposit the state's funds in national 
banks, receiving interest on daily balances, a new source of revenue to the state 
which, during his administration, amounted to about $9,600. 

At the time of the historic Jay Cook failure, which precipitated a financial 
panic throughout the country, Mr. Dike assured his bankers that the state's 
funds upwards of three quarters of a million dollars would remain with them 
on deposit. This declaration effectually restored confidence and safely held 
the impending crisis in check at St. Paul, the then financial center of the great 

During his term of one year's incumbency by appointment, Mr. Dike inaugu 
rated other salutary reforms and discharged the duties of the office with such 
marked ability and fidelity as to demand, by the people, his election to succeed 
himself. At the solicitation of his friends he ran as an independent candidate 
on an independent reform ticket and the following editorial paragraph that ap 
peared in the St. Paul Daily Pioneer Press, published prior to holding the Repub 
lican convention, expresses the sentiments published in many other leading news 
papers throughout the state : 

"There seems to be a universal sentiment favoring Mr. E. W. Dike, the pres 
ent incumbent, for treasurer. He took possession of the office when its affairs 
were in a most disorganized condition, and when he was hampered by newly 
passed, untried and seemingly contradictory laws, and in a very short timebrought 
order out of chaos. His sole desire seems to be to do his duty as he interprets 
this duty in the interests of the state and not to meet the exigencies of a spec 
ulative relationship. The treasury needs the guidance of (what Mr. Dike is) 
an honest man. He has to a wonderful degree the confidence of the people and 


we shall be greatly disappointed in the wisdom and good sense of the Convention 
if it fails to nominate him by acclamation. No name could add more strength 
to the ticket." 

Mr. Dike's friends loyally supported him, purely by the reason of the en 
viable record he had made as a faithful and able public servant, for his strict 
integrity and his splendid personality. After one of the most momentous and 
memorable campaigns in the history of the state, he was elected over his Repub 
lican opponent by a majority of four thousand votes, while the balance of the 
Republican ticket was elected by a majority of eight thousand. This was a 
great personal triumph for Mr. Dike. He served under the administration of 
three governors of Minnesota Horace Austin, Cushman K. Davis and John S. 

During his incumbency as state treasurer, Mr. Dike married Mrs. Julia C. 
Smith, nee Robinson, of Woodstock, 111., a daughter of David W. Robinson, 
a prominent citizen of that city. She is a lady of charming social attainments 
and foremost in all worthy charitable work. They resided in Woodstock from 
1876 to 1899. In 1883 Mr. Dike was appointed by President Arthur one of three 
United States Commissioners to inspect the western one hundred and fifty miles 
of the Santa Fe Railroad, then terminating at Needles, California. After per 
forming this duty, he traveled somewhat in the state, visiting Los Angeles, 
San Diego, San Francisco and other cities. He returned to Woodstock and there 
remained until 1899 and in 1900 he permanently came to Santa Monica, where 
he has made substantial investments. He is a stockholder in the Santa Monica 
Investment Co., one of the strong financial institutions of the city and is (1908) 
its vice president. 

Mr. Dike is a man of high ideals and strong personality inherited from a 
sturdy ancestry that dates back to the early history of this country, and rounded 
out by a long and eventful career of individual endeavor. He is one of Santa 
Monica's most substantial and loyal citizens. Hale and hearty at the age of 
eighty-eight, he has retired from active business and enjoys the personal confi 
dence and esteem of a wide circle of friends. Mrs. Dike is active in social and club 
circles and lends her influence to all worthy charitable movements. Their 
home, Violet Cottage, is one of the many pretty residences of Santa Monica, 
and is located at No. 1138 Third Street. 

JOSEPH H. CLARK was born in Corning, N. Y., and there grew to vigorous 
young manhood, forming the foundation of what was destined to be a brilliant 
business career. Feeling that his native town did not offer sufficient induce 
ments to a young man starting out in life, Mr. Clark sought a broader field for 
his labors, and removed to Minneapolis, Minnesota, which place has been the 
scene of his active business career. Beginning with less than two hundred dollars 
in cash, Mr. Clark, through unremitting industry, rare good judgment and in- 


sight into affairs of a business nature, amassed a considerable fortune in a com 
paratively short period of time. He became closely connected with several 
of the banks, also the great milling corporations of the city. He was one of 
the organizers of the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce and retained his mem 
bership in this institution until his removal from Minneapolis. 

Mr. Clark retired from active business life in 1892 and became a resident 
of Santa Monica in 1894 where he and his family have since resided, having built 
a home on the coiner of Fifth Street and Nevada Avenue. 

He has always taken a strong interest in the welfare of Santa Monica. It 
was through his, and Mrs. Clark's efforts, that the Carnegie Free Public Library 
was secured and located on the corner of Fifth Street and Oregon Avenue in 
1903. Mr. Clark placed a fine Esty pipe organ in the First Presbyterian Church 
corner of Third Street and Arizona Avenue, in 1907, in memory of his son. He 
is one of the stockholders and directors of the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, of Los Angeles. 

ARCHIE F. JOHNSTON, late a prominent and successful merchant, Santa 
Monica, was a native of Pittsburg, Pa., born January 12th, 1863, a son of John 
M. Johnston, a farmer by occupation, now retired from active business. His 
-mother was Mary A. Forrister, a daughter of Archibald Forrister, of Edinburgh, 
Scotland. He was a shipbuilder by trade in Pittsburg, Pa., with a home at 
Bakerstown, then a suburb, where the subject of this sketch was born. About 
1873 the family moved to Peoria, 111., and near that city owned and lived on 
what was known as the Hickory Grove Farm. They came to California in April, 
1886 and located in Santa Monica. Here Mr. Johnston found employment as 
salesman for H. A. Winslow, who was then engaged in the grocery business. 
Later he became manager for Mrs. M. E. Chapin who was, for several years, 
a leading merchant of Santa Monica. He occupied this position for seven years 
and then, associated with Mr. George Baum, purchased the business. This 
business was conducted for two years under the firm name of Johnston & Baum. 
In 1900, Mr. Johnston became sole owner and as such built up an extensive 
and profitable business. In September, 1906, the concern was incorporated 
as the A. F. Johnston Company, of which Mr. Johnston was president, C. W. 
Rogers, vice president; Harry Cowles, secretary. The firm removed to the 
Johnston Building, Mr. Johnston's personal property, in January, 1906. 

By reason of impaired health, incident to many years of close attention to 
business, Mr. Johnston at this time practically retired from active management 
of the company's affairs and indulged in a needed rest. In March, 1908, he 
left home to make a trip into Josephine County, Oregon, to look after some 
acquired mining interests. While nearing his journey's end, in crossing the 
rapids of the Illinois River, the boat became unmanageable, capsized and he 
met an untimely death by drowning. The sad intelligence of this catastrophe 
reached the family the following day and greatly shocked the entire community 


where he was so widely and popularly known. After a most diligent search 
for just a month his body was recovered, but in such a condition as to render 
burial at home impossible. In the death of Archie F. Johnston, Santa Monica 
sustianed a loss of one of her most substantial, popular and useful citizens 
a loss which, at the time, seemed irreparable. 

In 1890 Mr. Johnston married Miss Katherine I., a daughter of Thomas 
Elliott, one of Santa Monica's best known and highly respected pioneers. Mr. 
Johnston assiduously devoted himself to the building up of a very substantial 
business and a comfortable estate. His social temperament, courteous manner, 
and keen sense of honor made his friends legion and extended his popularity 
as a merchant and citizen. For four years, from 1903 to 1907, inclusive, he served 
on the Santa Monica City Board of Trustees and proved a most energetic, faith 
ful and progressive servant of the people, his policy and efforts meeting the 
unqualified and hearty endorsement of the public. Mr. Johnston was a charter 
member of the B. P. O. E. and of the K. of P., Santa Monica lodges. He was 
a member of the Modern Woodmen of America, Fraternal Brotherhood and 
Maccabees. He was also an active and influential member of the Santa Monica 
Board of Trade. 

GEORGE H. HUTTON, Judge of the Superior Court of the State of Califoinia 
in and for Los Angeles County, elected in November, 1906, is a product of 
the frigid north where his childhood was spent as a ward of his uncle, Reverend 
George H. Bridgman, President of Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota, at 
which institution he received his academic education. At the State University 
of Minnesota he received his legal education and was from there admitted to 
practice in 1893 and the came year became the assistant attorney or general 
trial lawyer for the Minneapolis & St. Paul Railroad, which por.ition he held until 
his removal to California in 1897, when he located and engaged in the practice 
of his profession at Santa Monica. He had, up to the time of his elevation to 
the bench, been actively engaged in his profession and had attained more than 
ordinary success as a lawyer, being widely known in Los Angeles County and 
throughout Southern California. He was for several years the general attorney 
for the vest and varied interests of Ex-Senator John P. Jones, and attorney and 
trustee under the will of the late Andrew J. W. Keating, who left a fortune 
which during Judge Hutton's trusteeship has increased in bulk from less than a 
quarter million to nearly two million dollars. 

He has been an extensive traveler and knows the American continent better 
than most men and is at home anywhere from Alaska, where he caught trout; to 
Washington, D. C., where he has appeared as attorney before the United States 
Supreme Court. 

He believes in the great west, its present and future and has contributed to 
various well known western magazines and other publications to Out West, 


The West Coast, Pacific Monthly his favorite themes being "California Missions," 
"Early Religions," "Education" a